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ENCYCLOPJSDIA AMERICANA 



A 

POPULAR DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS. SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND 

BIOGRAPHY, 

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME; 

INOLUDINO 

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES 

IN 

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY; 

ON 

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN 



EDITED BT ^ 

FRANCIS LIEBER, 

ASSISTED BT 

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD- 



V0L.L 



NEW EDITION. 



THOMAS, COWPERTHWAIT, & CO. 



1838. 

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C^UA.<vMupvv^rvA>a« (w-./^ 



BA8TEBN DIBTRIOT OF PENNSrLVAMlA, l# «Ct 



of the 



Ba IT ftBHBMBSUo, that on the tenth dnj of Aofvst, in the fifty-foorth tmr of the 

United Butee of America, A. D. lifBO, Carey, Lea k, Carey, of the nid dietrwt, have depoeited la this olRoe 
the title of a book, tlw right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words foUowluf , to wit : 

*' EnofeloMidia Americana. A Popular Dictionarr of Arts, Sciences^ .Literatare, Hietorr, Mitics and 
nofraphy, broo^t down to the present Time ; tnelodinf a copiooi CoUecUoa of Original ArtkiN in American 
Biography ; oa the Basis of the sovonth Edition of the German Gonversatioos-LeiieoQ. Edited by Francis Lieber , 
assisted by E. Wiggles worth.** 

ji Act for the encoara gcm B U t of 
and proprietors of 




wppknientaiy to an act, entitled, 

charts and books to tlie anthors 

extending the benefits thereof to the 

D. CALDWELL, 
CUrk qftkt fcsfsm DittHU tf Pwimiylvmmi. 



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PREFACE. 



It is cuslomary, aad very properly so, to reserve the preface oi an 
eacjckqiedia till the pubfication of the concluding vohime ; but the char- 
acter of the present work renders it proper to state, briefly, at this time, 
the paiticdars in vrtich it diflfers from the numerous works of that descrip- 
tioo, with which the public are already acquainted, and to explain the plan 
which has been pursued by the editors in performing thar task. 

The German work, which has been adopted as the basis of the 
ENCTCLOPiEDIA AMERICANA, grew out of die wants of die age. 
Hie last half century, particularly the latter pai) of it, has probably been 
more fertile in memorable events, and important discoveries and inventions, 
than any equal period in history. How many extraordinary changes have 
we witnessed in both hemispheres, as well m politicsi in the sciences and 
in opinions, as in the individuals who have borne a conspicuous part in the 
aflUn of die civilized world during that time ! How important have 
been the results of the numberless voyages of discovery, the revolutions 
of states, and the wars, which have excited so mtense an interest 
during that period — an interest which has been the more constantly 
kept up, as the iadfi^ of communication between all the branches of 
the great human family seems, at the same time, to have gone on in- 
ereasing in proporticm to the muhitude of events and circumstances which 
have thus influenced their destmy. Formerly, years would elapse before 

.,„,_., ^oogle 



IT PREFACE. 

the most important facts could pass the barriers which an imperfect naviga- 
tion of the ocean, or a diveraty of languages, had thrown between nations. 
Now, even the pet^ quarrels and frolics of students in a Grerman or 
French univendty find their way, in the course of a few weeks, into the 
columns of an American newspaper. Then, a century would pass by, be- 
fore even a Shakspeare was jusdy estimated beyond the confines ot 
his native land ; while now, we daily find, on tide pages, the united names 
of publishers m three or four difierent nations, and m both continents. 
Thus rapidly does knowledge of every kind now difiiise itself over the globe, 
and extend the circle of civilization. 

In comparison vrith the present state of the world, how small wad the 
theatre on which the gods of Grecian &ble and the heroes of Grecian his- 
tory performed their parts in that interesting drama ! During the period 
of Roman history, it is true, the field of civilization had become much 
more enlarged ; but, in our own times, it has extended over both hemi- 
' ^heres, and science gathers contributions from every quarter of the globe. 
It is therefore become necessary, that every well-informed man, who 
would keep his relative place during this advance of society, should 
possess himself of many kinds of knowledge, which might have been dis- 
pensed with in former periods ; the difierttit sciences and arts, closely 
connected as they have ever been, having now more common bonds of 
union than m any preceding age. Considerations of this nature induced 
the Grerman editors to pioject a work, which should furnish the general 
reader with all the bformation, that should be necessary to make him 
acquainted with the events and discoveries of interest, wUch did not happen 
to fan within the range of his particular studies. 

For the plan of this Encyclopedia we are mdebted to the late Mr. 
Brockhaus, a bookseller of eminence at Leipsic, who was the publisher, 
and, at the same time, the principal editor. He called it the Canvenatum- 
Lexicon^ as being a work chiefly designed for the use of persons, who 
would take a part in the conversation or socie^ of the wellnnformed 

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PKEFACfi. T 

circles. The cbancter of the work, however, lias been, to a certain degree, 
changed by numerous improvements m each successive edition ; and its 
original title has therefore ceased to he strictly appropriate. But, as the 
book had become well known, and gained its weHrdeserved popularity, 
under that name, it was thought inexpedient to reject its original 
appellation : it is accordingly included in its new tide — AJUgememe detUsche 
Real' Encff1dop€tdk fur die gthUdeten Stande. {Canversatiani'-LeoDiluni.) 
Leipzig : F. A. Broekhaus. 1827—29. 

The value attai^hed to this undertaking of Mr. Broekhaus is evident 
from the fact, that about 80,000 copies of the work, now consisting of 12 
fobmes, have been published since 1812; besides which two pirated 
editions have appeared in Germany. There has also been a Danish 
translation (published by Soldin, Copenhagen), a Swedish, and likewise a 
Dutch (publiAed by Thieme, at Zuq)hen). A French translation b also 
preparing at Brussels. More than two hundred contributors are enumer- 
ated in' the preface of the original, of whom we will only mention a few, 
whose fame is by no means confined to the limits of their country : — 6. W. 
Becker, in Leipsic ; Chladni, in Kembeig ; Gruber, in Halle ; Hassei, 
in Weiniar ; C. H. L. von Jakob, m Halle ; Niemeyer, in Halle ; Oken, 
in Munidi ; Kurt Sprengel, in Halle ; von Aretin, b Amberg ; W. Gese- 
niusy in Halle ; F. Jacobs, in Ootha ; J. S. Vater, in Halle ; Padus, in 
Heidelbeig ; K. W. Bessel, in Konigsberg ; Fr. Mobs, in Freiberg } 
Scfaobert, in Erkngen. 

In presenting this work lo the public, in the Ekiglish language, 
my intention has been, by making such changes and additions as the 
circumstances of this country required, to render it as usefiil and accepta- 
Ue to die general reader here as the origmal is in Germany ; and I have 
cherislied the hope, that the circumstance of its being an Jhneriean ency* 
dofiedia, not merely in name, but as constituting an extensive repository 
of infimiiati6n relating to America, as well as to the various branches of 
general knowledge, would give it a peculiar value with that great European 

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id PREFACE. 

nation, ^vfaose language and fiterature are the eommoo propertjr of diem- 
aehes and their descendants b the United States. 

In the tide page, this work is stated to be formed upon the basis of the 
German CwMenatkn^Lmoim; and if the reader will compare it widi 
the original, and consider the numerous additions and corrections which 
have been made, I hope he will not find cause to charge this tide with 
being too pretending. My idea of a good American, encycbpedia has 
been, that it should contam, besides the most valuable portions of the 
English encycbpedias, and the topics of peculiar value to an American 
reader, information upon all subjects of general interest on the continent of 
Europe. The publishers have, with great liberality, supplied all the means 
and facilities indiich were desired by the editor. The trustees of the 
Boston Atheneum have obligingly allowed free aocess to their ample 
library, which does so much honor to the metropolb of New England. 
But, above all, I ought to acknondedge the zeakyos and able co-optation 
of my friend and associate, Mr. Wigglesworth, who will not permit me 
here to express my obligations to him in such terms as my feelings would 
dictate. With him I shall be huppf to share whatever approbation the 
public may think the work shall deserve. 

Some of the departments of sdence and literature, which were but im- 
perfecdy treated in the ori^al German work, have been entirely re-written 
for thb edition ; for example, Zoobgy (by Dr. Godmanof Philadelphia, au- 
thor of the weU-Jcnown American Natural History), Mmeralogyand Chem* 
istry. The departmentsof Political Economy and Geography have also been 
much enlarged. Numerous entire articles of American and English Law 
have been introduced, and large additions made to the original articles on 
Jurisprudence, which, in the German work, are mostly confined to subjects 
of Roman, German and French law. In general Bbgraphy, large additions 
have been made. The artk^les on .daiertcafi Biography are entirely 
original, and have been fivnished by Mr. Robert Walsh, Jr., whose learning 
and taste are a sufficient pledge of their value. Their apparently dis- 

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PEEFACE. vtt 

pt c p u ffti o Mte langlh nuty, with a firagn reader, require some apok>g]r ; 
iMt I pefgiade myself, that, with the American reader, die new and 
latei e rtiMB a^bnnation they contain wiH be deemed a sufBeient reason ibr 
tkenr noi being fivd^r abridged. Such readers, too, wiU appreciate the 
vahie of wumy detafls of American history, which are not yet to be found, 
ind oooU han&y be enlided to a phce, in a general mak upon that subject. 
Besides the cen l ra w ti on s of Mr. Waidi, many new and valuable artieies 
hare been written by distbguished American scholars, pardcdarly in 
relation to iheir ofwn country, and to other partsof the American continent. 
The hiogimpby of Evmg citizemi of the United States has, tot obvious 
been omitted; but the reader wS find an account of our most 
Kfeigo contemporaries. 

b niecdogy, and, indeed, in all the otfaw departments of the WQik,die 
reader wffl not understand me as intending to pve any opinions of my own, 
umsft when esftmafy so stated ; my wish has been not to obtrude cfunioiis, 
bdHoianush&ets. I have endeavored, as far as it was m my power, 
dwt Ae aitides rekdng to any panicuhur relipous sect should present 
npiniMiB and tenets as that sect would ezUbit them ; and, in cases where 
the 9um point of doctrine is considered diflbrently by different sects, diat 
the respective views of aB shoidd be g^ven. 

The aitioles on llie Fine Arts are, in the original work, particularly 
cenflete; and I hope the EncydopaOa jSmerieana will, therefore, be 
fimnd salis&ctory m ai department m which the English «icycfepedias 
have hitherto been very deficient. 

The sdbject of Heraldry, which occijqpies so laq;e a space m 
En^Ui encydopedias, is wholly omitted m the original work } and it has 
been Aoo^ best to felow the example of the German editors m tins 
parlicolar, in order to make room for odier matter of for greater vahte and 
BSeiest in a country where the well-known sentimMit of antiquhy is fek m 
its fidl force— 



\ gmna et prosfM tt qua aoa neimiii ipm 
Vix ca BOftia tooo. 



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Toi PREFACE. 

It is eTident that a'work of tUs descriptioii must be uDaqual ; drfdencies 
will doubdess be obsenred ; but in what .similar work wiD.they not be de- 
tected? It has been our endeavor, .however, to correct such errors as 
existed m the German work, aad m preceding English works.of this Mad. 
WUle criticising the faults of the present work, it is hoped that the reader 
will not overkxdi the improvements made upon the labors of past writers ; 
and that h^ will keep in mmd the remark of .Scaliger — LexieogrBpkit €i 
grammatim secundtu poit Ekreukm labor. 

If the present work shall conduce to the diffinon of knowledge in.this 
firtunate country, whose h^piness is founded on .its liberty, and whose 
liberty is to be preserved aufy by widely-sptead infiMmadiMi ; if it shaU 
contribute to make known what has been done or diought, attained or 
suflkred,.by other portions of the human family; if it shall contribute to 
enlarge our viewBi and to.des^oy prejudices,. to. animate youth to a per^ 
severance in virtue and*to the pursuit of true glory, by exhibiting, to them, 
on the oae hand, the fearless votary of truth and patriotism, and, on die 
other, the real character of men whose perverted talents, however q[dendkl, 
cannot redeem them from the severe hot just sentence of impartial hiatory ; — 
I shall receive die most gratifying . reward for. the many Uxmous days 
which have been devoted to the.present undertaking. 

FRANCIS LIEBER, 

Phaai.Dr. 

.BwUmj JUkmachmtetti, 

Avguiij 1829. 



For tho sako of eompraftton, the initud lott«r of tlie ntme of an wtieley inslMd of tho 
whole name, ii often uaed in the hody of the article. The other, ahbreyiationa need are 
bat few, and of the common aort, ancn as e. ^., examli gratia (for inatanee) ; t. e.^ id ul 
(that ia) ; q.v.^ quod nide (which aee), aignifying jm thai artide. For other abbrenationa 
which may be met with, aee the article Mkranatunu. 

In the alphabetical arranffement of words, the letter /haa been aepuated ftom /» and 
the letter C/ from r. 

Words to be found in Johnaon's Dictionary, which, according to the plan of this ^"^7^ 
olopedia, would receiyo only a definition, have been seldom introduced into the liat of 
articles. 



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ENCYCLOPAEDIA AMERICANA. 



•4, in almoBt all languages, is the first let- 
ter of the alphabet, because, if pronounced 
opoi, as in faihgT^ it is the simplest and 
easKst of ali sounds. This is the only 
mode of pronouncing it in almost every 
language except the iSi^lish. To produce 
this sound, the mouth is merely opened, 
without the contraction or extension ne- 
cessarily accompanying the utterance of 
either of the other vowels. A is the letter 
with -which children generally begin to 
speak, and it serves to express many and 
even opposite emotions, e. g. admiration, 
pain, astonishment, laughter, (with the pre- 
ceding /f,) disffust, pleasure, according to 
the mode in wiich it is uttered. For the 
same reason, a is found, in all original lan- 
guages, in many words which inrants utter 
to designate the objects with which they 
are most nearly connected, e. g. in the 
names by which they call their parents. 
H^ice, in Hebrew, am is mother, of father ; 
in old Greek and Gothic, aJtta is father ; In 
Latha, mamma agnifies the breast Many 
philologists are of opinion, that a (as in ' 
faOter) was the original vowel in most ef 
those words which designate objects px- 
presnve of great strength, quickness^^c, 
as these first attracted the attention of meq ; 
and it is true, that, in original languages, a 
appeals in very many words bdonging to 
the class just mentioned, e. g. the numerous 
rivers, j}a (pronounced like a as XnfaJthjer) 
m Switzerland and Germany, ^tdu-na 
[UuElaUa, Greek for sea.) ^ (as \nfaihjeT) is 
veiy rarely the predominating sound in the 
cries of animals. In these, &e sounds ee, 
ow, ti, and a, (as in/o^e,) generally prevail. 
We do not include the sounds of singing 
birds, which are inarticulate music, like 
that of wind instruments. The regularly 
arched roof of the human mouth, and the 

VOL. 1. 1 



other fine organs of q[>ee6h, with wiiici^ 
the Creator has blessed manMnd above ill 
lower orders of aninuils, are necessary to 
pronounce the melodious sound aiopm.) 
A is, generally speaking, the mvorite 
sound of nnsers, because it is the most' 
musical and full of those which the mouth 
of man can utter. Several diphthongal 
sounds, as t (in intie), are, in singing, to oe 
resolved into afopen)and another simple 
sound. The nrequent occurrence oi a 
(open) in the Italian language, is one of the 
many causes which render the Tuscan dia- 
lect so favorable for music The English 
language is the <>nly one among the culti- 
vated modem tongues, whieh has four (ac* 
cording'to otfiers still more] sounds for the 
single chafacter a. Most of the modem 
languages, as French,Italian,German, &c., 
have WY ^e open or ItaMan a, pronounced 
short or long. Other languages have also 
the sound of the Engiish a, as in oO, e. g. 
the dialect ofFtniand. In Greek, this letter, 
when prefixed to a word, has the power of 
negation, like the syllable im in English, 
ana henee it was culed alf^ jnioatvotm,. 
In many English words derived fit>mthe 
€rreek, the a has the same powers — ^Among 
the Greeks and Romans, a was used as an 
arithmetical sign : by the former, for 1 ; by 
the latter, for 500. (See Alhreviatums.)-^, 
in music, the sixth diatonic Interval of the 
first or lowest octave of the modem scale : 
a indicates the same interval in the second 
octave. As the capital A is used in the 
first instance, and the small a in the next, 
the former is called the grealt odave^ the 
otlier the smalL . a, wiDi a line above, 
denotes the same interval in the third, and 
a, with two lines, the same interval in ti^e 
fourth octave. The first of these, fipom 
each denomination of the note in the oc- 



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A.<-ABBE. 



tave beinff deeignated by a line, is tenned 
the oiie4med octave, the other the tuo- 
Knedj and so on. Af major, is that key, in 
modem music, in which the sixth diatonic 
interval is assumed as the fundamental 
tone of the major key. To maintain the 
natural characteristic of the major, f, o, 
and c must be made sharp, pif e^ c^. 
According to SchubarVs CkaraderxHics qf 
Mancy this key conveys the expression of 
innocent love^ content, and cheerfiilness. 
( See JTey.) li any niuneral figure is added 
to the tetter A, when prefixed to a vocal 
composition, it denotes the number of 
voices for which the piece is intended: 
thus, A 3 sipufies for 3 voices. 

Aa, the name of a great number of riv- 
ers in S witzeriand, Germany, France, aUd 
Holland ; so, also, Sadi^ which is, hi Ger- 
man, originally the same name with JSiOj 
only pronounced with an aspimted termi- 
nation, (See article A.) 

Aachezi. (See Aix la Cka^peEk.) 

Aabaau, AaeoviA, Aroau, formerly a 
part of the cantons Berne and Zurich, but 
amce 1798 a separate canton. In 1808 
it received a large accession of territory. 
Capital, Aiau ; population, 132,763. Sev- 
eral liberals l^ive fled, in modem times, 
from Germany, ind lived for awhile in A., 
protected by government (See Sun89 
Co^ec^erocy.) 

AAR0N,(He6. a moumaineer^,) the broth- 
er of Moses, and first high-priest of the 
Israelites. (See Moa^,) 

Aa&on, or Harun AI4 RAftCHin* (See 
Hanm and CaHph,) 

Abacus signined, among the stticients, a 
kind of cup-board, or buffet They were, 
in times 01 ^reat luxury, plated with gold. 
It also signSied a table covered with dust, 
on which the mathematicians drew their 
mathematical figures, as the pupils of the 
Lancastrian schools do at present It 
Also signified an ancient instrument for 
facilitating arithmetical ojierations, which 
was, with the ancients, very necessary, as 
their way of writing numbers rendered 
any calculation very difficult In architect- 
lure, Vitruvius teUs us, it was originally in- 
tended to repnsent a square tile laid over 
an um, or rather over a basket The form 
of the abacus is not tlie same in all the 
oiiders of Greek architecture. Modem 
architects have given diflferent signifi- 
cations to the won! abacus, (See w£r- 

Abatis, [Fr.) Trees cut down and laid 
with their branches tumed towards the 
enemy, in such a way as to form a defence 
for troops stationed behin^ them. They 
are made before redoubts, or other works, 



to render attacks difiicult; or sometimefl 
along the skirts of a wood, to prevent the 
enemy fit>m getting possession of it In 
this case, the trunks serve as a breastwork, 
behind which the troops are posted, and 
for that reason should be so disposed that' 
the parts may, if possible, flank each other. 
Abatis may sometimes be of essential ser- 
vice by retarding the progress of tiie enemy. 
Abauzit, Firmin, was bom in Langue- 
doc, 1679. In consequence of the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes, his mother, who 
was a Protestant, took refii^ with her son 
in Geneva. He engaged with such eager- 
ness in hk studies, Uiat he made great pro- 
ficiency in languages, theology, antiqui- 
ties, and the exact sciences. At the age of 
nineteen, he travelled into Holland, \^ere 
he became acquainted with Bay le and Bas- 
nage. Thence he passed into Enfland, 
where he was fiivorably noticed bv rfew- 
ton, and invited to remain by king William 
on very advantageous conditions. He 
determined, however, to retum to Geneva, 
and, devoting himself to study, he rendered 
important assistance to a society engaged 
in translating the New Testament into 
French. In 1/27, he was appointed public 
librarian in Geneva, and was presented 
with the fineedom of the city. He died in 
1767. Abauzit was a profound scholar, a 
tme philosopher, and a sincere Christian. 
His conversation was unostentatious, but 
insoructive and animated. He was siniple 
in his manners, independent and decided 
in his opinions, but a fiiend to universal 
toleration. He defended the Principia, and 
even detected an error in that work, when 
very few men could understand it New- 
ton declared liim ^ a fit man to judge be- 
tween Leibnitz and himselfl" Rousseau 
describes him as the ''wise and modest 
Abauzit;" and Voltaire pronounced Imn 
'' a great man." His knowledge was exten- 
sive in the whole circle of antiquities, in an- 
cient history, geognq[>hy, and chronology. 
In theology his researches were deep, and 
his moderation enabled him to avoid the 
violence of theological parties. His works 
are chiefly on theological subjects. Au 
Eascu on thi Jpocdtmst^ iMecHons on 
the Bucharittj and On the Ja^steries of 
Rdigion, are his principal writings. 
Abbas, Abbas sidks. (See Caliph,) 
Abbe, before the French revolution, 
was the title of all those Frenchmen who 
devoted themselves to divinitv, or had at 
least pursued a course of study in a theo- 
logical seminary, in the hope that the king 
would confer on them a real abbey; that 
is, a certain part of the revenues of a mon- 
astery. (See Jlhhi9 commandatains.) Or- 



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ABBE.— ABBOT. 



Allied ddigpnen were those on^ v^ho 
devoted themselvee entirely to the per- 
ionnance of cleiical duly: the bthen 
were en^;aged in eveiy land of hteraiy 
occupation. There were so many of 
them, poor and rich, men of quality and 
men m low birth, that they formed a 
particular class in society, and exerted 
an important influence on its character. 
Tbey were seen every where ; at court, 
in the haOs of justice, in the theatre, 
in the cofifee-houses. In almost every 
wealthy family there was an abb^ oc- 
cuppM the post of ftmiliar friend and 
auntuu adviser, and not seldom that of 
the sailant of the lady. They coire- 
sponded, in a certain decree, to the phi-» 
loaophers who lived in the houses or the 
wealthy Romans in the time of the em- 
nerora. A round toupet, a short, black, 
Drown, or violet coat, completed the ap- 
pearance of an abb^. 

ABJiis coMMSNDATAiRES. The king 
of France had formerly the right of ap- 
pointing abbots over two hundred and 
twenty-five monasteries. These abbots 
enjoyed a third part of the revenues of 
the monastery, but had no authority over 
it, the chai^ of superintendence being 
comnutted to a pneur daustroL Ac- 
cording to ivle, every abbot ought to 
receive ordination in the course of a 
year, but the pope dispensed with the 
rule, and the afab^ ^pent nis income (fiiom 
1200 to 150,000 French livres) wherever 
he pleased. This shocking abuse excited 
the indignation of the people, juad was 
ooe of the causes of the revolution. The 
lower sinecures of this kind, the abbajfcs 
des saoanSf were used as.pensions for 
learned men ; the richer, to provide for 
the younger sons of the nobUity. 
a!bbet. (See Mbat and Monaatery,) 
Abbot, George, archbishop of Canter- 
buiT, bom 29 Oct, 1562, studied at Ox- 
ford. When the translation of the Bible 
was begun, in 1604, by order of king 
James, Abbot was one of the eight di- 
vines to whom it was committed. In 
1609, he went to Scotland to assist in 
efiecting a union between the kirk of 
that country and the church of England, 
and conducted the business with much 
moderation and address. In Dec. 1609, 
he was made bishop of Litchfield and 
Coventry; in Jan. lolO, bishop of Lon- 
don; in Nov. following, archbishop of 
Canterbury. His enemies ascribed his 
npid promotion to flattery of the king, 
[n 1613> however, he opposed James' 
I»oject of a divorce between lady Fran- 
ces Howard and the earl of Essex, and, 



in 16^, the royal declaration, peimitting 
Sunday sports, which he prohibited the 
reading of in church. His health de- 
clining, he went to Hampshire for recrea- 
tion, and, being invited to a hunt by lord 
Zouch, had the misfortune to shoot the 
game-keeper vrith an arrow aimed at a 
deer fix>m a cross-bow. lliis accident 
aflected him so much, that, besides set- 
tling an annuity of 201. on the vridow, he 
kept, during the remainder of his lifo, a 
monthly fiot on Tuesday, the day of the 
unhappy event Though troubled with 
the gout, he performed the ceremony of 
crowning Chariee I. He was never much 
in this monarch's iavor, and was sus- 
pended from the exercise of his fimctions 
as'primate, on refiising to license a ser- 
mon preached by Dr. Sibthorpe, in ius* 
tification of a loan demanded by the king. 
At a meeting of parliament he was re- 
stored, and died at Croydon, Aug. 5, 1633, 
aged 71. 

Abbot, Charies, fix)m 1602 till 1817 
speaker of the British house of commons ; 
bom 1755, studied at Westminster. His 
father was Dr. Abbot, minister of All 
Saints' church, at Colchester. Impelled 
hj the desire of distinction, he devoted 
hmiself to the stud^ of the law, though 
possessed of a considerable fortune, nia 
object, however, was not professional 
reputation, though he had an extensive 
practice in the court of chancery. On 
account of a Latin poem which he wrote 
on the empress of RusEoa, Catherine U., 
the Russian ambassador. in London pre- 
sented him, in the name of the empress, 
a gold m^daL He wrote some treatises 
on legal subjects, and was chosen in 
1790, 1796, and 1802, into the house of 
commons. As a member of parliament, 
he exerted himself to introauce better 
order into the printing and distributiob 
of the acts of pariiament : and endeavw- 
ed, though in vain, to enect a reform in 
dde phrBseok>ffy of the statutes, which 
should make uem more perspicuous. In 
1795, he 8iq>ported Pitt's &mous Riot Act, 
and always attached himself to the min- 
isterial party. In 1796, he iHx>posed, as 
chairman of the committee of finance, 
an amendment in the promulgation of 
the laws, which was accepted. In 1799, 
he supported the inmosition of the in- 
come tax. In 1800, he proposed to im- 
pose upon the collectors of the public 
revenues the interest of the sums un- 
coUected, in order to prevent deficits in 
their returns; and voted to continue the 
Mutiny Bill till 1807. He was succes- 
sively first secretaiy of suite in Ireland, 



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ABBOT. 



and lord commissioner of the trcasuiy ; 
was made privy counsellor, and in 1802 
speaker of die house of commons. This 
post is fiitiguing, but lucrative on account 
of the large fees for the enrolment of pri- 
vate bills which pass the house. These 
bills are referred to a committee, whose 
reports are almost always accepted, un- 
less they propose an innovation on some 
established usage. The speaker is veiy 
watchful to prevent the occurrence of 
any thinff informal in the wording of the 
biUs, and to check all personalities in de- 
bate. This superintendence A. is said 
to have exercised with much impartiali- 
ty. When die opposition made a motion 
in the house of commons to impeach lord 
Melville, (Dundas,) the votes were equal, 
and the motion was decided in the affirm- 
ative by A.'s castine vote. In 1817, he 
resigned his office of speaker, on account 
of weakness in his eyes, and entered the 
house of lords, bavins been created vis- 
count Colchester. He is the author of a 
treatise on commerce and maritime law, 
according to the principles of the British 
ministry, (Lond. 1802, a third edit. 1806.) 
Died May 8, 1829. 

Abbot, (He6. ehhaa^ father.) was origi- 
nally the name of every aged monk ; but 
since the 8th century, it denotes the head 
of a monasteiT. The abbot re<]uires un- 
conditional obedience from his monks, 
and his office is to supervise the whole 
brotherhood, to enforce the observance of 
the rules of the order, and manage the 
property of the oonvent Since the 6tli 
century, abbots have always been priests; 
and, since the second council of Nice, in 
787, have enjoyed the power of confer- 
ring the lower orders of priesthood ; but, 
in the essential points of jurisdiction, 
were every where subject to the dioce- 
san bishop, tiU the 11th century, and in- 
dependent of each other. The conse- 
quence of the abbots ^w with the 
wealth of their monastenes ; several, es- 
pecially in those countries where the dif- 
fusion of Christianity proceeded from the 
monastic establishments, received epis- 
copal titles and privileges ; all held a rank 
next to that of bishop, and had a vote in 
the ecclesiastical councils. Equal privi- 
leges and rights appertained to the abbess- 
es as the superiors of the nunneries, except 
that they have seldom been allowed to 
vote in synods ; and the power of ordain- 
ing, the administration or the sacraments, 
and other sacerdotal offices, were ex- 
pressly forbidden them, in the 9th centu- 
ly. About this time, by the fkvor or 
from the wants of the kings, abbeys fre- 



quendy came into the hands of the laity 
What avaricious barons had extorted fit>m 
single convents in the 8th century, the 
weakness of the Carlovingians accorded 
to their partisans, as a reward of fidelity 
and military merit, since the kings pos- 
sessed the right of patronage over all ab- 
beys established on their crown lands or 
&milv estates, and generally over all 
which derived their origin from the roy- 
al bounty f(m(nui8teriar^<d%cu) Thus, in 
the 10th century, a number of the most 
considerable convents in the territory of 
the Roman church had lay abbots, or ab- 
bot-counts, (abbates imlUes, ahha camites^) 
who appropriated to their own use the 
income of these institutions. In clois- 
ters fallen to such worldly masters, the 
spiritual supervision was discharged by 
inferior abbots, deans, or prion. To the 
princes and princesses of the royal ftimily, 
abbeys were presented, to demiy the ex- 
penses of their tables : the richest were 
retained by the kings themselves ; (thus 
Hu^h Capet was abbot of St Denis, near 
Pans, and of St. Martin, at Tours.) Nun- 
neries were sometimes aasijpaed to men, 
and monasteries to distinguished females. 
But this abuse, which nad crept even 
into the Byzantine empire, rarely sur- 
\ived the laymen who had received the 
gifls. These were called commendaton/ 
abbots, because the form of the presen- 
tation was a recommendation of the con- 
vent to their protection. The zeal, which, 
in the beginning of the 10th centur}', 
urged a -reform m monastic discipline, 
gradually succeeded in abolishing such 
donatives to the laity ; and militaiy abbots 
were now more rarely seen discharging, 
in person, the duties of a soldier, thou^i 
the convents under royal patronage were 
for a long time retamed, to reward the ser- 
vices of the crown vassals in war, by con- 
tributions of money and peasants. The 
superiors of the miUtary clergy bore, in the 
camp, the name ofjidd abbots^ as the 
name of abbot was, m the middle ages, 
frequently used to denote not only magis- 
trates (oB abbas popuLijOie preetor at G^n- 
oa) and secular ecclesiastical dignitaries, 
but also tlie chie& of religious and jovial 
fraternities, e. g. abbas comardorum, stuUo- 
ru9n,the abbot of misrule. Inconsequence 
of the reform commenced at Cluny, there 
arose new monasteries without abbots, 
over which the abbot of the convent of^ 
reformed Benedictines, at this place, ap- 
pointed priors or pro-abbateSy or even co- 
abbates, who remamed dependent on him. 
Besides the Benedictines, only the gray 
monks of VaUombrosa, the Cistercians, 



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ABBOT.-^AfiBREVIATIONS. 



Befnaidines, FeuiUans, Trappists, Grand* 
numtuii, PrBinoiistratenses, and some bo- 
dies of ji^^ularchoristere, denominate their 
auperiocB ahboU. In the other orders, the ti- 
tiea wM^ansy Mtntjfri, priors or rectorsy were 
inuae. Be^es the female branches of the 
above orders, the nuns of Fontevraud 
and the female secular choristers have ab- 
beasea. These have alwa^ remained un- 
der thejuriadiction of their diocesan bish- 
ops. The abbots of many other convents, 
on the contraiy, shook off the authority 
of the bishops, and acknowledged no mas- 
ter but the pope. The mitred abbots en- 
joyed the right, frequentlv conferred on the 
Beoedictinea in the middle ages by the pa- 
pal legate, of adopting the episcopal title 
and insignia. Only a few, however, pos- 
sessed the episcopal power with dioceses 
of their own, of whom there was not one 
in France. Befere the period of seculariza- 
tioo, there were in Germany, but in Ger- 
many cmly, princely abbots and princely 
abbesses. These abbeys were secular- 
ized in 180S, and became principalities. 
By rule, the choice of abbots appertains to 
the chapters of their convents. In the in- 
dependent abbe^ this is followed by the 
papal confirmation ; in the dependent, by 
the episcopal : yet, for a long time, many 
abbeys in Italy have been conferred by 
the pope, and, in France, by the king, not- 
withstanding the concordat of 1516. The 
secular clergy, who enjoy these benefices 
without observing the rules of the. order, 
are termed secular abbots ; on the other 
hand, their vicars in the convents them- 
selves, like all abbots of the monkish order, 
are called regular abbots. Younger sons 
of disdnguie£ed families have often en- 
tered the ranks of the secular clergy, in 
Older to become secular abbots, and to 
receive the income of an abbey ,without be- 
ing restricted by monastic rules. As such 
expectants were called in France abbis, 
this became a general appellation for 
young secular clergy who were out of 
office. (See Mbi.) Since the revolution, 
which cnanged the abbeys into national 
property, and took from those expectants 
the object of their exertions, this class has 
diminmhed in France ; but it is yet nu- 
merous in Italy, where young scholars are 
called abbots^ merely fit>m luiving under- 
gone the tonsure, though not in orders. 
Napoleon led a whole army of Italian 
abbots to Corsicaf where tl^y lived on 
reduced incomes, till the restoration scat- 
tered diem again over Italy. At the time 
of the refermadoB, several abbeys and 
convents were retained for the benefit of 
the clergy and the support of unmarried 
1* 



females. Some Protestant cleigymen, 
therefore, still bear the title of abbots with 
which dignity the right of sitting in the 
diet of the states is united ; as, for exam- 
ple, in the Wurtemburg assembly. There 
are also Protestant hidies who are called 
abbesses. In Lower Saxony, this dignity 
was indeed abolished, at the time of the 
confiscation of the cloisters, etc., under the 
French Westphalian ^vemment; butui 
some countries, e. g. m the kingdom of 
Hanover, it has b^n restored. In the 
Greek church, the superiors of a convent 
are called higumenij mandoa^ and the ab- 
bots general, arMmandriies. 

Abbreviations; (called by the Ro- 
mans ftote; hence notarius, a short-hand 
writer.) The desire of saving time and 
space, or of secrecy, led to the invention 
of abbreviatioiis in writing. The abbre- 
viations of the Rpmans were of three 
sorts: 1. Words and syllables were abbre- 
viated, mice,* 2. One letter was substituted 
for another, for the purpose of secrecy ; 
3. Ari>itrary signs were used, like those 
of mathematics. The sigkt are a^|ain of 
three kinds, according as me abbreviations 
relate to syllables, words, or phrases. The 
two last kinds of sigia are sometimes 
called tiote ISromana, firom Cicero's 
freed man, TuUius Tiro. Ennius, how- 
ever, had already invented 1100 of those 
signs, to which Tiro added th^ proposi- 
tions. Others increased their number still 
more, and Lucius AnnsBUs Seneca collect- 
ed and arranged 5000 of them. But even 
Ennius was not their first inventor. Every 
written language has such abknreviations. 
Many of them are indeterminate and un- 
certain, and the contents of many old 
writings and inscriptions remain, on that 
account, ambiguous. The oldest and 
most common abbreviations are those of 
names, titles, and formulas ; e. g. M. Mar- 
cus, iEd. oMiUis, Cos. consul, Coss. con- 
suUsy &c. The monks, in the middle 
ages, made use of many abbreviations in 
copying the classic authors- on which ac- 
count &e manuscripts of U''.t tiifie can- 
not be read with ease, except by ocactised 
e^es. These abbi^viatioiis often give 
nse to different readings. They have 
been much less used since the invention 
of printing. The Germans employ them, 
for ordinary words, in ^ireater proportion 
than other civilized nations. The abbre- 
viations in the English law are numerous ; 
there are fdso a great many for Enghsh 
tides. Many words in die modem lan- 
guages arose from abbreviations of Latin 
terms, as they were taken bythe ignorant 
for die words themselves. The foUowin^. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ABBREVIATIONS.— ABBT. 



list contains many of the abbreviationB 
most frequently met with : 

Roman MhreviaUons on Covns^ (fc, — 
A. U. C. or AB. U. C. ab urbe condita, 
from the foundation of the city: C. 
cenhim: CIO or CXO, 1000: 00, 5000: 
CCCiaoo, 100,000: CMlu centum fmlUa: 
COS. con$vl: COSS, eansuUs: C.R. 
dufis Romanus : D. O. diis opHmis vel deo 
aptimo : I. H. S. Jaus kominum Scdvator : 
Imp. impercOor: K. kalmda: M. S. 
manuscrmtum: NON.APR. nonw^pn- 
Us : PON. M. ponHfex maximus : PRID. 
KAL. pridie kaUndas : QUIR. qtmrites : 
RESP. respublica : S. C. 8enatu8 consul' 
turn: S. P. Q. R- smatus populuaque 
Romanus: VL. mddicd, 

Ahbreviations in common use. — A. B. 
or B.A. hachdor of arts: Abp. €arch- 
bishop : A. C. anU Christum : A. D. 
anno Domini, in the year of our Lord : 
Admr. adnwnistrator : Ala. Alabama: 
A. M. ante meridiem, forenoon; also, 
anno mundij in the year of the world; 
and arUum magister, master of arts: 
Ark. T. Jtkansas territory: B. C. hdbre 
Christ: B. D, bachelor of diviiniy: B.M. 
bachelor o/msdicine : Bp. bishop : B. V. 
blessed Vtrgin : C. or Chap, dwpttr : C. 
or cent akimdred : C. B. companion of 
the Bath : C. C. Caius college : C. P. S. 
keeper of the privy seal : C. S. keeper of 
the seal: Ct. Connecticut: Ct. count: 
C wt. hundred weiaht : D. C. District of 
Columbia: D. I>. doctor of divinity : 
Del Delaware: B,F. defender of Ihefaith: 
D. G. Dei gratia : D. T. doctor oftheolo- 
gy ; Dwt. pennyweight : E. G. exempli 
gratia : Ex. exam^ : Exr. execvtor : 
F. A. S. fellow of the antiquarian society : 
F. L. S. fellow of the Lmnasan society: 
F. R. S. and A. &. fellow and associate of 
the royal society : F. S. A. fellow of <ftc 
society cfarts: Gal. gaWm : G. C. B. 
knight grand cross qf the Bath: Geo. 
Georgia: G. R. Georgius rex, king 
Geoige: H. orhr. hinars: Hhd. hogs- 
head: H.M. S. his nuyesty^s ship : lb. 
or ibid, ibidem, in tlie same place : I. e. 
id est, that is : -|- I. H. S. Jesus hondnum 
Salvator : I. H. S. «r hoc cruce solus : 
lU. Illinois: Itl Indiana: Incog, tncog'- 
mto, unknown: Inst instonf, or of this 
month : J. U. D. juris utriusque dodor : 
K. R knight of the Bath: K. C. B. 
knight commander of the Bath: Ky. 
Kentucky: Kil. kOderkin: Ku knight: 
L. or lib. libra, pound; and also, Sber, 
book: Lau Louwiana: h,D,latbiday: 
Ldp. lordship: Lea. leagues: liieut. 
Ueutenant: L.L.D. legum doctor, doc- 
tor of laws : L. S. locus sigiUi, the place 



fid: S. south: 
Sec. seconds : 
Sec. secretary : 
cet: St. street: 



of the seal : M. A. master (farts : Mass. 
Massodihusetts : M. C. mmber of con- 
gress: M.D. doctor of medicine: Bfd.JMcE^ 
ryland: Me. JMome: Messrs. me^metirf, 
gentlemen : Mic T. Michigan territory : 
Mis. Mississippi : Mo. Missouri : M. P. 
member of paniament : MS. manuscripi: 
MSS. montMcrato : N. B. noto 6me, take 
notice : N. C. Narih Carolina : Nem. con. 
or Nem. diss, ncmme controiJiceTUe, or nem- 
ine dissentiente, unanimously : N. H. J^ew 
Hampshire : N. J. ATew Jersey : N. S. nctr 
^: N. Y. J^ew York: Obt. ofre(i£eiie: 
Oh. Ohio : O. S. old style : Oxon. Ox- 
ford: Oz. otmcu: Pa. Pennsylvania: 
Pari, parliament: FarLparticwte: Per 
cent oer cenfum, by the hundred : PL ;il«- 
ral: V.M, post meridiem: V.S. postscnp- 
turn : Q. question : Q. E. D. ^uocf mif 
(iemorM^raru/um : Q. E. F. ^tioji erat fa- 
ciendum : Q. S. ^uanf tint stjfflcit : Q. V. 
ouocf tmfe : Rev. reverend : R. I. i2ft«ie 
island: R. N. i-oyoZ noiw: Rt. Hon. 
right honorahle: RLWpfyLright worship- 
S. or St saint : S. or 
S. C. .Sbiit^ Caro(ma: 
Sh. skOlings : ss. actfi- 
Ten. Tennessee : , Ult. 
uUimo, last : U. S. United States : Va. 
Virginia: Viz. viddicet: Vt Fennoni: 
W. or Wk. weeJfe; Xmas. Christmas: 
Xn, Christian : Xper, Christopher : Y«. 
tt«; ¥*». them: Y». tt«n; Y^ your, 
and year; Y\ Uiis: Y'. that. 

Abbreviatori. Officers in tlie court 
of Rome, appointed to assist tlie \\ce 
chancellor in drawing up the pojie's 
briefi, and reducing petitions, when grant- 
ed by the pope, into proper form, to be 
converted into bulls. The 12 first have 
the dress and rank of prelates; 22 others 
belong to the lower clergy ; the rest are 
laymen. The salary of an A. of the first 
rank in tlie last century was 2000 scudi. 

Abbt, Thomas, ajinilosophical writer, 
bom Nov. 23tli, 1738, at Uhn in Suabia, 
early ihanifested distinguished talents, 
and taste for the sciences. In 1756, he 
entered the university of Halle, where he 
appUed himself to metaphysics and math- 
ematics, quitting theology, to which he 
had at first devoted himself. In 1760, 
he was invited to join the university of 
Frankfort, on the Oder, as professor ex- 
traordinary. Here he wrote, amidst the 
tumult of war, his treatise on Death for 
one's Country, In the following year, 
after he had accepted an appointment as 
professor of mathematics, at Rinteln, he 
lived six months at Berlin, where he 
became intimate with botli the Eulers, 
Mendelsohn and NicoLai, and took an 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ABBT.— ABELAJID. 



active part in Che letters on literature, (^- 
endmrtri^efL] He died in 1766, in the 
prime or life, at the reaidenGe of one of 
the minor German princes, his intimate 
friend and protector. A.'8 writings ex- 
hitnt acuteness, imagination, and spirit* 
and abound with practical philosophy, 
particulaiiy his treatise on ** Merit" He 
certainly would have ranked amonc the 
most distinguished writers, if he had uved 
fell his mind was iiiUy matured. Younff 
as he was, he deserves to be numbered 
among the writers, who, in the time of 
Leasing, labored with united zeal to 
raise and refine German literature. 

Abdera, a city on the Thracian coast, 
which is said to have been founded by 
Hercules. Though it boasted of being 
the native place of Democritus and Pro- 
tagoras, yet it was regarded among the 
ancients as notorious for stupidity. Wie- 
land has portrayed it as such, in an amus- 
ing manner, in his Ahdmtes. 

Abdication, property speaking, is only 
a voluntary resignation of a digni^, partic- 
ularly the supreme. Of royal abdications, 
the most &mous are those of the empe- 
rors Diocletian and Maximian, in 305 ; of 
the einperor Charies V., in 1556 ; of the 
queen Christina of Sweden, in 1654. They 
have been the most frequent in Spain: 
Charles I., in 1556; Philip V., in 1724; 
Charles IV., in 1806 : next in Savov and 
Sardinia : Amadeus I., in 1440 ; Victor 
Amadeus II., in 1790 : but onlv a few in- 
dividuals have remained jQiithful to their 
resolutions ; e. g. Diocletian, Charies V«, 
and Victor Emanuel, king of Sardinia, 
who abdicated in fiivor of his brother Fe- 
lix, in 1821. ( See Pitdimoni^ revolution of ) 
Victor Amadeus, of Sardinia, attempt- 
ing to resume the government by force, 
was imprisoned by his son, Charies Em- 
anuel III. Involuntary resignations are 
also caUed abdicaiiwM ; e. g. Napoleon^s 
abdication at Fontainebleau. The right 
of a prince to resign the crown cannot be 
disputed; but the resignation, as some 
say, can afiect only his pereonal ri^ht to 
the crown, and cannot prejudice his de- 
scendants ; stiU less force upon the state 
another constitution, or another family. 
The abdication of Charles IV. of Spain, 
according to them, could only take effect 
in fiivor of the legitimate successor, but 
could not entitle a foreign sovereign to 
establish a new dynasty. The abdicated 
prince is sometimes allowed exterior 
marks of homage, the title ofnu^eghf^ &c. ; 
but sovereign powers he can no longer 
exercise. Out of his own country, he en- 
joys not the honors of a monarch, nor. 



in general, jurisdiction over his suite. If 
he, in whoee fiivor the abdication wacr 
made, dies, or declines the offered di^ty, 
the right of the abdicated prince is re- 
vested. Thus Philip V. of Strain resumed 
the throne upon the death of his son Louis, 
which took place half a year after he had 
resigned in his favor. But queen Chris- 
tina of Sweden made a similar attempt in 
vain. Voluntary abdications, as they are 
callad, are often involuntary, and the 
eftects of court intrigue. 

Abdomeft, in anatomical language, the- 
beUy. Abdominal rmudet, the muscles of 
the belly. 

Abel, the second son of Adam, a twin 
brother of Cain. The latter was a tiller of 
the ground, A. a shepherd. Both brought 
their offerings before the Lord ; Cain, the 
first fruits of^enound; A., the firsthngs 
of his flock. God accepted the offering of 
A. ; the offering of Cain he rejected. The 
latter, instigat^ by envy, murdered hin 
brother in the field. Thus the first murder 
on earth was committed. The opinion of 
several Christian fatheia, that A. died un- 
married, has given rise to the sect of.^6e{iie«' 
orAbdomUs, (q^ v.) The church considers 
the offering of A. as the pattern of a pure 
and holy offering, pleasing to God, and 
Christ himself ciuls him the just 

Abelard, Peter, origindUy Abailard, 
a monk of the order of St Benedict, 
equally &mous for his learning and for 
his unfortunate love of H^loise, was bom 
in 1079, near Nantes, hi the little village 
of Palais, which was the property of bin 
fiither Berenger. His inclmation led him 
to the study of the sciences ; and, in order 
to devote himself fully to philosophy, he 
ceded to his brothers his rights of^primo- 
geniture and bis estates. He studied 
poetry, rhetoric, phUosophy, jurispru- 
dence, and theology, the Greek, Hebrew, 
and Latin languages, and soon became 
familiar with them; but scholastic phi- 
losophy chiefly engaged hia attention. 
Thou^ Bretagne then possessed many 
distinguished scholars, A. soon acquired 
all they could teach. He went therefore 
to Paris, the university of vriiich attracted 
students firom all parts of Europe. Wil- 
liam de Champeaux was the most skilful 
disputant of his time. A. made so good 
use of his instructions, that he was often 
victorious over his master, in contests of 
wit and logical acumen. The fiiendship 
of Champeaux was soon succeeded by 
enmity, in which his other scholars took 
part, and A., who had not yet completed 
his 23d year, escaped the consequences of 
their ill-will, by fixing himself at M elun. 



c3" 



8 



ABELARD. 



where he wb8 toon followed by a multi- 
tude of young men, who were induced, 
by his reputation, to leave the schools of 
Paris, in order to attend his lectures. 
Envy pursued him here, and he left Me- 
lun for Corbeii, where he was no less 
admired and persecuted. In compliance 
with the advice of his physicians, he soon 
after remitted his labors, for the puipose 
'of restoring his disordered health by a 
journey to liis native place. After two 
years, he returned with renovated strength 
to Paris, became reconciled to his former 
teacher, and opened a school of rhetoric, 
the fame of which soon deprived all the 
^ others of their pupils. He lectured on 
' rhetoric, philosophy, and theologv, and 
educated many distinguished scholars, 
among whom were the ftiture pope, Cob- 
lestin II., Peter of Lombardy, bishop of 
Paris, Berengar, bishop of Poitiers, and 
St. Bernard. At this time, there resided 
at Paris a young lady, by name Louisa 
or H^loise, niece to Fulbert, a canon of 
that city, then of the a^e of 17 years. 
Few ladies surpassed her in beauty, none 
equalled her in genius and knowledge. 
A., though alread}[ of the a^ of 39 years, 
became inspired with such violent love for 
H^loise as to forset his duty, his lectures, 
and his &me. li^loise was no less sus- 
ceptible. .Under the pretext of finishing 
her education, A. obtained Fulbert's per- 
mission to visit her, and finally became a 
resident in the house of tlie canon. The 
lovers lived several months in the utmost 
happiness, occupied more with their love 
than with their smdies. But the verses 
in which A. celebrated his passion were 
circulated in Paris, and finally reached 
the eyes of Fulbert He separated the 
lovers, but too late ; Heloise was abready 
pregnant. A. fted with her to Bretagne, 
where she was delivered of a son, who 
died, however, early. He now resolved 
to marry her secretly. F. was obliged 
to give his consent, and Heloise, ^o, 
from a false deUcacy, preferred to be his 
mistress rather than his wife, and had 
formerly written to him that she would 
not deprive the world of so great a man 
by domestic cares, at last consented. The 
marriage was performed, and, in order to 
keep it secret, Heloise remained with her 
uncle, whilst A. retained his former lodg- 
ings, and continued his lectures. They 
saw each other but seldom ; Fulbert, how- 
ever, thought the reputation of his niece 
would be injured by this secret union, 
and made it known ; but Heloise, valuing 
A.'s &me hiffher than her own good 
name, denied her marriage with an oath. 



Fulbert manifested his anger by ill treat- 
ment; to deliver her from which, A. 
carried her away a second time, and 
placed her in the convent of Argenteuil. 
Fulbert erroneously believed it was in- 
tended to force her to take the veil, and, 
under the influence of rage, he subjected 
A. to an ignominious mutilation. A. be- 
came, in consequence, a monk in the 
abbey of St. Denis, and Heloise took 
the veil at Argenteuil. After time had 
somewhat moderated his grief, he re- 
sumed his lectures, and incurred new 
persecutions ; his enemies accused him of 
heresy at the council of Soissons, 1122, 
on account of his Essay on the Trinity. 
They succeeded in having it declared 
heretical, and A. was condemned to bum 
it with his own hands. Continued per- 
secutions obliged him at last to leave the 
abbey of St. Denis, and to retire to a 
place near Nogent-sur-Seine, where he 
buih an oratory, which he dedicated 
to the Holy Ghost, and called it Paradete. 
Being subsequently appointed abbot of 
St. Gildas de Ruys, he invited Hi^loise 
and her religious sisteriiood to reside at 
his chapel Paraclete, and received them 
there. The lovers saw each other here 
affaui for the first time after a separation 
of 11 years. A. lived afterwanu at St. 
Gildas, which afforded him but a gloomy 
residence, troubled by imsuccessful at- 
tempts to reform the monasterv, and 
strugglinff always with his love ror He- 
loise, and tlie hatred of the monks, who 
even threatened liis Ufe. St. Bernard, 
who had long refused to proceed against 
a man whom he esteemed, finally yielded 
to the repeated remonstrances of his 
friends, laid the doctrines of A. before 
the council of Sens, in 1140, had them 
condemned by the pope, and obtained an 
order for his imprisonment. A. appealed 
to the pope, published his defence, and 
went to Rome. Passing through Clu- 
ny, he visited Peter the venerable, who 
was abbot there. This humane and en- 
lightened divine effected a reconciliation 
between him and his enemies; but A. 
resolved to end his days in retirement. 
The severe iienances which he imposed 
upon himself, together with the grief 
which never left his heart, gradually con- 
sumed his strength, and he died, a pat- 
tern of monastic discipline, in 1142, at 
the abbey of St. Marcel, near Chilwis- 
8ur-Sa6ne, at the age of 63 years. He- 
loise begged his body, and had him buri- 
ed in the Paraclete, with the view of re- 
posing in death by his side. In 1800, the 
aslies of both were carried to the museum 



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AB£LARD.-^ABERDEEN. 



of French monumeiits at Paris, aod, in 
Nor. 1817, were deposited under a chapel, 
within the precincts of the church of Mo- 
namy. A. ^ras distinguished as a gram- 
marian, oratOT, logician, poet, musician, 
philoflopher, theologian, and mathema- 
tician ; but he has left nothing to justify 
the reputation which he enjoyed among 
his coDtemporaries. He excelled in the 
art of disputation. His doctrines were 
often lecwehensible, and his behavior 
cenflOFable. His lore and his misfortunes 
have secured his name from obliyion; 
and the man, whom his own century ad- 
mired as a profound divine, is now cele- 
hnted as the martyr of love. The letters 
of A. and H^loise have been often pub- 
lished, in the original and in translations. 

AsBi.iTKS,Abehan8,orAbelonians. St 
AogUBCine gives this name to a ChristiBn 
aect, whichprobably sprang from the 
Gnostios. They abstained nom matri- 
mony, to avoid pn^pagating original sin, 
but adopted the ch]l£en of others, and 
bra«i|^t them up in their own principles. 
This society existed, towards the end of 
the 4th century, among the people who 
dwete near Hippo^ in the normem part of 
Afiica, and borrowed their name from 
Abel, the son of Adam, because he died 
unmanied and without children. They 
have found followen in the Shakers, (q. v.) 

Abxnsbeko, district and town in the 
circle of Regen, and kingdom of Bavaria, 
83 miles from Ratisbon, on the Abens, 
has 330 houses, and 1060 inhabitanta It 
is the birth-place of the Bavarian histo- 
rian, John Thurmaier, who called him- 
sd^ from his native place, Aoentmui^ 
lived from 1466 to 1534, and left seven 
books of Bavarian annals. Here Napo-. 
leon, Apffil 20, 1809, obtained a victory 
over an Austrian army, under the arch- 
duke Louis and general Hiller, (see JSdb- 
wMlj) who retired, with the loss of 12 
funniwB and 13000 men taken prisoneisi 
to Lainahut. This battle became impor- 
tant fit>m its consequences — the taki^ of 
Landshut, on the Slst, the battle of Eck- 
m&hl, on the 22d, and the taking of 
Ratisbon, on the 23d of April 

Abercrombt, sir Ralph, a distin- 
guished British general omcer, was bom 
m 173& at lUhbodie in Chtckmannan- 
riiire. His first commisaon was that of 
cornet in the 3d regiment of dragoon 
guards, in 1756 ; and he gradually pc^sed 
Uirough all the ranks of the service, un- 
til he became a major-geileral, in 1787. 
On the commencement of the war with 
France, he was employed in Flanders 
and Holland, with tlie local rank of lieu- 



tenant-general, and, in that critical ser- 
vice, displayed equal skill and humanity. 
In 1795, he received the order of the 
Bath, and was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the forces in the West Indies. 
In this expedition he captured the islands 
of Grenada, St Lucia, St. lucent, and 
Trinidad, with the setdements of Denie 
rara and Essequibo. On his letum, he 
was appointed commander-in-diief in 
Irelana ; but, for reasons very honorable 
to himself was quickly removed to the 
conespondent command in Scotland. In 
the attempt upon HoUand, in 1799, sir 
Ralph had the sole command on the first 
landing, and both his troops and hunself 
greatly distinguished themselves. His 
royal highness the duke of Yoik subse- 
quently arrived, under whom sir Ralph 
acted. The final fiiflure of the expedition 
is well known. The next and conelud- 
inff service of this able and meritorious 
officer was in the eiqiedition to Egypt, 
of which he was commander-in-dbiief 
He lan^ted, after a severe contest, at Abou- 
kir, Mar. ^ 1801 ; and <m the 21st of the 
same month was fou^^ht the battle of 
Alexandria, in which su: Ralph was un- 
horsed and wounded in two places ; not- 
withstanding which he disarmed his an- 
tagonist, and nve the sword to sur Sid- 
ney Smith. The general kept the field 
during the day, and was then conviegred 
on b«ird the admiral's ship, whtt^ he 
survived about a week. His body was 
conveyed to Malta, and interred beneath 
the castle of St Ehno, and a nKxiument 
was voted to him, by pariiament, in St 
PauFs cathedraL His widow was also 
created baroness Aberoromby, with re- 
mainder to the issue male of her late bus- 
band ; and a penmen of 20001. a^ear was 
mnted in suppc^ of the digmty. Sir 
italph A. left four sons, George, a barris- 
ter at law ; John, a miyor^general ; James 
and Alexander. 

Abehdebn ; the principal city in the 
north of Scotland; lat 57*' 9^ N. Ion. 2* 8" 
W. It is divided into Old and New A. 
The old town was of some importance as 
eariy as 893. The population of O. and 
N. A. is supposed to be about 40,000. 
A. has two colleges^ King's and Maris- 
chal's, which, though quite distinct, are 
considered as forming one university, 
called the U. of king Charies. There are 
about 150 students in each of these col- 
leges. The cotton manufoctories in the 
vicinity of A. employ neariy 1000 per- 
sons. Vessels to the burthen of about 
40,000 tons belong to the port, which ia 
extensively enga^d in the whale an'' 



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10 



A]|EItDEEN.--ABILDGAARD. 



other fisheries. About 9060 barrels of 
salmon are exported aimually. 

Aberdesn, Greorge Gordon, earl oC, 
also vuBoouat Formatine, one of the 16 
Scottish peers, who have seats in the 
house of lords, was sent as ambassador 
to Vienna, for the purpose of concluding 
an alliance between England and Austria, 
which he signed Oct 3, 1813, at Teplitz. 
He negotiated, also, the alliance of king 
Murat, of Naples, with Austria, in 1813 ; 
but endeavorsd in vain to reconcile those 
courts in 1815. Lord A., as an admirer of 
Grecian art, instituted, in 1804, the. Athe- 
nian Society, each member of which must 
have visited Athens. 

Aberxi, John Lewis, a landscape 
painter, femous for his V%ew$ of Swiizer' 
land; bom in 1733, at Winterthur. He 
relinquished the manner of his teacher, 
Mejer, an indifferent artist, went to Berne, 
received better instruction from John 
Grimm, and at first painted portraits. 
But his incfinalion for landscape painting 
gained the ascendency. He went, in 
1759, with his pupil Zingg, to Paris, and 
returned, esteemed and admired, to Beme, 
where he died in 1786. His maimer has 
been very often imitated, yet his sketches 
have always maintained the reputation of 
being the nest in their kind. 

ABEERATioir of light We see an 
object because the rays of tight proceed- 
ing fiom it strike our eyes, and we see 
the place of the object in the direction in 
which they proceed. Let us now imag- 
ine the earth, in its circuit round the sun, 
just arrived opposite to a fixed star, which 
sends off rays perpendiculariy to the di- 
rection of the earth's motion. The eye 
of the spectator meets the rey, and as he 
perceives not bis own motion, he sup- 
poses the light to be moving in an oppo- 
site direction ; as, when we sail in a boat, 
the trees on the shore appear to pass 
along by us. Thus the eye misses the 
perpenmcular ray, but meets an oblique 
one, and thence receives the impression 
of the li^ht in the direction which results 
from this compound motion, namely, in 
the diagonal or a parallelogram, the sides 
of which represent the real motion of the 
light, and the apparent one, (i. e. the mo- 
tion of the earthO^ which take place at 
the same time. The spectator sees the 
star in its true place only when he is 
either approaching it, or receding from it, 
in a straight line. When moving in any 
other direction, the star appears a little 
in advance of its true position in die same 
direction (the maximum is 20^' — ^25'') ; 
and we call by the name o£ aberratum 



of lig^ these apparent changes in the 
situation of the heavenly bcdies, occ«»« 
sioned by the motion of the earth. We 
easily see that these changy are coiTimoi) 
to all the heavenly bodies, and are only 
more striking in the case of the fixed stars. 
They afford an additional proof of the 
motion of the earth. In consequence of 
this aberration, the fixed stars appear, 
during die revolution of the earth about 
the sun, accor^g as they are ntuated, 
either in the plane of the ecliptic, or in 
its poles, or somewhere between therri, 
in the first case to deviate in a straight 
line to the right or left of their true place^ 
in the second to describe a circle, in the 
third an ellipse about that point, which 
fiirther observation determines to be their 
real mtuation. This discovery we owe 
to Bradley, (q. v.) For the aberration of 
light, see the elementary works on astron- 
omy, the dictionaries of natural philoso- 
phy Dy Gehler, Fischer, &c. There is a 
very good account of it in Biot's JVaitd 
iil^m^itotre (T AaironomieFhfsique^ Paris, 

1811, M Treatise, vol 3, page 120, et seq. 
Tables of aberration, accom|MLnied with 
explanations, are to be found m the baron 
von Zach's workE^ Thbula specudes Ah- 
erroHonis et Mdaiionia, etc., Gotha, 180^, 
and in the same author's JVouveUes TtAle^ 
d^MirratimetdeMdcAionpotirl40iEioi-- 

pow les PUmHes et Us ComHes, Marseilles, 

1812, and SuppUment, 18ia 
Abildoaard, Nicdai Abraham, his- 
torical painter to the king of Denmark, 
and knight of the order of Danebrof. 
He was bom at Copenhagen, in 1744» 
and died there in 1809, director and pro- 
fessor of the academy of fine arts. He 
was undoubtedly the greatest genius, in 
painting, that IJenmaik ever possessed. 
All his works display profound study, 
richness of imagination, and rexnarkable 
power of expression. Five years* resi- 
dence in Italy completed the education 
which he had received in the academy 
of arts at Copenhagen, yet his worii 
never lost the character of originality'. 
The creations of his productive imagina- 
tion were sometimes of a gloomy, and 
always of a grand and solemn character. 
Modem painting can hardly show a finer 
coloring. A considerable number of 
the large pictures in the apartments of 
the royal palace at Chrisdansburg, burnt 
down in 1794, were by A. A. has painted 
four pictures, representing, with much 
force of allegorical expression, the most 
striking periiSs of European iiistory. But 
few of his works in the palace were saved 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ABILDGAARD— ABO 



11 



from the eonflagratioA. A conriderable 
niimherofliiB picturefl^ however, still exist 
in Bad out of Copenhagen. The wounded 
Philodetes ifijis vigorouB as his Cupid 
18 delieaite; both are executed in the 
ttyk of a master. There are also an 
exeeUent Socrates, Jupiter weighing the 
fiue of man, and others. His last works 
were lour lanie paintings, representing 
scenes from Terence. Nearly all his 
wort» are those of a painter formed by 
the study of the ancients, and of the re- 
muns of antiquity. Nothing escape4 his 
observation, which stood in the remotest 
rektioo to his art He was likewise a 
distininiished lecturer in the royal acade- 
my^arts, and has left several disciples, 
fninters as well as sculptors, who do 
honor to their master and to their coun- 
try; amongst whom, superior to all the 
rnt, is Thwwaldsen. A. acquired repu- 
tation as a writer by some short essays, 
the obfoct of which waOy partly, to correct 
a iUse taste in regard to the arts, partly 
to iUustrate the easier worics of art. 

AaiPONiAif s ; a wariike tribe of Indians, 
between 98^ and 30° S. lat, on the banks 
of the Rio de la Plata, consisting of 5000 
persons, who pay fittle attention to agri- 
culture, but employ themselves principal- 
ly in hunting and fishing. Inuring the 
ire rainy months, thev resort to the isl- 
ands of the Rio de la Plato, or to the tops 
of trees. The Abiponians prefer the 
flesh of ticera to every other meat, super- 
Btitiously believing that it gives new cour- 
age to the warrior. Long lances, and 
arrows with iron points, are their weap- 
ons. They are often at war with the 
SpaniardB. Their wives are not much 
browner than the Spanish ladies. The 
men are tall, with aquiline noses, are 
good awimmers, and fond of painting fig- 
tves on their skin. Their caziques are, 
in ttoMa of peace, their iudges, in war 
iheir tendets. In peace, nowever, their 
autbori^ is very limited ; for if a cazique 
ahould attempt an unpopular iimovation, 
the multitude would leave him, and join 
other tribes. 

Abjcration, oath of; the oath by which 
an Englishman binds himself not to ac- 
knowledge any right in the pretender to the 
throne orEngmnd. It signineSySlso, accor- 
ding to 25 Charles II., an oath abjuring par- 
ticQiar doctrines of the church ofRome. 

ABI.EQAT1 ; in diplomatic language, pa- 
pri ambaasadcns ot the second rank, who 
are sent with a less extensive commission, 
to a court where there are no nuncios. 
This title is equivalent to enocy, (See 
- ■ " ■.) 



Abo (in Finnish, Turku) con||BS 1100 
houses, and 11,300 inhalKtanUi. Since 
1817, it has ceased to be ^e camtal 
of the government of Finland. The 
Russian administration has endeavored, 
however, to support it by other means ; 
and it continues to be the capital city of 
a district, as well as the seat of a Luther- 
an bishopric, (in 1817, raised to an arch- 
bishopric,) and of the supreme court of 
justice for South Finland. The mouth 
of the river Aurajocki, protected by a 
promontory of the gulf of^Bothnia, forms 
the harbor of the ci^, which, nnce 
1817, has been the chief place of export 
from Finland to Sweden, and even to the 
Mediterranean. It has important sugar- 
works, and manU&ctures of leather, Unen, 
sail-cloth, cordage, glass, coarse broad- 
cloth, &c. Many uiips are buih in its 
docks. The acadamy which Gustavus 
Adolphus established in 16S28 was chang- 
ed by Christhia, queen of Sweden, iiito 
a university, which was endowed still 
more libenuly W the emperor Alexander. 
It had, in 1824, forty professors, and more 
than 500 students, a library of 90,000 vols., 
a botanical garden, an observatory, an 
anatomical buildinff, and a chemical labo- 
ratory, a cabinet of medals and minerals, 
a collection of mechanical and agricultu- 
ral models, a society for the jvomotion 
of science, one for natural history, a Bible 
society, &c. In the autumn of 1827, the 
whole city, including the buildings and 
library of the university, was burnt down. 
The Russian government has taken ener- 
getic measures for rebulldinff it.. 

Abo, peace of Aug. 17, 1/43, Sweden 
here concluded peace with Russia. This 
ended the war which broke out Aug. 24, 
1741, between Russia and Sweden, at the 
instigaticm of France, in order to prevent 
Russia from partaking in the Austrian 
war of succession. In this war, after the 
victory of Lacy, near Wilmanstrand, Sept. 
3, 1741, the Russians conquered all Fin- 
land, in consequence of the mistakes of the 
Swedish generals, Ldwenhaupt and Bud- 
denbrog. The empress Elizabeth promis- 
ed, however, to give up a great part of her 
conquests, if Sweden would choose the 
prince Adolphus Frederic ofHolst«in-Got- 
torp, bishop of Lubec, heir to the Swedish 
crown, instead of the crown-prince ofDen- 
mark. This was done July 4, 1743. Thus,' 
in 1751, the house ofHolstein-Gottorp took 
possession of the Swedish throne, which 
it lost agun after the abdication of Gus- 
tavus IV., in conseouence of a resolution 
of the states of the kmgdom. May 10, 1809. 
which took effect upon the death o 



13 



ABO^ABOUKIR. 



Charles XIH^ Feb. 5, 1818. Ailer this 
election, the treaty of peace was signed 
at A^ in which Sweden ceded to Russia 
the Finnish provmce of Kymmen^rd, 
with the cities and ibitiesses of Fredeiics- 
hamm and Wihnanstrand, and the city 
and fort of Nyslot From that time, the 
river Kymmen^ has been the boundary 
between Sweden and Rtmia, until the 
latter power obtained the whole of Finn- 
land, at the peace of Fredeiicshamro, 
Sept 17, 1809. June 25, 1745, peace was 
eonchided between Sweden and Russia, 
at St Petersbuiv. 
Abolition. (See Pardon^ right of) 
Abolition of dateiy. Jlie Society fcr 
mxtigating and gradwUly aboliakin^ the 
SiaU of Saveiy &rwtghmd ihe British Do- 
numons, sometimeB <»lled the *^nti-dao€' 
ry Sodeiy, has been recently formed. IJis 
K. H. the duke of Gloucester is president 
of the society. In the list of the vice-presi- 
dents are the names of many of the most 
distinguished phllanthiopists, and, among 
them, that or the never-to-be-forgotten 
champion of the negro's cause, Mr. Wil- 
lierforce. The society has already pub- 
lished several works illustrative of the 
state of slavery, and pointing out its evils 
in a commercial, political, and religious 
}Kiint of view. (See SUwery, CohmuOion 
Sociehf and Hliierforce,) llie more im- 
mediate olijects of the society are to ame- 
liorate the condition of the slaves, and to 
facilitate the means by which they may 
obtain their freedom ; and, lor the accom- 
plishment of these puxposes, — ^To remove 
all the existing obstructions to the manu- 
mission of slaves : To cause the slaves to 
cease to be chattels in the eye of the law : 
To prevent their removal, as davesj from 
colony to colony, and, under certain modi- 
fications, their sale or transfer, except 
with the land to which they may be at- 
tached: To abolish markets and com- 
pulsory labor on Sundav, and to make 
it a day of rest, as well as of religious 
worship and instruction ; and also to se- 
cure to the slaves equivalent time in each 
week, in lieu of Sunday, and in addition 
to any time which, independently of Sun- 
da^r, 18 now afibrded them, for cultivating 
their provision grounds : To protect tlie 
slaves, by law, in the possession and 
transmission of the property tliey may 
thus or in any other way acquire: To 
enable the slave to purchase his freedom 
by the payment at once of a fair price for 
his redemption, or of a fifth part of that 
price at a time, in return for an additicnai 
day in the week to be employad for his 
own benefit : To make the testimony of 



slaves available in courts of justice, botli ia 
civil and priminal cases : To rehevei^ ne- 
groes and persons of color from the burden 
of legally proving their fineedom, when 
brought into question, and To throw on the 
claimant of their persons the burden of le- 
gally proving his lidit to them : To pro- 
vide the means of rdigious instruction for 
the black and colored population, and of 
Christian education for their children: To 
institute marriage among the slaves, and 
to protect that state fix>m violation and 
from either forcible or voluntary disrup- 
tion : To put an end to the driving sys- 
tem: To put an end, also, to the arbitrary 
punishment of slaves, and to put their 
persops as well as property under the 
guardianship of the law : To provide that 
all children Dom after a certain day shall 
be fi^ee,— caro being taken of their edu- 
cation and maintenance until they shall 
be capable of acting for themselves : To 
provide that no colonial governor. Judge, 
attomey-general or fiscal, shall be a pos- 
sessor of slaves, or shall have a direct and 
obvious roveraonary interest in such 
property, or shall be the agent of the pro* 
prietors of slaves. The society has fur- 
ther proposed, that the final extinction of 
slaveiy should be accomplished by the 
redemption of all females from the lowest 
age, to about 40; by which means all 
their posterity would be bom firee. The 
cost of this measure is estimated at 
900,000{.; but should parMament refuse 
to accede to this or some other efiective 
plan, the society trust that their object 
will, nevertheless, be obtained by bring- 
ing free labor into competition with 
slave labor ; so that the latter shall be- 
come of so little value as to be not worth 
retaining. The parent society is sup- 
ported by many auxiliaries, not fewer than 
250 of which are in active operation in 
various parts of the kingdom ; and if they 
continue to proceed with the energy that 
has hitherto mariced their progress, there 
can be litde doubt that they will finally 
succeed in a cause, in which truth, jus- 
tice, and the dictates of religion, are ar- 
rayed on their side. 

ABORieiNEs; the name given to the 
eldest inhabitantB of a country, of whose 
origin notliing certain is known. The 
Roman historians give this name to the 
people who dwelt in the vicinity of Rome, 
before the arrival of the Trojans. DifiTer- 
ent derivations of the word are ^ven. 
For the right of aborigines to the soil, see 
Indians, and Oect/^Hmcy, right of. 

Aboukir, the ancient Canopus, is at 
present a viDage with 100 Arabian inhabit- 



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ABOUKIR— ABRACADABRA. 



13 



snta: it has a strong castle on the western 
aide of a spacious bay, protected by a 
pnjecdag point of land and several small 
islands, and is situated on the Egypdan 
coast, 10 milei east of Alexandria. This 
piace has become distinguished, in mod^- 
cni times, by the naval battle, in which 
the English admiral Nelson annihilated 
the French fleet, between the funst and 
the third of August, 1798. May 19, 1798, 
the latter sailed from the harbor of Tou- 
lon, to convey an army to Egypt, undar 
the command of ^neral Buonaparte. 
As soon as the Enj^lish admiral St. Vin-^ 
cent, who was cruiang before Cadiz, re- 
ceived inibrmation of this, he despatched 
rear-admiral Nelson, with 14 ships of the 
line, to the Mediterranean, with orders to 
sedc and attack the FVench fleet. Auff. 
1, Nelson caught a glimpse of the Fronch 
ships in the road of A. and gave the sig- 
nal of battle. The French captains, who 
were just then assembled on l)oard the 
admiiai's ship, had hardly time tc> retire 
to their posts, before the first English 
ship began the attack. Although the 
French fleet was disposed in a curved 
line, as near as possible to a small island, 
projected by a battery of cannon and 
mortars. Nelson suddenly ordered half 
of his force to break tlirough, between 
the island and the French line of batde, 
and to sail under the shore, in their rear, 
while the other half approached their 
frmt, and anchored withm pistol shot; 
so that the French ships were attacked 
from all aide& At sunset^ about half 
pest 6 o^cIock in the evening, the bat- 
tle began. At the end of an hour, 5 
French ships were dismasted and taken. 
The French admiral, Bnieys, was killed 
by acannon-l}all ; his ship, L'Orient, how- 
ever, continued the battle with great spir- 
it, until she took fire. About 10 oVlock, 
this splendid vessel, of 120 guns, blew up. 
Of 1000 men, but 70 or 80 were saved. 
Capt. Casabianca was mortally wounded, 
end his son, a boy 12 years old, voliuita- 
rily remained in the burning ship, and 
ffhared his fiite. The other ships contin- 
ued the cannonade till the mommg, which 
mtncssed the entire defeat of the French 
fleet. But 2 ships of the line and 2 flig- 
ates escaped to Malta and Corfu ; 9 ships 
of the line were taken, 1 blown up, and 
another, together with a frigate, burned 
by the French themselves ; 1 frigate, 
however, was sunk. Thus the naval 
power of France in the Mediterranean 
was a second time annihilated ; the British 
flag waved triumphant from Gibraltar to 
Alexandria ; Buonaparte's comraunica- 

TOL. I. 2 



tionwith France was cut off, and his 
enemies, with renovated hopes, united 
again, hi the subsequent vear, in a new 
coalition. (See Egypty landing of the 
JVencAtn.) 
ABOUI.FEDA. (See AlndMa.) 
About ; the situation of a ship imme- 
diately after she has tacked, or changed 
her course. 

Abracadabra ; a term of incantation, 
wliich was fonnoriy beheved to have the 
power of curing fevers, especially the 
slow fevers, the intermittent of 4 da^s^ 
and the hemitritseus, so called by Hip- 
pocrates, which was generally fatal. At 
present, this word is, for the most part, 
used in jest, withont any particular mean- 
ing, like hocus pocus. According to Q. 
Serenus Sanmionicus, it ought to be writ- 
ten so as to form a magic triangle, in or- 
der to produce the supposed efroct; viz. 

ABRACADABRA 

BRACADABR 

R AC A D A B 

A C A D A 

CAD 

A 

or as follows: 

Abracadabra 
Abracadabr 
Abracadab 
Abracada 
A b r a c a d 
A b r a c a 
A b r a c 
A b r a 
A b r 
A b 
A 
The triangle, thus formed, reads Mraea- 
dabra^ beguming with A, and thence pass- 
ing over to any line you please, and stop- 
ping at the last letter of tlie first line. 
Greek amviets, which bear the inscription 
ABFAKA4ABPA, leave HO doubt that this 
magic word, properly, ought to be pro- 
nounced Mrasadabroy though the Jews 
say also Mracalan, Ahraa^abra proba- 
bly means divint decree, and is derived 
from the sacred name of the Supreme 
Being, Abraseuc, or Abras, Others are of 
opinion that the term Ahrasax took its 
origin fix)mthe first letters of the Hebrew 
words w^, Ben, Ruack hahodesh, (Fa- 
ther, Son and Holy Ghost,) and firom the 
initials of the Greek words, oannQla itnk 
$t/;iov, (salvation from the wood of the 
croe&) Mrasax is neither an ifisTptian, 
nor Greek, nor Hebrew, but a rersiaii 
name, which denotes the Pernan deity, 
Mithras.—Superstitious people, moreover 



..gitized by Google 



14 



ABRACADABRA— .\BRAIIAHITES. 



used to write the word Ahrcxadabra^ in 
the maimer above-mentioned, on a square 
pieoe of paper; then folded it ao as to 
cover the writing, ^wed it together with 
white thread, hung it, by a piece of tape, 
around the nedE, so as to reach the heart, 
wore it for 9 days, and then went, before 
sunrise, in promund silence, to a river 
which flowed to the east, took it fiom the 
neck, and threw it, but without openinjg 
or reading it, into the water over their 
heads. 

Abraham ; the father, and most cele- 
brated patriardi of the Jews, with whom 
their history commences, as, likewise, 
the promises given them by God, and the 
miracles permmed in their favor. He 
was bom at Ur, in Chaldiea, about 2000 
B. C, and descended in the eiehth gen- 
eration fiom Shem,^ Noah's eldest son. 
He passed his eariy days in the house of 
his mther, Terah, where he was kept firom 
idolatry, which prevailed in his fiunily. 
Obedient to the voice of God, which 
pointed out his noble destiny, and com- 
manded him to settle in Canaan, he went 
to that country with his &ther, his wife, 
and his nephew; and fixed his abode at 
Haran, in Mesopotamia. After his fa- 
ther's death, he led a wandering life, in 
obedience to the will of God. He visited 
Sichem, Bethel, and Gerara, whence he 
returned to Bethel, Frequent dissensions 
between his servants and those of Lot 
caused their final separation. A. remain- 
ed at Mamre, but Lot settled in Go- 
morrah. Afterwards, on hearing that feur 
Arabian chiefs had invaded Gomorrah, 
and carried off Lot with his family and 
property, A. pursued them with 318 ser- 
%'ants, conquered them, and rescued his 
nephew, and all that belonged to him. 
God revealed fliturity to A. and ratified 
fais covenant with him and his posterity, 
by the law of circumcision. The ad- 
vanced age of A. and Sarah seemed to 
render doubtfiil the fulfilment of these 
promises, when three an^ls, in tlie shape 
of travellers, came to visit them. They 
were sent to pvnisli Sodom and Gomor- 
rah for their wickedness, and announced 
that, at their return, Sarali would be a 
mother. Though she was 90 years old, 
she conceived, and bore Isaac, at the time 
designated by the angel Wlien Isaac 
had reached his 25th year, God wished 
to put A.'b fidelity to a new trial, and 
eommanded him to sacrifice his only son, 
on mount Moriah. llie old man was 
ready to obey. The victim was already 
placed on the ahar, and about to receive 
the fetal strobe, when God, convinced of 



the obedience of his servant, stopped his 
lifted arm. Sarah died, but A. married 
Keturah, who bore him 6 more children. 
He died 175 years old, and was buried 
near Sarah, in a cave which he had 
bought for his sepulchre fix>m the sons of 
Hetb. Not only the Jews, but also the 
Arabians, derive their orisin from, this pa- 
triarch : the Greek and fioman churches 
have introduced his name into their le- 
gends. He is also mentioned in the Ko- 
ran^ and some of the Mahometan writers 
assert that A. went to Mecca, and com- 
menced the erection of the temple. The 
Jews have at all times honored his 
tomb and his memory. His history, as 
given by the rabbins, is a mixture of 
truth and fiction. 

Abraham a Sancta Clara ; bom in Kra* 
henheimstetten, in Suabia, June 4, 1642. 
His true name was Ulrich Megerle. He 
was distinguished, as a preacher, for the 
originahty of his conceptions. At Marien- 
brunn, in the south of^ Austria, he joined, 
m 1G62, the barefooted fiiars of the order of 
St Augustin, applied himself to philoso- 
phy and theology, in a monastery of his 
order at Vieima, was then employed as 
preacher in the convent of Taza, in Bava- 
ria, and soon called to preach at the im- 
perial court of Vienna, where he contin- 
ued till the year 1709, when he died, 67 
years old. His sermons are burlesque, 
and full of the strangest notions. His 
striking pecuharities, agreeable, however, 
to the spirit of his age, procured him a 
numerous audience, and his sermons were 
not without effect, since they treated of 
popular subjects, and were seasoned witli 
much sarcasm, adapted to all ranks. The 
titles of some of his writings show tlie 
tone in which they are composed: a^, 
ISfonVie Warid, oTy abovt Virtue and Vice ; 
/Sdutary Mixture; Abrahemi a Scmcta Cta- 
ra*8 ^est of nernhf-hatched FMa, or ctarious 
WorktHwp qf vanoua Fhols^ both nude and 
ftnuiU, etc. A. was, by nature, a popu- 
lar orator ; he joined to an odd exterior a 
stronff mind, endowed with a thorough 
knowledge of mankind, and a fervent 
love of truth. With the boldest frank- 
ness, he scourges tlie follies of his age, 
and vigorously attacks the weak mysti- 
cism and pedantry of most preachers of 
his time. 
Abraham, heights ofl (See Qiie&ec.) 
ABBAHAinTss, Abrshamians, or deists 
of Bohemia, were a number of ignorant 
peasants, who came forth from then: ob- 
scurity in 1783, confiding in the edict of 
toleration published by Joseph IL, and 
avowed the same betief which Abraham 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ABRAHAMITES--ABRIAL. 



15 



pro&flKd before the law of circumcision. 
The doctrine of the unity of God, and the 
Jjoid's prayer, were all which they re- 
carded in the Bible. Their petition for 
nieedoni in religious worship was, how- 
ever, rejected, because they refused to 
declare themselves Jews, or members of 
any of the established Christian sects. 
The emperor Joseph, less enlightened in 
matters of religion tlian is generally be- 
Itered, drove these honest people, in 1783, 
fixMn their possesaons, because they re- 
sisted all attempts made for their convert 
sion, and dispersed tliem, by military 
force, amonf various places, on the boun- 
daries of Hungary, Transylvania, and 
Sclav^Miia, where they were compelled to 
embnce the Roman Gadiolic raith, and 
the men to join the frontier militia. Many 
of them adhered firmly to tlieir religious 
prindplesL 

Abbaivtes ; a city of 3,500 inhabitants, 
(m the right bank of the Tagus, in the 
province of £8tramadurB,in Fortu^ It 
B considered as of great military mipor- 
tance, on account of its cdtuation on a 
number of steep hills, forming a defile ; 
by reason, likewise, of its old castle, con- 
verted into a citadel ; and of the river, 
which is navigable as fiur as this place. 
The Portuguese, in this fortress, braved 
the Spaniards as early as 17G3. In 1806, 
tiie army under Junot arrived at A., after 
a dangerous and tedious march along the 
banks of the Tagus, through the woody, 
mountainous and barren Beira. Junot 
oidered the castle, as weU as the city, 
which he found ungairisoned, to be 
placed in a state of de^nee ; mid, in spite 
of the great fatigue of his troops, hastened 
to Lifloon, then occupied by 15,000 Por- 
tuguese soldiers, and inhabited by 350,000 
souk. The quickness of his march, and 
the daring coinage with which he took 
p ocpoom on of this capital, at the head of 
only 1500 grenadiers, induced Niqooleon 
to make Um duke of Abrsntes. At a 
later period, however, he committed gross 
nustakes. At the capitulation of Cintra, 
A was surrendered to the English, who 
made it still stronger. It was, however, 
of no importance during the remainder 
of the war, except to Massena, who re- 
connoitred it at the time when he sat 
down before the strong position of the 
duke of Wellington, between Santarem 
and Peniche. 

Abrasax. (See Mraxaa.) 

Abraxas Stones, or Abbasax Stobes, 
are very niunerous, and represent a hu- 
man body, with the head of a cock and 
the foet of a reptile. The inscription 



Mraxaa or Mrasax is often finrnd on 
them, in Greek charactere, which betray, 
however, a foreign origin. Bellermann, 
in his Essay on the Gems of the Ancients, 
bearing the Image of Abraxas. Berlin, 
1817, declares only those havingtiie above 
inscriptions to be genuine. The gems 
which have been imported into Eun^ 
fiom Egypt and Asia, and are also found 
in Spain m sreat abundance, belon^^edf 
according to ^s opinion, to the religious 
sect of me Basilidians, and were used, 
partly as means to teach secret doctrines, 
partly as symbols, pardy as amulets or 
talismans. Grotefend derives the name 
fi;om the Persian langua^; BeUermann 
tliinks it to be a composition of the Egyp- 
tian words Mrac and Sax, and rendere it 
"the hoiy word ofhUss^ which reminds 
us of the Tebx^fpwnmcion of the Jews. 
Dififerent explanations have been proposed 
by others. The ancients attempted to give 
meaning to the word by considering the 
letters as Greek numerals, which make 
together 365. — The name of Mraxat 
9tane is, in modem times, applied to a 
variety of gems that exhibit enigmatical 
compositions, strange words in foreign 
characters, as Mlanaikandtbe^ &c«, and 
even to those which bear the emUems of 
Seboeism, the sun and moon, with other 
symbols, which want, however, the char- 
acteristic type of the BasilidianflL These 
are more properly citlled ^Sbrareiidt. The 
Basilidian names, seen on many stones 
of this class, are explained by Bellermann, 
by the aid of the Semitic langjuages. The 
interesting disquirition on this subject of 
Neander^ professor at the university of 
Berlin, deserves to be carefully comirared 
with ^e .opinions advanced by BeUer- 
mann. 

Abbial, Andr6-Joeeph, bom March 
19, 1750, at Annonay, department de 
I'Ard^che, at present count and peer of 
France, &c., studied law in Paris, |nd 
embraced the principles of the revolution, 
during which he was, for a long period, 
commissioner of the executivepow<er in 
the court of cassation. In 17w, he or- 
ganized the republican government in 
Naples. After the 18th of Brumaue, 
the first consul intrusted him with the 
ministij of justice, saying, as it is related, 
** Not I, but the publie voice nominates 
you." After 18 months, he quitted this 
station, and entered the aSnat e ona erp o - 
Uur. In 1804, he orsanized the depart- 
ment of justice in Italy, when the yoans 
Cealpine republic was ugain dissolved. 
In 1811, he vras made count of the em- 
pire, and v^ras for 10 yean a member f 



..gitized by Google 



16 



ABRIAL-ABRUZZO. 



that committee in the senate, ridicii- 
lously called wmmission de la liberti in- 
dmdueUe, while it daily submitted, with 
blind subservience, to the imperial orders. 
In 1814, Abrial voted for the overthrow 
of the imperial dynasty. Louis XVIII. 
made him a peer, and since tliat time he 
has voted with some independence in the 
chamber of peers. 

Abbuzzo, the northern extremity of 
the kinffdom of Naples, is bounded on 
the norm and west bv the states of the 
church, on the east by the Adriatic, on 
the south by Pii^Iia and Terra di Lavoro. 
It contains G28,SX) inhabitants, and is di- 
vided into A. ulterior, which comprises 
the north-western, and A. citerior, which 
comprises the south-eastern part. The 
highest part of the chain of the Apennines 
crosses thib mountainous country. In A. 
ulterior, especially, it is very lofty, with 
steep cILfi&,and throws extraordinary obsta- 
cles m the way of internal communication. 
The rivers which rise in A., the Trento, 
Trontino, etc, generally flow in a direct 
course into the Adriatic aea, and have 
(the Pescara and Sangro excepted) the 
charaeter o£ torrents. They are often 
Biiddenly swollen by the rains, especially 
in the spring, and then sweep away the 
bridges and all means of communication. 
The climate of A. is severe. The sum- 
mits of the mountains are covered with 
snow fit>m October to ApriL Thick 
woods crown the eminences ; the valleys 
only arc productive ; and even they (as 
the inhabitants are mostly shepherds) 
afford but a very scanty supply of grain. 
Almond, walnut, and other fitut-trees 
thrive every where ; olives, in the lower 
re^ons, near the sea. The finest herds 
or all kinds of cattle feed on the heights 
and in the vaUeys, and constitute the 
only article of export The most impor- 
tant cities are Aquila, Pescara, (both for- 
tresses,) and Sulmona. The importance 
of A. consists, principally, in its military 
sites. Projecting like a bastion 60 geo- 
graphical miles, &r into the territory of 
the church, it becomes especially impor- 
^t from the circumstance that but one 
military road, and that an extremely dif- 
ficult one to an army, leads into the king- 
dom. There is, indeed, no one like it 
across the mountains, fit>m the shore of 
the Mediterranean to that of tlie Adriatic 
sea. The km«dom of Naples, therefore, 
if well defended, is exposed to serious 
attacks on two roads only; namely, on 
that which stretches along the Mediter- 
ramean sea and the Pontine marshes, firom 
Rome, by Terracina and Capua, to Na- 



ples ; or on th6 one which runs along the 
Adriatic, firom Ancona, by way of Atri, 
Pescara, etc. into the interior. On the 
latter road, each of the many parallel riv- 
ers forms an excellent position, where 
the right wing may always be protected 
by the sea, the left by the cx>ntiguous 
mountains, firom which the flank of the 
assailants is itself exposed to attack. To 
force these positions would cost a bold 
enemy much blood. It would be yet 
more dangerous to attempt to pass Ter- 
racina, on the other road, without having 
possession of A. ; for aa soon as the army 
had arrived at Terracina, the rear might 
be attacked on the left firom Rome and 
the mountains. Finally, should the in- 
vaders advance by both roads at once, 
all conununication would be destroyed 
before they reached Pescara, 'whence a 
good road leads over the chain to Sul- 
mona and Teano. They would meet 
with all the id>ove difficulties, and, at the 
same time, incur the danger of being de- 
feated in detfuL The possession of A. is, 
therefore, indispensable for the attack of 
Naples ; to force it, however, would be 
veiy difficult As has been said above, 
of the roada finom the states of the church 
into this province, only the one fiom Rie- 
ti, through Civitk ducale to Aquila and 
Sulmona, is practicable for artillery, and 
only two others for regular troops, and 
that with difficulty. All the other ways 
are nothing more than paths through 
morasses, where the troops must march 
in single files, and the cavalry lead their 
horses. The road finom Rieti is, there- 
fore, the only one on which a serious at- 
tack can be undertaken ; but the strong 
pass of Antrodocco, and numerous ^od 
positions, fiicilitate its defence. Besides, 
the thick forests with deep ravines affi>rd 
advantages for a partisan warfare, in the 
manner of the guerillas, or the Tyrolese 
and, had the Neapohtans a warlike spirit, 
the possession of A., whenever attacked, 
would not have been obtained without a 
great sacrifice. But when a people is 
destitute of courage and energy, when 
the soldiers, sunk in cowardly apathy, 
run away at the mere idea of a battle, the 
most favorable ground will be of no ad- 
vantage. This is the reason that A., so 
well »lapted for a defensive war, has al- 
ways been of little use ; that Naples has 
been the prey, sometimes of the Austrians, 
at other times of the French or the Span- 
iards ; and that the inhabitants have but 
seldom resisted the conquerors. Once 
only, in 1798, did the natives of A. rouse 
themselves against the victorious French 



Digitized byC^OOQlC 



ABRUZZO— ABSENTEE. 



17 



they killed their general, Hikrion-Point, 
took genenl Rubcb prifloner, and did im- 
pofftant injury to the cfmqueronLespecial- 
W to the column of general Dunesme. 
Bat as the Neapolitan army had been 
defeated in the states of the church, 
and fled in the most cowardly manner 
whereTer the FVench showed themaelves, 
these momentary ebullitions of courage 
were of little avail to the descendants of 
the bold Samnites, Marsi and Sabini, who 
once dwelt on these mountains, a terror 
to the Romans ; and the sabsequent pettv 
commotions, in 1806, partook too much 
of the character of common robberies to 
merit commendation. In 1815, when 
Murat advaoced against the Austrians, 
the government was too much hated to 
be able to organize a popular war after 
the battle of Tolentino. Instead of re- 
sisting, the soldiers bom in A. dispersed 
lo their homes, when they marched 
througfa this province on their return, 
and the rivers on the eastern coast rather 
hindered the retreat of the Neapolitans 
than the advances of the foe, wno pro- 
ceeded without opposition, both by the 
roads along the coast and over the moun- 
tains, with columns composed of light 
troops, and by this darinffstep effected 
the entire dissofution of the Neapolitan 
army. In 1891, the revolutionuy party 
at Naples hoped that A. would anora the 
greatest wivantages in a defensive war ; 
and the Venditas of the Carbonari, the 
popular assemblies, and even the French 
chamber of deputies, again resounded 
with praises of the nouud and of the 
epxit which inspired the inhabitants, the 
worthy descendants of their daring ances- 
tors. The result completely disappointed 
expectation. After the plan of the Aus- 
trians to attack A. on the road from Civi- 
ta ducale to Aquila and Sulmona was de- 
termined on, general Pepe resolved to 
commence the offensive. On March 7th, 
1831, he crossed the boundary of Civit^ 
ducale, and attacked general Geppert, at 
Rieti. His troops advanced with reluct- 
ance, found themselves surrounded by 
two battalions of Austrians, and deter- 
mined to retreat The Austrians quickly 
pursued ; the division under Wallmoden 
reached the strong pass of Antrodocco 
on the 9th, attacked and soon obtained pos- 
session of it, anotlier division having al- 
ready taken the pass of Borghette with- 
out resistance, wnile one portion of the 
Neapolitans fled from dissatisfiiction with 
the new government, and another fiom 
cowardice. The whole Neapolitan army 
bemg dispersed, the militia and volun- 
2* 



teers returned home ; the troops of the 
line, weakened by desertion, withdrew 
into, the interior of the country ; and Pepe 
himself left the army in an^r at their 
cowardice. Aquila opened its gates on 
the 11th ; the citadel then cimitulated, and 
the inhabitantB of Abruzzo tiimished the 
Austrians with provisions, without evinc^ 
ing any desire to prolong this partisan 
war. By the speedy advance of the Aus- 
trians to Sulmona, general Carascosa, 
who held possession of the road of Ter- 
racina, and also the corps which protect- 
ed the road along the coast of the Adri- 
atic, were surrounded, and both the 
regulars and militia, having diiE^rsed, 
hastened back. Thus ended a war, which 
affords another proof, that even the pass 
of Thennopyke has no value unless de- 
fended by Spartans. The inhabitants of 
this mountainous resion are generally 
banditti, who render Sie frontiers of Na- 
ples and qT the territories of the church 
extremely insecure. These banditti con- 
sist of the peasants living in the moun- 
tains, who possess property and families, 
but, in addition to theiv agrictihural con- 
cerns, make a trade of robbery. Urged 
bv rEmacity and poverty to murder and 
plunder, they unite and iall upon the 
traveller, and not unfrequently upon the 
inhabitants and houses of the plams. 

Absalom, (m Danish, «^d,) bishop of 
Roeskilde or Rothschild, and archbishop 
of Denmark from 1158 to 1201 ; renowned 
as a clergyman, statesman, general, and 
navigator; descended from a family of 
high rank, and, even from his early youth, 
a niend and coimsellor of king Widde- 
mar I., whose ability in peace and war 
procured him the surname of the Great, 
A. had a large share in the administration 
of Waldeniar I. He was active, humane, 
and learned ; set an example or industry 
to the monks, and improved the condi- 
tion of the church in Denmark. In his 
youth, he studied at Paris, Under his di- 
rection Saxo wrote the valuable Danith 
chnmide. A. never abused his power or 
the favor of the king ; so that Waldemar 
ever remained his friend. He had the 
honor of beinf the founder of the chief 
city ofI]^tunajl,Coi>enhai|;en. He built the 
casde, called, after hina, JxtHburVj and the 
city, Atdstadt. This castle, enbrged and 
improved, served the kings of Denmark 
afterwards for their residence, till the 18th 
century. A. died, A. D. 1901, in the 73d 
yearofhisage. IDs (ptve is still seen in 
Soroe, then a convent m Zealand. 

Absezttke; a word in modem times 
particulariy applied to those land-ownen 



Digitized byC^OOQlC 



}8 



ABSENTEE— ABYSSINIA. 



and churchmen of Ireland who reside in 
England, or in foreign countries. In 
1715, a tax of 4 fihillings in the poutid 
was levied on all profits^ fees, pensions, 
&c., derived from Ireland, in aU cases 
where the persons receiving them should 
not reside in that country for mx months 
in the year ; power to grant leave of ab- 
sence being reserved to the crown. In 
1753, the tax ceased. 

Absolution. In the ancient Chris- 
tian church, absolution was a judicial act, 
by which the priest, in the name of the 
conmiunitv, invoking the fiivor of God, 
announced to the penitent his remission 
from ecclesiastical punishment, and re- 
admission into the bosom of the church. 
Private absolution having become preva- 
lent for four centuries, through priests 
acting in the place of the bishop, the 
opinion was spread among the people, 
that they had the power of absolvmg, by 
their own authority, and without the 
consent of the church. But down to the 
12th century, they used only the formula, 
♦* may God or Christ absolve thee ;" which 
is still the fonn in the Greek church, 
and, in the Romish, makes a part of the 
ceremony. The council of Trent, sess. 
xiv. cap. 3., declares the essence of the 
sacrament of penahce to lie in the words 
of absolution. Among Protestants, abso- 
lution is chiefly used, for a sentence, by 
which a person, who stands excommuni- 
cated, is released from that punishment 
The formula of absolution in tlie Romish 
church has been said to be absolute, in 
the Greek church, deprecatory, and in 
the Protestant churches, declarative ; but 
this is a matter strongly contested be- 
tween Protestants and Romanists. The 
fathers of the church and the best modem 
theologians are unanimous in the belief, 
that €^ alone can fornve and deliver 
from sin ; that a judicial power over the 
souls of Christians is conferred neither 
on priests nor teaciiere. 

Abstraction; an operation of the 
mind, by which we detach from our con- 
ceptions all those circumstances that ren- 
der them particular, and thereby lit them 
to denote a whole rank or class of be- 
ings. 

Abulfeda; known by the name of 
Ismael, prince of Hamah, in Syria, sur- 
named the viet&rious kingf and the pUlar 
of rd^jgwn. This Arabian, ftmous as a 
historian and geographer, was bom at 
Damascus, in ttie year of the Hegira672, 
A. D. 1973. He sprunff from the fiunily 
of the Ayubites, which had already given 
birth to the famous Saladin, and was re- 



nowned for the valor of its members. 
While a youth, he distinguished himself 
in various campaigns. From his uncle 
he inherited the principality of Hamah ; 
but, on account of a quarrel with his 
brotlier, he did not come into possession 
of it for several years ; after which he 
remained undismrbed therein till hivS 
death, in the year of the Hegira 7ri2, 
A. D. 1333. All writers w'ho mention 1 1 \m 
represent him as a prince of the greatest 
talents, equally remarkable for courage 
and coolness in war, and for wisdom in 
council. Amid the cares of govemment, 
he devoted himself with zeal to study, 
drew the learned around him, and ren- 
dered his power and wealth subservient 
to the cause of science. He was well 
acquainted with liistory, jurispmdence, 
medicine, botany, mathematics and as- 
tronomy, and has bequeatlied to us the 
fruits of his long inquiries in several valu- 
able works, of which his history of the hu- 
man race, and his geogrophy, entitled, Tht 
trv^ Situation of Cotmtnes, are the most 
famous. We have several partial transla- 
tions and editions of them, viz. of tlie his- 
torical works, 1. Jhmales Moslemtci Jkah. 
et Lot. Op. et Stud, Rtiskii, 1789—94, 5 vols. 
2. De Vita et Rebus gestis Mohammedia^ eX 
GagmcTj 1723, to which Schullens has 
annexed an appendix. For portions of liis 
geography, we are indebted to Gnevius, 
Keiske, Muratori, Michaelis, Rink, Eich- 
Iiom, RosenmiUler, Paulus and Ronmiol. 
Abulfcda^s own manuscript is at Paris. 
He is a tmstworthy author, and his style 
is good. 

Abtdos ; an ancient city of Asia, on 
the eastern side of the Dardanelles, fa- 
mous for the bridge of boats, which Xerx- 
es is related to have thrown here across 
the Hellespont, and for the loves of Hero 
and Leander. This city defended itself 
with great courage against Phihp of Ma- 
cedon. Another Abydos was an ancient 
town of Upper Egypt, which contained 
the p&lacc or Menuion, and the celebrated 
temple of Osiris, built by Osymandes. 
Under Augustus, the town was reduced 
to mins, but to the west of it, in the pres- 
ent village of El-Berbi, magnificent ruins 
are still found. 

Abtla ; a mountain in Africa, one of the 
pillais of Hercules, as they were anciently 
called ; being directly opposite to CaJpe, 
(now Gibraltar,^ in Spain, from which it is 
distant only 18 miles. Between these 
mountains are the straits of Gibraltar. 

Abyssinia; an extensive kingdom of 
Africa, bounded on the east by the Red 
sea, on the north by Sennaar, on the west 



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ABYSSINIA. 



19 



and Boath partly by Sennaar and Kordo- 
fim, flid pardy by vast and baibardUs re- 
§^o08y of ^wbich the names haye scarcely 
reached JUS. I^inkerton makes Abyssinia 
770 miles in len^, and 550 in breadth. 
The number of mhabitants is from '•! to 5 
millions, the greater part of whom are of 
Arabian extniction» mixed with Jews, 
Tiuks and Negroes. The ancients caDed 
tliis country, and some of the ports adja- 
cent, in a peculiar sense, Ethiopia. They 
also gave the same name, indefinitely, to 
the interior of AiHca, and even to a great 
pait of Asia. The Ekhiopian kinedoms, 
of which the ancients had any distinct 
knowledge, were two. The first, and the 
only one known to the eariiest writers, is 
Meioe, or the Peninsula, which they sup- 
posed to be an island, fonned by the suc- 
cessive union of the Nile with the Asta- 
boras and the Astapus, (Blue River and 
Tacazze.) The chief city of Meroe was 
placed b(r them on the Nile, in lat 16^ 
26*; and Bruce saw nearChendi, in Sen- 
naar, immense ruins, which probably be- 
longed to this ancient capital The other 
kingdom was not known until the Greeks, 
under the successors of Alexander, had 
extended their navigation along the east- 
em coast of Afi-ica. It was mat of the 
Axumitae, situated upon the Red sea, and 
occupying part of the Abyssinian prov- 
ince of Tiffr^. The capital, Axum, still 
nemains, though in a state of decay. Its 
poit, Adulis, was the channel by which 
the finest ivory then known was export- 
ed, and a commercial intercourse main- 
tained with the coasts both of the Red 
sea and the Indian ocean. — ^The Abyssin- 
ians boast that their country was the 
Shebaof Scripture, and that it was con- 
verted to Judaism several centuries be- 
fore the Christian era. It is much more 
certain, that, prior to the middle of the 
fourth century, the nation was convert^ 
to Chiistiani^, which it has ever since 
professed. This is, however, more tinc- 
tured with Judaism than among other na- 
tions. Boys and girls are circumcised; 
the Mosaic laws in regard to clean and 
unclean meats are respected ; the seventh 
day is their Sabbath, and their altars have 
the form of the ark of the covenant In 
their dogmas they follow the Monophy- 
sitic doctrine. (See Monophyaiies,) In 
the church service they use the Bible, 
with the apocryphal books, in the Tjgr6 
or Gheez language, which is their lan- 
guage of hterature. Baptism and the 
eucharist are administered according to 
the ritual of the Greek church, of which 
they have all the festivals and fests. It 



is, however, peculiar to the AbyHwninns, 
that persons of rank receive larger pieces 
of bread at the Lord's supper, and that 
no one is admitted to it Defers his 25th 
year, because they pretend that no one is 
aecountable fer sin befere that age, and 
that all who die prior to it are sure of sal* 
vation. They consider the bodies of the 
dead as unclean, and hasten their in- 
terment. Their small, round, conioal 
churches stand on hills, near running 
water, surrounded by cedars, and are fiill 
of pictures. During the service every 
body is obliged to stand, as in the Greek 
churches. The shoes are left at the door, 
and passing horsemen must dismount. 
The service, like that of the Greek church, 
consists in reading parts of the Bible and 
praying. The clergy, who are very igno- 
ran^t, generally inarry, and are distin- 
guished by a cross, which they o^r to 
passengers to be kjssed. The head of 
the Abyssinian church is called Abuna^ 
(our feuier,) and is generally taken from 
the Coptic priests, as the Abyssiniaus and 
the Copts keep up a cominunication witli 
each other in Cairo. Under the abuna 
are the kamosats, or the chief priests of 
the secular clergy, the learned theologi- 
ans and monks. Tlie latter pretend to 
be of the order of St Augustine, and are 
divided into two classes. The members 
of one, Uving unmarried, reside in weal- 
thy convents ; those of the others, with 
their wives and children, live around the 
churches, supported by agriculture. Both 
sorts, as well as the numerous nuns, travel 
about the country, trade in the markets, 
and do not appear scrupulously observant 
of their vow of chastity. The Abyssinian 
cler^ have neither a particular dress nor 
peculiar privileges. A. is now divided 
into three separate states, Tigr^, Amhara, 
and Efat The negnSy or naguah, as 
the king of all A. was called tefore its 
division, lives at Gondar, in Amhara, en- 
joying only a nominal sovereignty, and 
watched by the chief of that state. The 
pope has several times attempted to gain 
over A. An opportunity of reducing tlie 
Abyesinians to the Roman church was 
offered by their war with the Turks, in 
which the regent Helena sought assist- 
ance for David II., the minor negus, fix>m 
the Portuguese, in 1516. In 15^0, a Por- 
tuguese neet, with soldiers and priests, 
arrived in A., and after the Turks and 
Gallas (a warlike, mountain people, in the 
south and west of A^ had been repulsed, 
by the assistance of the Portuguese, to- 
wards the end of the 16di century, the 
zealous Catholics obtained a feoting, of 



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20 



ABYSSINIA— ACADEMY. 



which the pope knew how to take advan- 
tage. He sent Jesuits to convert the in- 
hwitantB to the Roman Catholic religion, 
and a Portuguese colony supported their 
enterprise. In the b^inning of the 17t}i 
century, the Roman Catholic ritual was 
introduced; tlie Jesuit Alphonso Mendez 
was elected patriarch of A., in 1626, the 
celebration of the 7th day as the Sahbath 
abolished, and the whole religious system 
accommodated to the Catholic model. 
But this favorable turn of af&iis was of 
short duration. The negus Basilidas be- 
^an his administration in 1632, by yield- 
mg to the wishes of the majority of the 
people, who were opposed to the Roman 
Catholic faith. He banished the monks 
with the patriarch, and ordered the Jes- 
uits who remained to be hanged. Almost 
all the Catholic missionaries have since 
suffered death, and all the attempts of the 
Roman propaganda to establish the Cath- 
olic faith in A., until the end of the last 
century, have proved fruitless. — In the 
western part of this coimtiy, an inde- 
pendent ffoyemment of Jews has long 
existed. They call themselves FalashaSy 
that is, eMUs ; the state is called Faias- 
Jan. They have their own government, 
which is allowed by the negus, on con- 
sideration of their paying a certain tribute. 
Bruce found there a Jewish king, Gideon, 
and a queen, Judith. — ^The customs of 
the Abyssinians are described by Bruce 
and Salt as exceedingly savage. They 
eat the raw and still quivering flesh of 
cattle, whose roaring is to be heard at 
their feasts. A perpetual state of civil 
war seems the main cause of their pecu- 
liar brutality and bari^arism. Dead bod- 
ies are seen l3ring in the streets, and serve 
as food to dogs and hyaenas. Marriage 
is there a very slight connexion, formed 
and dissolved at pleasure ; comugal fidel- 
it}- is but little regarded. The rulers 
are unhmited despots in ecclesiastical 
and civil affairs, disposing of the lives 
of their subjects at pleasure. — A. is full 
of hiffh ranges of mountains, in which 
tlie Nile takes its rise. The climate, on 
the whole, is fine, and the soil exceed- 
ingly fertile. The vegetable and animal 
kingdoms are very rich, and afford many 
species peculiar to this countiy. One of 
the most important natural productions of 
A. is salt, covering a great plain, which oc- 
cupies pHEUt of the tract between Amphila 
and Massuah. The plain of salt isalK)ut 
four days' journey across. For about half 
a mile the sak is sofl, but afterwards be- 
comes hard, like snow which has been 
partially tliawed, and consolidated. It is 



perfectly pure : it is cut with an adze, and 
carried off by caravans. The country is 
rich in ^Id, iron, grain and fruits. Com- 
merce is in the hands of the Jewig, Arme- 
nians and Turics. 

Acacia, Egyptian Hiant, or Bindihg 
Bean-treej in the Linnasan system, a spe- 
cies of ndmosa. The flowers of this plant 
are used, by the Chinese^ to produce that 
yellow color, which we see in their silks 
and stuf&. They make a decoction of the 
dried flowers, and add alum and calcined 
oyster-shells. In the materia medica, aca- 
cia is the inspissated juice of the unripe 
pods of the mimosa ndotiea of Linnieus. 

AcADEBTT ; an association of scholars 
or artists, for the promotion of the sci- 
ences or arts, sometimes established by 
government, sometimes voluntary uni- 
ons of private individuals. The acade- 
mies at Paris, Stockholm and Berlin, are 
in part institutions for the purpose of in- 
struction; but at first their only object 
was tiie one above-mentioned. The mem- 
bers of an academy either select their own 
branches of study, or pursue those which 
the government assigns to them. The 
results of their labors are read in the reg- 
ular meetings, and printed among their 
proceedings. The name is derived finom 
the Athenian academy, belonging to a 
certain Academus, a famous school for 
^mnastic exercises, and the place where 
rlato taught The appellation accutemy 
is also us(^ to denote tne various philo- 
sophical sects, whose doctrines were 
taught in that institution. In this sense 
we speak of the fifist, second and third 
academies ; the founders of which were 
Plato, Arcesilaus and' Lacydas or Car- 
neades. The first institution of antiquity, 
which merits the name of academy, in the 
modem sense of the term, was at Alexan- 
dria. Attracted by the generosity of the 
Ptolemies, a numerous association of 
scholars was collected here, who were to 
have labored for the extension and per- 
fection of human knowledge, but soon 
fell into idleness, or the exercise of gram- 
matical subdeties. From Alexandria the 
Jews borrowed the custom of founding 
academies, which were established, after 
the close of Uie first century, in the cities 
on the Euphrates, Sora, Neharda and 
Punebedita. From them tlie Nestorians 
learned, in the sixth centuiy, to value 
science, and imparted the same spirit to 
the Arabs, whose excellent caliphs, Al- 
mansor, Harun al Raschid and Aunamun, 
founded a number of academies, which 
were extended from Cordova to Bochara 
in the ferthest east, with the greatest suc- 



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ACADEMY. 



21 



At the couztytoo, of Chariemagne, 
we find an academy, founded by the em- 
peror, at the suggestion of his uistnicter 
Alcudn, of which he was himself a mem- 
ber. This useful institution was dissolved 
after the death of Alcuin, and we after- 
wBids find no academies^ properly so 
caDed, till the time of the conquest of 
Constantinople by the Turks, when sev- 
cnral Grecian scholars were compelled to 
% to Italy. Lorenzo de' Medici then 
founded, at Florence, the finst Grecian 
academy, under the care of Arsyropylus, 
Theodore Gaza, and Chalcondyua Cos- 
mo aAerwards established the Platonic 
academy, the object of which was the 
soidy of the writing of Plato, and the 
restcHTBtion of his philosoph]^. These es- 
tabhshmentB did not subsist long, but 
their places were filled by others of a 
more general character^ which spread 
themseTves over afi the cities of Europe. 
We wiU arrange the most Important older 
ones, that still exist, according to the sub- 
jects to which they are devotM. 

GentralteienMiacademiea. The Aeadt- 
una Seertiorum Mthura^ founded at Naples 
in 1560, for the promotion of the mathe- 
matical and physical sciences, was abol- 
ished by the papal interdict. ^ It was fol- 
lowed 1^ the Jkcademia dei Lmeeiy found- 
ed at Rome, by prince Cesi, about the 
end of the same century ; of ifdiich Gali-i 
lei was a member. The Axademia dd 
Cwiciito arose in the beginning of the 17th 
centunr, under the patronace of prince 
Leopold, afterwards cardinal de' Medici, 
and numbered among its members Paolo 
di Buono, Borelli, Viviani, Redi, Magalotti 
and other distiny iished men. The«/fceck 
dtmia dt^ hqmeH, at Bologna, afterwards 
incofporated with the Jkcademia ddia 
Tracaoj published several excellent trea- 
tises under the tide Penneri Fitko-MaU- 
wudicij 1667. In 1714, it was united with 
the Institute at Bologna, and has since been 
called the Academy ^ tht bUtibiUyW ibi^ 
CUmentint Academy^ (firom Clement XI.V 
It possesses a large collection of natural 
curioaties and a numerous libtaiy. The 
Academy ofSciences at Bolo^a, or the In- 
stitute of Bologna, was established in 1712, 
t^countMars^H. (See BoJogno.) In 1540, 
an academy was establish^ at Rossano, 
in the territory of Naples, under the name 
So^dtL ScUnbfiea Rossaneiue dtff tncwi- 
est, at first for the belles lettres, but since 
1695 for the sciences also. The Royal 
Academy at Na|^ has existed since 
1779. hs publiciaions contain some in- 
fitnietive onquisitioDs on mathematical 
subjects. Of the Italian academies, wo 



would also mention those at Turin, Padua, 
Milan, Sienna, Verona, Genoa, all of 
which have publiriied their transactions. 
Italy may be called the modier of academ- 
ic institutions. Jarekiua enumerates 550 of 
them in his catalogue. — ^The French Acad- 
emy of Sciences at Paris, Acadhmit Royale 
dt8 ScwYices, founded in 16^byColMrt, 
received the royal ratification in If^. 
The members were divided into four 
classes — ^hrniorary members, active mttn- 
ben or pensionaries (receiving salaries), 
a89ocUs and &ive8. The first class was 
to contain ten, and each of the three oth- 
ers twenty persons. The president viras 
appointed by the king out of the first 
claiaB. From the secoira, a secretaiy and 
treasurer were selected. The duke of 
Orieans, when regent, abohshed the class 
of iUnt»^ and substituted for it two new 
classes, the one of which comprised 
twelve adjuncts, and the other, six omo- 
tih ; to vioiich latter class no particular 
branch of science was asa^ned. A vice- 
president was to be appomted annually 
hj the kinff fit)m the first class, and a 
director and sob-director fit)m the second. 
In 1785, the king added dasses for natu- 
ral history, agriculture, mineralogy and 
physics ; so twt the whole now consisted 
of eight classes. He also incorporated the 
OMoct^ and the adjuncts foiffotntff). lliia 
academy has rendered many services to 
science, especially by the measurement 
of a degree of the meridian. Since 1699, 
it has, wiA a few late exceptions, annu- 
ally published a volume of its transactions,, 
which constitute a series of 199 volumes. 
Rouille de Meday founded two prises, 
which the academj annually distributed ; 
the first, of 2500 livres, for me i»omotion 
of physical astronomy ; the second, of 
2000 hvres, for that of navigation and com- 
merce. In 1793, the academy was abol- 
idied ; and the National Institute took its 
place, and that of the other academies ; but 
they were restored by Louis XVni. Im- 
portant academiefl|, besides those of Paris, 
still exist in the piincipal cities of France, 
e. g. at Caen, ance 1705; at Toulouse, 
the first vdume of whose transactions 
appeared in 1782; at Rouen, since 1736 ; 
at Bordeaux, since 1703; at Soissous, 
since 1674 ; at Marseilles, since 1726 ; at 
I^ons, since 1700 ; at Montauban, since 
1744; at Amiens, since 1750; at Dijon, 
since 1740 ; etc^^An Academy of Arts and 
Sciences was founded in Berlin in 1700, 
by king Frederic I ; some changes were 
made in 1710|j)rincipally relating to the 
presidency. The members were divided 
mto four classes; the fint were to devotr 



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ACADEMY. 



tbemaelveB to natufal phikMophy, medi- 
cine and chendistiy ;. the second to math-^ 
ematics, astronomy and mechanics; the 
third to the history and language of Ger- 
many; the fi)uith to oriental literature, 
with a view to the conyendon of the hea- 
then. Each class chooses a director for 
1^. The iirst president was the femous 
Leibnitz. Th6 mstitution began truly^ to 
flouricdi under Frederic II, who invited 
distinguished scholars from foreign coun- 
tries, and appointed Maupertuis president 
PohUc sessions were held semi-annually, 
on the birth-day of the king, and the an- 
mversaiy of his accession to the throne. 
In the latter, a prize medal of 50 ducats 
is adjudged to hun, who has best answer- 
ed the question proposed by the academy. 
Since that time, their transactions have 
appeared in a series of yolumes, und^r the 
title Mimovw de V Acadkmit BoyaU dei 
Seimoes et BtUea LeOnB ^ BtfUn. They 
are now, however, always published in 
the Gennan languajffe. New alterations 
were made in 179^ in order to give a 
more usefol direction to the labors of the 
academy : among other things, the royal 
libnuy and the cf3[>inet of arts were united 
with It— At Manheim, in 1755, the elec- 
tor, Charles Theodore, established an acad- 
emy, according to the plan of Sch6pflin. 
It consisted, at first, of two classes, the his- 
torical andph^cal ; the latter was divid- 
ed, in 1780, mto die physical, properly 
so called, and the meteorologicaL Hie 
transactions in the departments of history 
and physic have appeared under the tiUe 
Jlcta AcademuB Theoioro-Palaikm ; in the 
branch of meteorology, under the title 
]^hemeride$Soci€iaH$MeUoniogiea Paior 
fmcB.— The academy at Munich has existed 
since 1759, but vras much enlaived when 
Bavaria was exalted to a kiiutdom. Its 
memoirs are entided Mhanmungen der 
haienehenMademie, — ^Peter the Great had 
projected the establishment of the Imperi- 
al Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, 
and consulted Wolf and Leibnitz on the 
subject ; but his death prevented the execu- 
tion of his project, which was completed 
bv Catharine 1. Its first sitting vras held 
I>ec. 1725. The empress appropriated 
about 30,000 roubles a year for the sup- 
port of the academy; fifteen distinguished 
scholars in different departments received 
pensions as members, with the title of 
professors. The most fiunous of them 
vrere Nicholas and Daniel Bemouilli, the 
two de Lisles, Bulfinger and Wolf. Un- 
der Peter II, the academy languished; 
but revived under the empress Anna, and 
declined agun after her death. Under 



Elizabeth, it flouridied anew. It was en- 
larged and improved, and an academy of 
arts added in 1747, which was separated 
again in 1764. Its annual inc^Hne amounts 
to 60,000 roubles. This academy has con- 
tributed much to a more accurate knowl- 
edge of the interior of Russia, by sending 
men like Pallas, Gmelin, Stolberg, Gul- 
denstadt and Klaproth, to travel through 
single provinces, and has thereby ^ven 
rise to some excellent works. The num- 
ber of active members, besides the presi- 
dent and director, amounts to fifteen. In 
addition to these, there are four eujftmcte, 
who attend the sitting and are admitted, 
on the first vacancies, to the rank of 
members. The academy has an excellent 
collection of bodes and manuscripts^ a 
valuable cabinet of medals, and a nch 
collection in natural history. Its transac* 
tions appeared fiom 1726 to 1747, during 
which period they amount to 14 volumes, 
under the title CommenUarvi Acadenda 
ScUniUt bmmaU$ PetropoUUmiB. From 
that time nil 1777, they were published 
under the title Abot GMmneiiiarn, in 20 
volumes. Thev virere subsequently enti- 
tled Acta AeatkmuBy and at present the 
new series is called JVbtNs mcUl The 
eommefdoarii are all in Latin; the acta 
are partly in Latui, partly in French. — 
The Ko^nal Academy of Sciences at Stock- 
holm originated in a private association 
of SIX learned men, among whom was 
Linnaeus, and held its first session June 
UQf 1739. In the same year appeared its 
first memoirs. The association soon 
attracted public attention, and, March 31, 
1741, the king conferred on it the name 
of the Royal Academy of Sweden. It 
receives, however, no pension fit>m the 
crown, and is conducted by its own mem- 
bers. A professor of experimental phi- 
losoi^v only, and two secretaries, are paid 
finom the fiuids of the society, which ara 
consSderable, arising firom legacies and 
donations. The presidency is held 
in turn by the members residing at 
Stockholm, each one remaining in office 
three months. The treatises read in the 
sittings appear quarterly. The first forty 
volumes, till 1779, are called the Old 
Transactions; the subsequent volumes 
are called the New* The papers relating 
to agriculture appear under the title 
OSconomtca Acta. Prizes consisting of 
money and gold medals are annually 
offered.— The Royai Academy at Co- 
en sprang fiom a society of six 
men, to whom Christian Vl oom- 
in 174^2, the care of his cabiiMt of 
medals. They subsequently enlarged 



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ACADEMY. 



their pbn, so as to form « regular acade- 
my. One of these Ikeraiy men was the 
count of Hobtein, at ^oae suggestion 
Cfarindan YI took the academy under his 
nroliection in 1743, endowed it with a 
mad, and directed the memben to extend 
their studies to natural histoiy, physics, 
and mathematics. It has publisned fif- 
teen volumes, in the Danish language: 
some of these have been translated into 
Latin^-The Royal Irish Academy at 
Dublin was formed, in 1782, mosdy of the 
memben of the university, who aasem- 
Ued weeidy. Its transactions have ap- 
peared regularly since 1788. As early as 
1683, there was an academy in Dublin, 
bat, owing to the distractedTstate of the 
coioxtiy, it soon declmed. In 1740, a 
Phyaco-Historical SocieQr was instituted 
there, which pubtished two volumes of 
tnoeactiona, still extant This aiso soon 
declined^ — ^In. Lisbon, the kte queen 
waWished an academy of science, agn- 
euhure, arts, commerce and economy in 
genera], consisting of three classes'; those 
of namral science, mathematics and 
national literature, and commising axtv 
membenL It has published Jlfemoricw ae 
Letterakara Prnfu^iezoj Mmcrias JSccmo- 
miau, together with scientific transactions 
and a CoUecfao dt lAvroa inedUos dt Htato- 
na Pcrtuf^UitztL 

Academiufar thtpromoiion o/jparticukar 
djmtrtmenii wscience. — 1. MemcaL The 
Aeademia ^Imra Curio8<nrum^ at Vien- 
na, called also Leopold's Academy, was 
Ibimed in 1652. At first, it published its 
treatises sepantely, but after 1684, in vol- 
umes. Under Leopold I, who fiivored it 
in a hi^ denee, it adopted the name 
CktanO'LetmSidina Nlatwra Curiosorum 
Aeadtmia, Similar academies were es- 
tabfiafaed at Palermo, 1645, in Spain, 1652, 
at Venice, 1701, and at Geneva, 1715.— 2. 
SmrgUxd. A surgical academy was estab- 
fished at Paris, 1731, which proposes 
annually a prize Question. The prize is 
a gold medal of the value of 500 livres. 
A surgical academy was founded at 
Vienna in 1783. Tnree prize medals, 
each of the value of 50 guildera, are 
yearly adjudged to the most successful 
stodents^—S. An academy of tfceoiogy 
was established, in 1687, at Bologna.--4. 
Corooelli (bunded, in the becinningof the 
18th ceaturv, a gti^praphkat academy at 
Venice, under the tide of the Argonauts : 
the ob|ect is to puUish good maps and 
deaeriptiens of countries^--^ Mknieal. 
Kmg John V founded, in 17120, a royal 
acaMoy of Poituf^eee history at Lisbon, 
1^ — ^£ ^ director, four censon, a 



secretary, and fifty members: the subjeet 
of their study is the ecclesiaBtical and 
political history of PortugAL In Madrid^ 
an association of scholars was instimted 
about 1730, for the purpose of investiga- 
ting and explaining the histcmcal monu- 
ments of dpain. ft was formed into an 
academy ^ king Philip V, in 1738. It 
consists of 24 members, and has pubfished 
several ancient hkatorical woriss ; some for 
the first time, some in new editiomk The 
Academv of Suahian History, at T(ibingeu« 
was established for the purpose of pub- 
lishing the best historical woiIdb, ana the 
lives of the best historians, as well as for 
cbmiHlui^ new memoirs.— 6. For the 
study otanUjuHiea, An academy exists 
at Cortona, m Italy, for the study of 
Etrurian antiquities ; another at Upsal, in 
Sweden, for the elucidation of the nonh- 
em languajree^ md the antiquities of 
Swed^L Both have published valuable 
works. The academy which Paul 11 
estabhshed in Rome, for the same pur- 
pose, soon came to an end, and the one 
founded by Leo X met with the same 
fate, after it had fiourished some time. 
Othera, less important, rose on their ruins. 
But all similar mstitutions were surpassed 
by the Acadhnit des A»crtp<UMW, at Paris, 
founded by Colbert, in 1663, for the 
study of ancient monuments, uid for the 
perpetuation of the remaikable occurren- 
ces of their own country, l^ means of 
medals, statues, inscriptions, &c. At first, 
it had but four members, who were 
chosen fiom those of the French acade- 
my ; but in 1701, the number was fixed 
at ten honoraiy memben, ten asMcUs^ten 
ptnaUmaxrta^ and ten ^Ihea, They met 
semi-weekly in the Louvi-e, and held 
eveiy year two public sessions. The 
class of Hints was finally abolished. The 
king annually appointed their president 
and vice-president The secretary and 
treasurer held their offices for lifo. Their 
memoirs (fiom 1701 — ^93) constitute 50 
volumes, in 4to. It experienced the late 
of all the French academies, and is now 
restored. The Herculaneon Academy was 
instituted at Naples, in 1755^ by the min- 
ister Tanucci, to explain the ancient 
monuments found in Hereulaneum, Pom- 
peii, &C. Their labors have appeared, 
since 1775, under the title AnMMi di 
EreoUmo, In 1807, Joseph Buonaparte 
founded an academy of history and anti- 
quities at Naplea, which has ftUen into 
decay. The academy founded in the 
same year at Fl^Mence, for the endinatKNi 
of Tuscan antiquities, has puUisbed some 
vohunes of memoirs. In the same year, 



94 



ACADEMY. 



likewifle, a Celtic academy was establi^- 
ed at Paris, the objects of which were the 
elucidatioD of the histoiy, manners, anti- 
quities and monuments of the Celts, espe- 
ciaUy those in France ; also, researches 
into the etymolo^ of all European lan- 
guages by ^e aid of the Celto-Bretoii, 
Webh and Erse dialects ; togetlier with 
investigations respecting the Druidical 
worship. Lenoir is its president Its 
transactions appear under the title M^- 
mairea dt V AeadUmie CeZftgue.— 7. For the 
improvement of language. The Accadt- 
miad^ Crttsca^ or Academda Fur/urato- 
runt, was formed in 1582, and first attracted 
attention by its attacks on Tasso. Its 
principal merit consists in having compil- 
ed an excellent dictionary, and edited 
with care several of the ancient poets of 
Italy. The Jicadimie Fnm^aist^ ibnned 
in 1629, was then a private association ; 
six years after, it vras raised by Richelieu 
to the dignity of an academy of the 
French Umgiujre, grammar, poetry and 
eloquence. 'Ae number of members 
was ibced at 40, and from them a director 
and a chancellor were elected every two 
months, and a secretary for life. Besides 
many other valuable works, it has pub- 
lished a dictionary of the French lan- 
rlfe, (first edition in 1694.| At Madrid, 
duke of Escalona founaed an acade- 
my for the improvement of the Si>anish 
language, in 1714, which the king en- 
dowed with various privileges. It has done 
much towards purifying and perfecting 
the language, especially by the compila- 
tion of a mctionary. In Petersburg, an 
academy for the improvement of the 
Russian language was founded hi 1783, 
and united witli the academy of sciences. 
In Sweden, also, a royal academy of lan- 
guage was instituted m 1789. — Many lit- 
erary societies are distinguished only by 
name from academies. Such are tlic 
Royal Society of Sdences, at Gottingen, 
founded in 1750 ; the Royal Society of 
England, founded in 1645. This society 
has made observations and experiments 
on most of the works of nature ; has im- 
proved agriculture, navigation, naval, 
civil and military architecture, &c. It 
has registered experiments, observations, 
&c., and, fiiom time to time, published the 
most valuable, under the title of Philo- 
sophical Transactions. The Royal Soci- 
ety of Dublin, for the encouragement of 
husbandly and the arts, established in 
1731, has been one of the most active 
establishments of the kind in Europe. 
The Royal Society of Edmbuigh was 
esubliahed in 1783 Besides these, there 



are the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
1751 ; the Liteiary and Philosophical So- 
ciety of Manchester, 1781 ; the literary 
associations of Haarlem, Flushing, Rot- 
terdam, Brussels, Amsterdam, Copenha- 
gen, Upsal, &c. ■ From Europe they have 
spread to the other quarters of the globe. 
In Asia there has been a society of* arts 
and sciences, at Batovia, since 1778; a 
society of sciences at Calcutta, in Bengal, 
since 1784 ; and one at Bombay, to which 
we are indebted for the most important 
information respecting India and other 
parts of the East Tlie principal learned 
academies and societies in the U. S. of 
America, are the following: 1. The 
American Philosophical Society, Phila- 
delphia, founded m 1769. This society 
has published nine volumes, 4to., of 
Transactions. In 1815, it appointed a 
large committee to superintend a histori- 
cal department, whicn has published one 
vol. 8vo. 2. The Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society, Boston, founded in 1791. It 
hasprinted 22 vols., 8vo., of CoUections. 

3. Tne Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, New Haven, founded in 1799, 
haspublished one vol. of Transactions. 

4. The American Academv of Arts and 
Sciences, Boston, founded in 1780, has 
published four vols., 4to., of Transactions. 

5. The Historical Society of New York, 
founded m 1809, has published four vols., 
8vo., of Collections. 6. The Literaiy and 
Philosophical Society of New York, 
founded in 1815, has published two vols., 
4to., of Transactions. 7. The Academy 
of Natural Science, Philadelphia, found- 
ed in 1818, has published &ve vols., 8vo. 
8. The Lycsum of Natural History, New 
Yoris, founded in 1818, has published two 
vols., 8vo. There are, beades, the Histori- 
cal Society of Concord, New Hampshire, 
the Essex Historical Society, Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, the Columbian Institute, at 
Washington, IX C, and some others; 
but their publications have been few. 

Aciulenues devoted to the mromotion of 
fAe Jme aHs sprunffup in tne middle of 
the 16th century. The academy of Paris 
has been a model for many subsequent 
institutions of a similar character. The 
earliest union of painters, for objects sim- 
ilar to those of modem academies of art, 
was the fraternity, formed at Venice, in 
1345, under the name of San Lucoj which 
sprung fifom a society under the pat- 
ronage of St. Sophia. However, neither 
this nor the society of San Luea, estab- 
lished at Florence, in 1950, bore the name 
of an academy. The Accademia di San 
IjucOf founded at Rome, in 1993, by FnL 



a^^ 



AC ADEMl — AC AFULCO. 



25 



Zucchero, first obtained a settled charac- 
ter Id 1715. The academy at Milan niay 
have preceded the time of Leonardo da 
Vinci, who is generally regarded a6 its 
ibwider. .The academies of Bolocna, 
Panna, Padua, Mantua, Turin, are all of 
recent origin, and have never obtained 
the importance which such institutions 
acquire in large capitals, where the finest 
works of art serve as guides and incen- 
tives to genius. The Academy of Painting 
at Fans was established by Louis XI V, 
in 1648, and the Academy of Architecture 
by Colbert, in 1671. This latter now exists 
under the name of ieok SJi>iciaU de$ Beaux 
JrtSf and is divided into departments, 
In a way which mi^ht serve as a model, 
^aoe 1391, the pamters of Paris have 
been united in a society called the Fra- 
ternity of St Luke, which has received 
charters firom several kings. Among the 
Towns of France, Bordeaux liad the ear- 
liest academy. We now find one in al- 
most eveiy town of consequence. The 
French academy at Rome, in the Villa 
Medici, is a branch of the academy of 
Paris. Nuremberg had the first estab- 
lishment of this und in Germany. Its 
academy, founded by Sandrart, 1662, and 
long conducted by him, ^ned new dis^ 
tinction fit>m the celebnty of Preissler. 
The academy of Beriin was founded in 
1G94, was remodelled and received a 
fresh impulse in 1786 ; that of Dresden, 
estabfished in 1697, was united wltli those 
of Leipzig and Meissen, in 1764, and has 
ttill the form given it by Hagedom. The 
u^emy of Vienna was founded by Jo- 
seph I, and completed by Charles VI, in 
1726; that of Munich was established 
in 1770 ; those of Maseldorf and Man- 
heim are more valuable now than tliey 
were originally. Weimar, Cassel, Frank- 
fort, Beni, ^ould not be omitted in this 
miimeralion. The Academy of Painting 
at Madrid had its orijpn in 1752; the 
Royal Academy of Painting at London, in 
17G3. Lately, a branch of the London 
academy lias been establislied at Rome, 
which, we have reason to hope, will prove 
more useful than the parent society. Ed- 
inburgh has possessed a similar society 
fdnce 1754. At Brussels', Amsterdam, 
Antwerp, there are distinguished acade- 
mies. Stockholm has had, since 1733, 
an academy of tlie fine ans, founded by 
<u>unt Tcssin. Since 1738, one has cx- 
isied at Copenhagen, but its privileges 
were conferred on it in 1754. This acad- 
emy has exercised an important influence. 
The academy of Petenbur^ was found- 
ed m 1757, and extended m 1764. Its 

TOL. I. 3 



influence in awakening diligence and en- 
terprise among the Rusnan artists has 
been lately very apparent— For schools 
of music, see Conservaiiify. 

AcAnsMY. (See Plato.) 

AcAnix, the Enfflish, and Acadie, the 
French spellinff of the Indian name of 
Nova Scotia. ShubenHicadie is the pres- 
ent name of the principal river of Nova 
Scotia; shuben, in -^ the Indian didect of 
tlie country, signifymg rwer. (See Abva 
Scotia.) 

Ac AHTBus ; the name ofan ancient town 
in l^Sfpty also of one in Caria, and an- 
other in Macedonia (near mount A^os), 
&^c. — ^Also, a genus of plants (commonly 
caQed heat^s-mteeh], of the order angio- 
spemUOf class diifynomia. The leaves of 
the A. are large, and teiy beautifiiL It 
grows wild in Ital^. — ^In architecture, an 
ornament resembhng the leaves of the 
acanthus, used in the capitals of the Co- 
rinthian and Composite orders. 

AcAPULco is the best Mexican harbor 
on the Pacific ocean; Ion. 98^5(K W., 
lat 16^ 5(y N. ; pop. mosdy people of 
color. Both the harbor and the road- 
stead are deep, with a secure anchorage 
from storms. It is the most considerable 
port on the S. W. side of Mexico. Heav- 
ily-laden ships can he at anchor, close 
to the granite rocks, which environ the 
roadstead and harbor. On account 
of the steepness of these rocks, the coast 
has a wild and barren appearance. At 
the entrance of the harbor is situated an 
island, Roqueta or Qrifb, which forms a 
western entrance of 700 or 800 feet broad, 
and an eastern, a mile or a mile and a 
half broad, and fix>m 24 to 33 fathoms 
deep. On the north-west lies the city, 
defended by fort San Diego, situated on 
an eminence. It has not more than 4000 
inhabitants, mostly people of color. The 
number used to increase much on the 
arrival of the salleon from Manilla. Few 
commercialpbces have a more unhealthy 
situation. The usual heat in the day is 
from 86 to 90^ Fahrenheit ; in the night, 
till 3 o'clock, A. M., 78^ and €rom that 
lime till sunrise, 64 to 62^. The sun's 
rays are reflected by the white rocks up- 
on the city, where no creature is com- 
fortable, except the mnsquitoes. To pro- 
cure fiiQsh air, the Snanish government 
caused a passage to ne cut dirough the 
rocks on the cast ; but neglected, what 
was far more necessary, to drain and 
dike the morass, on the same mde, situ- 
ated most foYonblv for the culture of 
the sugar-cane. About the middle of the 
dry season, the water disappearB, and the 



ae 



ACAPULCO— ACCENT. 



effluvia of putrid substances infect the 
air. Here the yellow fever of the 
West Indiesj and the cholera moibus of 
the East Indies, sweep away many stran- 
gers, and especially young Europeans. 
Tlie calms, under the line, which ifre- 
quently continue for a long time, are a 
natural obstacle, which renders a voyage 
fit>m Callao to Acapulco more difficult, 
and ofien longer, than one from Callao 
to Cadiz. Steam-boats would be of great 
advantage in this quarter. In order to 
take advantage of the trade- winds, it is 
eq[)ecially necessary to keep at a distance 
from the line. This, however, is imprac- 
ticable on a coasting voyage from Aca- 
pulco to Callao. Tae exports hitherto 
from Acapulco have been mostly silver, 
indigo, cochineal, Spanish cloth, and some 
pelt^, which comes from California and 
the northern part of Mexico. The im- 
ports consist of all the valuable produc- 
tions of Asia. 

AcAKNANiA, now Called B Carma and 
MDeapotato; an ancient countrv of Epi- 
rus, divided from iEtolia by the Ache- 
lous. 

AcATHOLici are, in general, those who 
do not belong to the Catholic church. 
In certain Catholic countries, Protestants 
are distinguished by this name, which is 
considered less odious. 

AcBAR. (See Akbar.) 

Acceleration. (See Mechanics.) 

Accent ; the law which regulates the 
risinji^ and felling of sounds or tones. 
Music and langu<^ which are subject 
to this law, both originate in the feelings ; 
and, although they at last separate from 
each other, and miisic remains the lan- 
guage of the heart, while speech, or lan- 
guage, properly s6 called, becomes the 
language of the mind, yet the latter does 
not entirely cease to speak to the heart ; 
and music and language thus retain cer- 
tain qualities in common ; tliese are part- 
ly internal and partly external. Both are 
adapted to the expression of emotions ; 
and thence arise tlie movements, some- 
times slow and sometimes quick, which 
we jperceive in them. They thus become 
subject to quantity or time ; and we dis- 
tinguish sounds, witii reference to quan- 
tity, into long and short In order to ex- 
press an emotion distinctiy and plainly, 
there must be a suitable arrangement of 
the organs for the sounds intended to be 
produced ; for, in a series of sounds 
measured by the relation of time, and 
regulated also by relation to some flm- 
'iamental tone, there will be found a cer- 
liiin connexion and association, which 



represent the emotions in their variou 
relations and gradations ; it is this also, 
which distinguishes correctly what is of 

Srimary importance from what is secon- 
ary, renders the unimportant subordi- 
nate to the important, and gives proper 
weight to that which is significant A 
succession of tones thus becomes a mu- 
sical composition, which comprehends 
in itself a definite meaning or sense; 
and, to express this, pNurticular regard 
must be had to the signification and im- 
portance of single tones in connexion. 
The stress, which is laid on the tones, 
accordmg to the gradations of meaning, 
constitutes what we call aecerU. We dis- 
tinguish the acutCy or rising accent, the 
gr(n>ej or fidling, and the cirawjfiex. The 
circumflex accent fidls on those syllables 
or tones which are long in themselves; 
the grave properly denotes merely the 
absence of any stress ; and thus we have 
only the acute left, to give a deagnatiou 
to tones. The reasons for designating a 
tone by accent, and dwelling on it longer 
than its established quantity requires, are 
either mechanical, rhythmical, or emphat- 
ical. We divide accent into grammatical 
and rhetorical, or the accent of words and 
of sentences, which last is called emphor 
sis. The former rests on physical or me- 
chanical causes ; the latter has for its ob- 
ject the relations of ideas. The laws 
which govern both are briefly the fol- 
lowing: A syllable or tone of the natural 
length receives the grammatical or verbal 
accent ; but there are two causes^ which 
distinguish some syllables of a word fiiom 
the rest — ^their mechanical formation and 
their si^fication. In the word strength- 
en, for instance, mechanical causes com- 
pel the voice to dwell longer on the first 
syllable than on the second, and hence a 
greater stress is laid on that syllable. 
Rhetorical accent, or emphasis, is design- 
ed to give to a sentence distinctness and 
clearness. In a sentence, therefore, the 
stress is laid on the most important word, 
and in a word, on the most important 
syllable. Without attaching itself^ in 
language, to the quantity of a word, or, 
in music, to a certain part of a bar, the 
accentual force dwells on tlie important 

rt; and, in order that this force may 
rendered still more distinguishable, it 
hastens over those parts, which, though 
otherwise important, the context rendera 
comparatively unimportant It follows, 
from what has been said, that the accent 
of words and the accent of sentences, or 
emphasis, may be united or separated 
at pleasure. It may now be asked, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ACCENT—ACCESSARY. 



27 



wliedier empharis destroys verbal accent 
and qmotity ; and whether, for this rea- 
soBy euphony does not sufTer fit>m em- 
ph»8. In answering this question (in 
whicli lies the secret of prosody in gen- 
eral, and the dS^rence between the mod- 
em and ancient), four points come under 
conrideration : 1. If the accent coincides 
with a syllable which is Ions from me- 
chanical causes, It elevates the syllable, 
and imparts stress to its prosodial length. 
Z The accent does not render an invari- 
abh^ long syllable short, but deprives it, 
if It immediately fbUows the accented 
syflable, of a portion of its length. The 
quantity, thei^fore, if it does not coin- 
cide whh the accent, may be somewhat 
weakened by it 8. Although tiie accent 
cannot render an invariably long syUable 
abort, it can change the relative quantity 
ef common syBahles. 4. The accent can 
never fill on syllables invariably short 
These are the rules which are of the 
greatest importance, not only to the Vei«i- 
ler, bat also to the declaimer, and to the 
acfiOTy so far as he is a declaimer. 

Tbe grammatical and rhetorical nomen- 
clatore of the English tanguaffe is very 
defectrre and unsettled ; and hence has 
arisen a great degree of cbnilunon among 
all our writers on the subject of accent 
and qfoantity in E^gRsh. We have per- 
?erted the true meanmg ofkng and fAorf, 
as appfied to syUables or vowels ; aiid, by 
oar pecutiar application of those terms, 
we have made durSelves quite unintelH- 
nMe t6 ibreign nations, who still use 
mm according to their signification in 
the ancient languages, from which they 
are derived. An ESigliah writer of some 
cel eb rity (Foster, oh Accent and Quan- 
tity)» whose own woriL, however, is not 
free from olMcurity, observes^ that he has 
iband the word aceeni used by the same 
writer in fi>ur different senses— some- 
times exprMsing elevation, sometime? 
prolongation of sound, sometimes a stress 
of voice compounded of the other two. 
and soranetimes the artificial accentual 
mailc. For a long series of years, however, 
scecfil, as Johnson has remariced, in Eng- 
firii prosody, has been the same thin^ wim 
qnaniity ; and another English wnter of 
celebrity, bishop Horsley. ooserves, that it 
is a peculiarity of the English language 
that quandty and accent always go togeth- 
er, me longest syUable, in almost every 
woidL being that on which the accent Mis, 
In oOer languages, as M itford justly re- 
maiki (Essay on the Harmony of Lan- 
guage), generalhr, the vowel character, 
lepresenthig inm^rently a long or a riiort 



sound, still represents the M(m««otmd, long 
or short. A contrary method is pecidiar to 
English orthography. With us, the same 
vowel sound, long and short, is rarely rep- 
resented by the same character ; but, on 
the contrary, according to the general 
rules of our orthography, each duvacter 
represents the long sound of one vowel 
and the short sound of another. This is 
eminentlv observable, as Dr. Johnson has 
remarked, in the letter t, which likewise 
happens in other letters, that the short 
sound is not the long sound contracted, 
but a sound wholly different In addi- 
tion to the difficulties arising from 
an imperfect nomenclature, as above re- 
mariced, there is an intrinenc difficulty in 
the extreme dehcacy of the disdnctions 
of tone, pitch and inflections in language, 
and the want of an established nouttion, 
correspondmg to that which we have in 
music ; and, we may add, in the words of 
Hermann (DeEmendandaRationeGresc. 
Gram.), **Quam pauci vero sunt, qui 
vel aMqua polleant aurium subtilitate ut 
vocum discrimina celeriter notare apte- 
que exprimere posont.*" — ^The Chinese 
are said to have but 380 spoken words ; 
but these, being multiplied by the differ- 
ent accents or tones which afreet the vow- 
els, furnish a language tolerably copious. 

Acceptance. (Jjow.) An acceptance 
is an engagement to psy a bill of ex- 
change according to the teiior of the ac- 
ceptance, and a general acceptance is an 
engagement to pay according to the ten- 
or of the bill What constitutes an ac- 
ceptance is, in many cases, a nice ques- 
tion of law ; but the general nnode is for 
the acceptor to write his name on some 
conspicuous pait of the bill, accon^panied 
by the word accepted. In France, Spain, 
and the other countries of Europe, where 
oral evidence in matters of contract is not 
admitted to the same extent as in Eng- 
land, a veriMl acceptance of a Inll of ex- 
change is not valid. 

Accessary, or Accessory; a person 
guilty of an ofience by connivance or 
participation, either berore or after the 
act committed, as by conimand, advice, 
or concealment, &c. In high treason, all 
who participate are regarded as princi- 
pals. Abettors and accomplices also 
come, in some measure, under this name, 
though the former not stricdy under the 
legal definition of accessaries. An abet- 
tor is one who procures another to com- 
mit an ofience, and in many, indeed in 
almost all cases, is now conadered as 
much a principal as the actual offender. 
An accomplice is one of many persons 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 



ACCESSARY— ACCOMPANIMENT. 



equaUy concerned in a felony. Thename 
is g&aenily applied to those who are ad- 
mitted to give evidence aoainst their fel- 
low-crimiMs, for the fiutfaerance of jus- 
tice. 

AccLAMATioir {aeclam4Mtio); in Ro- 
man antiquity, a shoutinff of certain 
words by way of praise or dispraise. In 
ages when people were more accustomed 
to give full utterance to their feelings, ac- 
ckunation^ were very common^ wherever a 
mass of people was influenced b^ one com- 
mon feeling. We find, therefore, accla- 
mations in theatres, senates^ecclesiaBtical 
meetings, elections, at nuptials, triumphs, 
&c. 'Aie senate of Rome burst into con- 
tumelious acclamations after the death of 
Domitian and Commodus. The theatrical 
acclamations were connected with muac 
Nero, who was as fond of music as of 
blood, ordered 5000 soldiers to chant ac- 
clamations when he played in the thea- 
tre, and the spectators were obliged to 
join them. In the corrupt period of the 
Roman empire, the children and fiivor- 
ites of the eoaperors were received with 
loud acclamations, as the French empe- 
ror was greeted with Vvve P enpereur! 
and the French king is with Viae U roi! 
The Turtu have a custom somewhat sim- 
ilar, at the sight of their emperor and 
grand viziers. The form among the 
Jews was HMonna! The Greek em- 

Ers were received with -rfya^iy tuj^ij/ 
d luckl or other exclamations. Be- 
a regular system of voting is adopt- 
ed, we find its place supplied, among all 
nations, Ir^ acclamations. So Tacitus in- 
forms us that the Germans showed their 
api>robation of a measure by clashing 
their shields and swords. The bishops, in 
the eariy times of Christianity, were long 
elected by acclamation. In the course 
of time, acclamations were admitted into 
the churches, and the people expressed 
their approbation of a fiivorite preacher by 
exclaimmg. Orthodox ! T^hird aporiU ! &c. 
They seem to have been sometimes used 
as late as the age of St Bernard. The first 
German emperors were elected by accla- 
mation at a meeting of the people in the 
open air ; and the Indians, m North 
America, show their approbation or dis- 
approbation of proposed public measures 
by acclamations. 

AccoifAna, a word derived fiom bar- 
barous Latin, is composed of ad^ to, and 
cottum, neck, meaning, ori^nally, an em- 
brace. It signifies an ancient ceremony 
used in conferring knishthood. Anti- 
quaries are not agreed wherein the acco- 
lade consisted. Some think it signifies 



the enihniee or kiss^ given by the penlon 
who conferred the honor of^knigfathood. 
It is more probable that it consisted in an 
imitation of a blow on the neck, or on the 
cheek, signifying that this should be the 
last blow which the new-made knight 
should endure. The ceremony of stri- 
king the candidate with the naked sword, 
which afterwards took the place of the 
blow with the hand, had the same mean^ 
ing. The Roman master also gave a 
blow to his slave, at the time of his eman- 
cipation, which, therefore, was called 
mawaM99wn; andin those parts of Ger- 
manv where the ancient corporations of 
mechanics still continue, the apprentice 
receives a blow fix)m the oldest journey- 
man, when his apprenticeship is at an 
end. The blow or stroke was in use 
among aU Christian nations of the middle 
ages in conferring kni^thood. (See 
CnMMilry.) 

Accommodation \ properiy, the adap- 
tation of one thing to another; in philos- 
ophy, the application of one thing by 
analogy to another.- It is also used in the- 
ology ; thus, a fHnophecy of Scripture is 
said to be fulfilled improperly, or oy way 
of accommodation when an event hap- 
pens to any place or people similar to that 
predicted otanother. Some theologians 
also say that Christ said many things to 
his disciples by way of accommodraon, 
viz. entering into their views, and telling 
them only what they were capable of un- 
derstanding. Others think this theory in- 
consistent with the purity of Christ. A., 
in law, is used fer an amicable agreement 
or composition between two contending 
parties. Tlieae accommodations are fire- 
quentlv efiected by means of compromise 
and arbitration. 

AcGOMPANiMEifT, ui music, (French, 
occompogpnement ; Italian, accompagna-^ 
ffienio,) is that part of music which serves 
for the support of the principal melody 
(solo or obiigato part). This caui be exe- 
cuted either by many instruments, by a 
few, or even by a single one. We have, 
therefore, pieces of music with an accom- 
paniment for several, or only for a single 
instrument The principles on which 
the efiect of the accompamment rests are 
so litde settled, that its compoation is 
perluqps more difficult than even that of 
the melody, or principal part Frequent- 
ly, the same musical thought, according 
to the character of the accompaniment, 
produces a good or bad effect, without 
our being ame to give a satisfectory rea- 
son for the difference. Ifitherto, the 
Italians have been most distinguished for 



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ACCOMPANMENT— ACCUSATION. 



29 



ex piCBBiyc accompaniments' contained in 
a few notes, but producti^^ of ^at effect. 
In this respect, the Italian music general- 
ly ampeases the German and Frencli, as 
it nerer weakens the effect of the prin- 
dpal pan by means of the accompani- 
ment. Tlie French are fiur behind both 
the other nations, in respect to this part 
of compoeition, as they frequently esti- 
mate the effect by the quamity of notes. 
Tlie aeoompaniment requires of the per- 
former the most scrtipulous study, and of 
the compoeer the greatest care and deli- 
cacy. The accompaniment of various 
solo instnimentB, e. g. the violin, flute, 
pianoy &c is extremely difficult, and to 
give it full e^ct requires great knowl- 
edge and skiU. The Italian composers 
acconinig^ consider a piano accompani- 
ment for a ffall orchestra, especially in the 
recitativo^ f q. y.) as a great problem, which 
A^ have labored zealously to solve. As 
the olqect of every musical accompani- 
ment is to ^ve efibct to the principal part, 
the accompanier should always aim to 
support, and by no means to oveipower 
and eppreas it Of all composers, Mozart, 
even m respect to the accompEuiiments, 
claims the first place for the simplicity 
and beauty with which he amalgiunates 
the leading and accompanying parts, 
thfoucfa his unrivalled knowledge and 
ezeelKfit management of the parts for 
every indmdual instrument 

Accoan. (Mus.) ' (See Concord.) 

Acco&n*, in common law, an agree- 
ment, between two or more persons, to 
give and accept satiafoction for an offence 
or t req)aaB committed, which becomes a 
bar to a snit 

AccoucH^MXKT f French); the deliv- 
eiy of a woman in cnild-bed. 

Accinry Frederic, a German, from the 
Pniaaian province of Westpiialia, went 
to London in the year 1803, where he 
defivered a course of lectures on chemis- 
tiT and experimental physics, the basis 
of which was the discoveries of Priest- 
ley and other English chemists. He form- 
ed a connexion with Rudolf Ackermann, 
a Crerman artist in London, to promote 
the ceneral use of gas for lighting cities, 
and hia work ''On Gas Lights** was main- 
ly instrumental in producing the exten- 
sive use of ^as-lights in London, and all 
the great cities of England. He subse- 
quently published a manual of practical 
"bcmiatrjr, which is in high estimation in 
KnAiid. He was suspected of having 
fonoined from the ^ Royal Institution,^ 
he libraiy and reading-room of which 
anerey in part, committed to his care, 
3* 



plates and treatises ; and the accusation 
of the overseer of this institution bore 
hard upon him in a court of justice; still 
nothing could be legally proved against 
him. For several years, A. has lived in. 
Berlin, where he has received an appoint- 
ment 
Accumulation. (See CmnUd,) 
Accusation (from the Latin ad, to, 
and caiuarij to plead) ; an assertion, im- 
puting to some person a crime, or a foult : 
m law, a formal declaration, charein^ 
some person with an act punishable by a 
jucHcial sentence. In Rome, where there 
was no calunmiaUir pMicuSf no attorney- 
geneml, every one was permitted topros- 
ecute crimes of a public nature. Tnere- 
fore accusations very often took place 
against innocent persons, on which ac- 
count it was not considered at all disrep- 
utable to be accused. Cato is said to 
have been accused 42 times, and as often 
absolved. Also in Prussia and Austria 
there exists, according to the codes of 
these countries, no public accuser. The 
courts accuse, tiy and sentence upon in- 
formation received from the police, to 
which private individuals apply. This is 
called the process by inquisition, in con- 
tradistinction to process bv accusation or 
appeal. In the common law of Germa- 
ny, the process of appeal, in which the 
person mjured appears as the accunng 
party, is not eenend, yet not, abolished. 
(See Crimvnat process.) For accusation 
in England and France, see Jury. At 
Athens, if an accuser had not the fifth 
part of the votes on his side, he was obli- 
ffod to pay a fine of a thousand drachmas. 
Machines, who accused Ctesiphon, was 
condemned to pay this fine. At Rome, a 
folse accuser was branded vrith the letter 
K on his forehead, (used for C, i. e. Ca- 
lumniator.) The accuser was sSao watch- 
ed to prevent his corrupting Uie jud^^es 
or the wimesses. The Spanish inquisi- 
tion forces the suspected person to accuse 
himself of the crime objected to him. In 
France, peers are to be accused of crimes 
only before the chamber of peers, and the 
chamber of deputies alone has the right 
to accuse ministers, as such, before the 
peers. Accusing, in these cases, is called 
inweadiing. In the United States, any 
omcer ofjeovemment, the president not 
excepted, is impeachable, and the con- 
stitution provides the accuser and the 
{'udges. In no monarchy can the king be 
)n>ught to trial for a crime, though, in 
some cases, his conduct may be such as 
to amount to a virtual abdication of the^ 
throne. Blackstone says, "When king 



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30 



ACCUSATION-'ACHAIA. 



James 11 invaded the fTjndamental con- 
•tituiion of the realm, the convention de- 
clared an abdication, whereby* the throne 
was rendered vacant, which induced a 
new settlement of the crown. And so 
far as this precedent leads, and no farther, 
we may now be allowed to lay down the 
law of redress ajrainst pul;>]ic oppression." 

Aceldama (Heb., a field of blood); 
the field pmt^hased by the Jewish rulers 
with the So pieces of sUver which Judas 
returned to tnem in despair, after betray- 
ing Christ. This field they appropriated 
as a burial-place for strangers. The place 
is still shown to travelleiB. It is small, 
and covered with an arched roof. The 
bodies deposited in it are, it is said, consum- 
ed in three or four days, or even less time. 

AcEPHALi (headless) ; several sects of 
schismatics in the Christian church, who 
rebeUed against their Christian head, or 
refiised to acknowledge any ; fi>r exam- 
ple, the numophytite monks and priests 
m Egypt, who did not acknowledge the 
patriarch, Peter Mongus, because he had 
not, at the adoption of the Henoticon, in 
483, expresslycondemned the council of 
Chalcedon. They were divided into three 
parties, but were soon lost among die oth- 
er monophysiUs. The Flagellants (q. v.) 
were also Acephali, because, as a siect, 
they acknowledged no head. — This term 
is also applied to certun nations repre- 
sented, by ancient naturalists, as fonned 
without heads, their eyes, mouths, &c. 
being placed in their breasts, shoulders, 
&c. 

AcERBi, Giuseppe, was bom at Castel- 
Goffredo, in the territory of Mantua. He 
spent a portion of his youth in Mantua, 
and there acquired a knowledge of Eng- 
lish. On tiie invasion of Lombardy, bv 
the French, in 1798, he accompanied Bef- 
lotti fit)m brescia to Germany; thence 
he went to Denmark and Sweden, and 
lastly to Finland, in 1799. In Tomea, he 
met colonel Skioldebrand, a good land- 
scape painter, and with him planned a 
voyage to the North Cape. He was the 
first Italian that ever penetrated so far. 
On his return, he visited England, where 
he published a lively description of tiiese 
travels, in a work in 3 volumes, in 1802. 
In his account of Lapland, A. has made 
good use of the exact information of the 
Swedish missionary, Canut Leem. The 
book was translated in Paris, under the 
eyes of the author, by M. Petit Radel. 
For 6 years, A. published, in Milan, the 
journal Bihlioteca Jtalicma, the spirited crit- 
icisms of which have given an impulse to 
the literary character of Italy^ He has 



actively opposed the pmenmoB ofAh^ 
Accademia della Crusca, add 'the. arro-: 
gant pretensions of the Florentine dialect.- 
For several years past, spirited sketches 
of the latest Italian literature by A. have 
appeared, and have received >univerBa2 
approbation. His appointment aatconsul- 
general of Austria m Egypt, 1826,. com- 
pelled him to resign the BUtUoteca JKof- 
UEna to other hands. 

AcEBRA ; an altar set up by the Ro- 
mans, near the bed of a person deceased, 
on which his fiiends daify ofifered incense 
till his burial 

Acetic Acid; the acid which, in a 
more diluted state, is called vinwar, 

AcHiBAiTs are properly the imiabitants 
of the district Achaia, in the Peloponne- 
sus; but this name is veiy fi^uendy, es- 
pecially in Homer, given to lul the Gre- 
cians. Achieus, a son of Xuthus and 
Creusa, went to Thessaly with a numbet 
of followers, but was soon driven out, and 
compelled to witiidraw to the Peloponne- 
sus, where he settied in Sparta and Ar- 
gos, the inhabitants of whicli were caller 
JkifuBons, Of the Grecian nations en 
gaged in tlie siege of Troy, the Aduean^ 
were the most numerous and powerfiil 
Afier the conquest of this city, being 
overcome by the Dorians^ they retired tc 
Ionia, on the northem coast of the Pelo- 
pomiesus, gave to the country the name oi 
AchaiOf and founded a republic, whicl 
was subs^uendy fiunous for the Achnaii 
league. This league was at first formed 
by a few cities, for the maintenance oi 
their security and independence; but 1 
afterwards included ah me ^> Jier cities of 
Achaia, together witli Athens, Megara 
&c. Sparta, however, did not join the 
confederacy. After the destruction oi 
Corinth, B. 0. 146, the states composing 
this league were made a Roman prov- 
ince, under the name of Achaia. (Set 
Grtece,) 

AcHJEUs, in ancient history, — 1. A kin^ 
of Lydia, deposed and hanged forextor 
tion. OpmL 2. The founder of the Achteai' 
state in the Peloponnesus, son of Xuthus 
king of Thessaly. 3. A tragic poet ol 
Eretria, who lived some time after Soph 
ocles. 4. Another poet of Syracuse. 5 
A cousin-german to Seleucus Ceraunus 
and Antiochus the Great, kings of Syria, 
who enjoyed, for many years, the domin- 
ions he had usurped from Antiochus ; but 
at last was betrayed by a Cretan to the 
last-mentioned king, and, his Umbs being^ 
cut off, Ills body was sewed in the skin ot 
an ass and ^bbeted. 

Achaia ; properly, a narrow district of 



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ACHAIA— ACHERON. 



31 



FekponnesiK, extending westward along 
the mr 0f Corinth. &rly writers, par- 
ticuko^ the poets^ sometuiies include all 
Greeee under the name of Achaia, At 
the tune of the Achsean league, the Ro- 
mans applied the name of Achaia to all 
the oounity beyond the isthmus, which 
had entered into the league ; after the dis- 
solution of which, Greece was divided, by 
a decree of the Roman senate, into two 
provincesy viz. that of Macedonia, con- 
taining abo Thessaly, and that of Achaia^ 
inchufinff all the other states of Greece. 
(See {Hobon^s Roman HUt. chap. 1, voL i.) 
AcHARD, Frederic Charles, bom at 
Beriin, April 28, 1754, an eminent natu- 
ralist and chemist, principaUy known by. 
his invention, in loOO, of a process for 
manu&cturing sugar from beets, which, 
since that time, has been brought to 

rter perfection. He was director of 
department of physics, in the Roval 
Academy of Sciences at Berlin. To enable 
lum to extend his manuiacture, the great 
importance of which vras acknowledged 
by the French Institute (July, 18(X>), the 
fiang of Prussia presented him with an 
estate at Kunem, in Silesia, where his 
esiahlisfament, at the time of the closing 
of the ports of fhirope, by the decree of 
Berlin, was attended with such success, 
that, in the winter of 1811, it daily yielded 
300 pounds of sirup. Achard connected 
with it, in 1812, an institution for the 
pmpoee of teaching his mode of manu- 
ftcture, which attracted the attention of 
foieigDen. He died at Kunem, April 20^ 
1821. Besides a number of treatises on 
phyncs and agriculture, he published sev- 
eral articles on the manufacture of sugar 
from beets. 

Achates ; the compuiion of iEneas, 
and his most faithful friend, celebrated by 
ViigiL 

AcHESir, Atcheek, Achem or Achen; 
part of Sumatra, of a triangular form, 
and containing about 26000 square miles. 
The lands between its two ranges of 
mountains are fertile. The Achanese 
are stouter, taller and daricer-colored than 
the other people of the island, more in- 
dustrious, have more general knowledge, 
and deal, as merchants, in a more liberal 
manner. They are Mahometans; their 
sailors are expert and bold, and employ a 
muMtude of vessels in trade and nshing. 
The government is despotic, monarchical, 
and hereditaiy ; their laws extremely se- 
rere. The capital of the kingdom is 
Achoen, Ion. 95^ 46^ E., lat. 5' 22^ N.; pop. 
about 36000. Its chief trade is now with 
IfiodoflUn, from whence it receives cot- 



ton goods in return for gold dust, jewel?, 
sapan wood, betel-nut, pepper, sulphur, 
camphor and benzoin. Europeans bring 
there opium, iron, arms, &c. (See Mars- 
den^s mfUnnf ofSumatnu) 

AcHELous, also AspROFOTAHus, s riv- 
er running between ^Etolia and Acama- 
nia, has its source on mount Pindus, flows 
through the first setdements of the Gre- 
cians around Dodona, and falls into the 
Ionian sea. The banks of this river are 
the only places in Europe, which formerly 
afforded habitation to hons. — Hesiod calls 
A. the son of Oceanus and Thetis. Oth- 
ers say differently. He wrestled witli. 
Hercules for Dejanira, and, when thrown 
to the ground, assumed the shape of a. 
terrible serpent, then that of an ox, and,» 
afler he haa lost a horn, he fled, ashamed^ 
to his waters. From the broken horn, it 
ist said, the nymphs made the horn of 
plenty. He was the &ther of the inrens. 

AcHENWALL, Gk>dfrey, bom at Elbing, 
in Prussia, Oct 20, 1710, first gave a dis- 
tinct character to the science of statistics. 
He studied in Jena, Halle and Leipsic. 
In 1746, he setded at Mairburg, and lec- 
tured on history, the law of nature and* 
of nations, and afterwards, also, on statis- 
tics. In 1748, he was appointed professor 
at G^tingen, where he remained until 
his death. May, 1772. A. travelled 
throu^i Svritzerland, France, Holland 
and England, and published several, 
books on the histoiy of the European 
states, the law of nations, political econo- 
my, &c Most of them have ^one through 
several editions. His principal endeav- 
or, in his lectures and historical works,, 
was to distinguish, in the long series ol' 
occurrences which are ^corded in tlie 
annals of nations, every' thing which 
might have con^rihuted to' form their 
character, and fix their political condi- 
tion. His chief merit consists in the set- 
tled character which he has ^ven to, and 
the new light which he has thrown on 
the science, which explains systemati- 
cally the nature and amount of tne active 
powers of a state, and hence deduces the 
sources of its physical and moral pros- 

65rity. He gave it the name ofstahaHcs. 
is most distinguished pupil, who suc- 
ceeded him at me university of Crottin- 
gen, was Schlozer. 

Acheron ; the name fpYen bv the an- 
cients to a river of the mfemal regions, 
over which Charon conducted the souls 
of the dead in a boat, for which he re- 
ceived an obolus, placed under the tongue 
of the deceased. Only the shades of 
those who had obtained a burial in this 



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33 



ACHERON— AGHILLE9. 



worldi or had, at least, some earth thrown 
upon tlieir bodies, were carried over the 
river; others were obliged to wadder on 
Its banks a whole centui^. In ancient 
geographv, there are 5 different rivers, 
named Achaim, The one in Epirus 
(now a province of Janina) flows first' 
through me lake Acherusia, then, ibr a 
short distance, throuj^h the rocks of the 
Oassiopeian mountains, and falls, near 
Prevesa, into the Ionian sea. It is now 
called VdchiL A branch of the Nile, in 
the neighborhood of Memphis, is also 
called Acheron, and a lake, AchenmcL 
Over this the Egyptians ferried their 
dead, to buiy them on an island in the 
lidce, or on the oppomte shore; or, if the 
judge of the dead condemned them, to 
throw them into the water: hence the 
Gtreek fiible. The cave of Ceiberus, call- 
edAchenuis, is found on the banks of the 
river Acheron, in Bithynia, near Hera- 
clea. There is also a swamp in Campa- 
nia, between Cume and the firomontoiy 
of Mysenum, called by the ancients, .^d^- 
rutia. At present, there are salt works 
on this spot 

AcHiLLEis ; a poem, by Statins, in hon- 
or of Achilles. (See Stoim.) 

AcRERUsiA, in ancient geography^ — I. 
A lake in £(;ypt, near Memphis, over 
which, accordmg to Diodorus, the bodies 
of the dead were conveyed for judgment 
The boat was called baris, the boatman, 
Charon, Hence came the Grecian fable 
of Charon and the Styx. 3. A river in 
Caiabria. 3. A lake m Epirus, through 
which runs the river Acheron. 4. A lake 
between Cum» and the promontory Mi- 
senum. 5. A peninsula of Bithynia, on 
the Euxine, near Heraclea. 

Achilles ; according to the poets, son 
of Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, in 
Thessaly, and of Thetis, daughter of Ne- 
reus, grandson of iEacus. His mother 
dippea him, when an in&nt, in the waters 
of^ the Styx, which made him invuhier- 
able, except in the heel, by which she 
held him. It had been foretold to Thetis 
that A. would acquire immortal glonr, 
but, at the same time, meet an early 
death, if he went to the »ege of Troy ; 
while, on the other hand, if he remained 
at home, he would enjoy a happy old age. 
To prevent him fiiom taking part in Uie 
war amnst Troy, Thetis disguised him, 
when 9 years old, in a female dress, and 
sent him, under the name of Pvrrha, to 
the court of Lycomedes, king of Scyros, 
with whose daughters he was educated. 
The prophet Calchas, however, announc- 
ed to the Grecians that Troy could not be 



taken without the aid of A. He was 
consequentiy sought for evety where, and 
finally discoverea by the crafly Ulysses, 
who came to the court of Lycomedes dis- 
guised as a merchant, and offered to the 
daughters of the king various femaJe or- 
naments, among viiiich arms were inter- 
spersed. The princesses seized the orna- 
ments, but A. took the anns. It was now 
an easy task to persuade the fieiy and 
ambitious hero to join the other princes 
of Greece in the expedition acainst Troy. 
Phoenix and the Centaur Chiron had 
been his instructors, llie latter had 
taught him medic^iie, music, and riding ; 
the former, more especially his tutor, rot- 
lowed him to Troy, to render him an el- 
oquent speaker, and a brave warrior. A. 
aj^ars m the Iliad, of which he is the 
hero, not only as the bravest, but also as 
the most beautiful, of the Grecians. He 
sailed to Troy with 50 ships fiUed wiA 
the Myrmidons, Achaians, and Helleni- 
ans, and destroyed 19 cities on tiie islands 
and 11 on the main land. Juno and Mi- 
nerva took him under their special protec- 
tion. On account of a quarrel wim Aga- 
memnon, whom the prmces had chosen 
their leader, he withorew from the field, 
and permitted Hector, at the head of the 
Trojans, to destroy the ranks of the Gre- 
cians. He remained implacable against 
the king, on occoimt of ^riseis, daughter 
of Brises, and wife of Mines, king of 
Lymessus, who had fallen to his sharB, 
in the diviaon of the booty, but whom 
Agamemnon had taken fix)m him, because 
he was obliged to restore to her father 
Chryseis, daughter of Cbiyses, priest of 
Apollo, who had fallen to his own share, 
in order to avert fitnn the Grecians the 
plague sent by Apollo, in answer to the 
prayers of the old man, his priest Nei- 
ther the defeats of the Grecians, nor th«; 
offers of Agamemnon, appeased the wrath 
of the hero. He, however, permitted his 
fiiend Patroclus, in his own armor, and 
at the head of his own warriors, to min- 
gle again in the combat Patroclus fell 
b^ the arm of Hector ; and, to revenge 
his death, A. resolved to return to the 
field. Thetis herself brouffht him nevir 
and costly arms, made by Vulcan, among 
which the shield was particularly beauti- 
fhl He became reconciled to Agamem- 
non, received the presents which were 
offered, and, refi^bed by Minerva with 
nectar and ambrosia, hastened to the bat 
tie. The Trojans fled, and a part of tfaeip 
rushed into the river Xanthus and per- 
ished. The bodies obstructed the course 
of the stream, and the river-god, disgust" 



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ACHILLES— ACIDS. 



33 



ed vnsih the carnage, commanded A. to 
desisL Not being obeyed, he overflowed 
his banks, and rushed against the hero. 
Encomaged by Neptune and Minerva, 
A. oppomd Xanthua, who called to his 
aid me waters of Simois. Juno then 
sent Vulcan, and the west and south 
winds, who drove the river-god back to 
his proper limits. But A. pursued the 
Trojans to their city, which only the in- 
terference of Apollo prevented him flrom 
taidng. Hector alone remained before 
the Scssan ^ate, and, having fled 3 times 
ronnd the city, pursued by A., finallv of- 
frred himself for combat. A. slew him, 
apd, after drawing his body round the 
ctty, resigned it, for a ransom, to Priam. 
Here the narration of Homer ends. A*^ 
as repcesented by this sublime poet, is of 
a fieij and iinpetuous character, and has 
li^ of that mrnmess and rational valor 
irluch constitute the true hero. In this 
respect, the heroes of the German poem 
*^Dn Nibelungenlied'' are &r greater 
and nobler than those of Homer. The 
fiother history of A. is told as follows : 
Falling in love with Polyxena, he sought 
her hand, and obtained it ; for which he 
promised to defend Troy. But Paris 
dew him with an arrow, which pierced 
his heel, in the tenmle of Apollo, where 
he was celebrating his nuptials. Others 
say it was Apollo who killed him, or di- 
rected the arrow of Paris. A bloody con- 
test ensued about his body. The Greeks 
sacrificed Polyxena on his tomb, m obe- 
dience to his request, that he might en- 
jov her company in the Elysian fields, 
where he is also said to have married 
Medea. When Alexander saw his tomb, 
it is said that he placed a crown upon it, 
exclaipiing, *< that A. was happy in hav- 
ings dmring his lifo-time, a fiiend like Pa- 
troclus, and, after his death, a poet like 
Homer.** 

AGHnLi.Ks Tatius ; a Greek novelist, 
or Eratie wriUr, so called, bom at Alex- 
andria, lived, probably, at the end of the 
3d and the begiimingof the 4th centurv, 
and taught rhetoric in his native city. In 
his old age, he became a convert to Chiis- 
tianitv, and rose to the dignity of a bishop. 
Bemdes a treatise on the sphere, whicn 
we know only firom an abndgment still 
extant, we possess a romance of his, in 
8 books, styled. The Imea of Clitophon 
mkd Leuc^pe, which, as regards the sub- 
ject and composition, is not without merit, 
and m some parts shows much ability. 
The language, thoueh rich in rhetorical 
ornaments, is not free from sophistical 
subcihy. Tlic charge of obscenity, which 



has occasionally been brought against the 
work, is very properiy met by a Greel^ 
epiffram, which remarks, that the scope 
of the woric is to be considered, namel>', 
to teach temperance, to show the pnnish- 
ment of unrestrained passions, and the 
reward of chastity. The best editions are 
the following; that published at Ley den, 
1640, one published at Leipsic, by Bode, 
with the notes of Salmasius, 1776, and 
that of Mitscheriich, 1792, (Bipont.) 

AcHKET III, a Turkish emperor, son 
of Mahomet IV, reicned firom 1703 to 
1730. Many reinaiki£le events took place 
during his reign, of which we shall here 
only mention, that Charles XII, after the 
battle at Poltawa, found protection at his 
court. Charies succeeded in involving A. 
in a war with the czar Peter the Great, 
which would have had a very unfortunate 
issue for him, if the prudence of Cath- 
arine, his mistress, whom he afterwards 
married, had not averted the impending 
danffer. (See Peter I.) A. established 
the first printing press at Constantinople, 
in 1727. TowaklB the end of his reign, 
the janizaries revoked against him, and 
he was thrown into the same prison in 
which his successor, Mahomet V, had 
been confined, before he took A.^s place 
on the throne. He died in 1736. 

AcHMiM, or EcBMiM ; a considerable 
town of Upper Egypt, on the eastern Iwnk 
of the Nile, called by the ancients Ckem- 
ms and Panopclia, by the Copts Sman. 
Though reduced fix>m its former magnifi- 
cence, it is still one of the finest towns of 
Upper Egypt It has some manu&cto- 
ries. AbiSfodaspeaks of a superb temple 
here. The immense stones which com- 
posed it, sculptured with innumerable 
hieroglyphics, are now scattered about, 
and some are transferred into a mosque. 
A. contains also a triumphal arch, built 
by the emperor Nero. This place is fo- 
mouB also ror the worship of Uie serpent 
Haridi. 

AcBBOMATic Telescopes. (See OpticsA 

Acids (aciday, a class of compound 
bodies, which have the following char- 
acteristic properties : the greater part of 
them, a sour taste, and most of them are 
very corrosive ; they change the vegetable 
blues to red, are soluble in water, and 
have great affinitv for the alkaline, earthy, 
and metallic oxyds, with which they form 
neutral salts. Some acids have no sour 
taste, but their affinity for the three 
classes of bodies above-mentioned is al- 
ways characterisdc. If a few drops of 
sulphuric acid, nitric acid, or muriatic 
acid, be added to a solution of blue titmus, 



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31 



ACID— ACOLYTHI 



it becomes red. The same is the case if 
they be ad led to other vegetable colon, 
88 violet, &c. Hence these colors are 
employed as tests of acids, that is, to as- 
certain when they exist in any substance. 
We may add the infusion to the fluid in 
which we are trying to detect an acid, 
but a more convenient method is, to 

Spread it on JMLPer, and allow it to dr^. 
f a strip of this be put into a fluid m 
which there is an acid, it instantly be- 
comes red. Some acids appear only in a 
fluid state, either gaseous, as caibonic 
acid, or liquid, as sulphuric acid ; others 
appear in a solid form, or crystallized, as 
benzoic acid, boracic acid, &c. AD acids 
are compound bodies, and are sometimes 
divided mto four classes, the three first of 
which are compounded with oxygen ; the 
fourth class consists of those which, at 
least according to some modem chenusts, 
have no oxygen ; e. g. sulphuretted hy- 
drogen. The first class consists of acids 
compounded with oj^gen and one other 
bodv; the second cum comprises the 
Bcim compounded of cari>on, hydrogen 
and oxy^n ^ the third class consiete of 
those acids which contain nitrogen, in 
addition to the three substances above- 
mentioned. The ancient chemists were 
acquainted with but fbw of the acids now 
known ; they divided them, according to 
the kiiu(doms of nature, into mineral, 
vegetabfe and ammal adds. This divis- 
ion, however, cannot now be retained, as 
there are some acids which appear in 
aU the kingdoms ; e. g. phosphoric add. 
If the same radical be compcninded with 
different proportions of tne addifying 
principle, forming diflerent acids, the most 
powemil add receives a name fix)m the 
radical, tenninating in tc ; the weaker, a 
name formed in the same manner in ou» ; 
e. g. niphmvui aeid and nJpkurie acH 
mtrom and mtic acid; and, where there 
are intermediate compounds, the term 
hffio is occasionall3r added to the com- 
pound next above it in point of acidity. 
Thus hgpoivlpkuric add signifies an in- 
termsdiate acid between sulphurous and 
sulphuric acids ; hvpophosphoroui aeH 
an add containing less oxygen than the 
phosphorous acid. (For PnLane acid, Pff- 
roUgneoui acidj &c. see Pr%L9$ic, Pyrohg- 
neonSf &c.| 

AciRS ; hurricanes of snow which pre- 
vail amonff the Cevennes, in the south of 
France. Villages are sometimes so rap- 
idly covered, that the inhabitants have no 
means of communication, but by cutting 
passages under the snow. 
AcKERMAim, Rudolph, was bom in 



1764, at Schneeberg, in Saxony, where 
his ftther was a saddler. He received 
his education at the Latin school of his 
native dw, and, after leaminc the trade 
of his &tner, travelled through the coun- 
try as a jouraeyman, accorain^ to the 
custom of Germany. After residuig for 
some time at Paris and Brussels, he went 
to London. He there became acquaint- 
ed with Facius, a German, who had un- 
dertaken to conduct a journal of foshions, 
(JowmaldesMMUs,) and met with tolerable 
success. A soon afterwards published, 
in the same way, drawings of coaches and 
curricles, invented, drawn and painted by 
himself. The novelty and elegance of 
the forms excited universal attention, and 
he received orders for drawinss fitnn all 
quarters. This laid the foundation of a 
trade in worics of art, which his activity, 
attention and precision in business so 
much enlarffed in a short time, that he 
was enaUeo to many an English woman, 
became a citizen of LondoiLand founded 
an establishment called Rtpotiicrv of 
Artif in the Strand, in the centre of Lon- 
don. It is one of the curiosities of the 
British capital, and gives employment to 
several hundred men. An account of 
eveiy thing new has appeared for 8 years 
in A.'s sj^endid journal, Reposikury of 
ArU^ lAtendure and fkUkUm^ the first 
series of which, in 14 volumes, costs £18 ; 
and the new series already amounts to 
more than 40 numliers. Every number 
contains three or four elegant, colored 
copperplates. For 8 years he has also 
been engaged in a series of topogrwhical 
wortcs, exhibiting all the splendor of Brit- 
ish aquatints, which already constitute a 
small Hbraiy, and, for tmth of design and 
elegance of execution, are hardly surpass- 
ed by any similar undertaking in any 
country. He now has the most instmct- 
ive books of the English and other lan- 
guages translated into Spanish, (princi- 
pally by the well-known Blanco White,) 
and sends them to America, where his 
eldest son is engaged, in Mexico, in ex- 
tensive dealings in books and woiks of 
art. For some years he has also published 
the first souvenir in England, called the 
I\ngdmenot When the association was 
formed, in 1813, for the relief of those 
who had been plunged into miseiy bv the 
war in Geraaany, A. showed himself an 
active philanthropist. A. is now the best 
lithographer in London. He employs in 
the summer 600 men, every day, in and 
around London. 

AcoLTTHi, or AcoLTTEs ; servants of 
the church, who appeared in the Latin 

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ACOLYTHI— ACOUSTICS. 



dmreh m early as the 3d centtuy ; but 
in the Onek, not till the 5th. Their 
office was to liffht the candles, thence 
they were called ocectuorM ; to cany the 
mpen in the festal processions, thence 
cenftrani; to present the wine and water 
at the sapper ; and, in general, to assist 
the biehoiM and priests in the perfonn- 
) of the ceremonies. They belonged 



to the deigy, and had a rank immediately 
bek>w the subdeacons. In the Roman 
dnirch, the consecration of an acoMhus 
is the highest of the lower kinds of ordi- 
oa2i€n. The person ordained receives a 
candkfltick and chalice, in token of his 
ancieot employment The duties, how- 
ever, Ibnnerly appertaining to this office, 
have been performed fflnoe the 7th cen- 
ony by menials and boys taken from the 
lai^, who are improperly called acohfthij 
in die books of the uturgy o£ the CiUho- 
fic church. The modem Greek church 
no longer retains even the name. 

AcoNiTA ; & vegetable poison, recent- 
If extracted fiom aeomtum rumeStif , or 
wolTs-bans, (properly alkaline^ by Mr. 
Brande. The analysis has not yet been 
made known. 

Acoustics. One of our most impor- 
tant connexions with external objects is 
maintained through the sense of hearing ; 
that 18, by an affection which certain ac- 
tions or motions, in those objects, pro- 
dace on the mind, by being commumcat- 
€d to it through the ear. The peculiar 
excitation or motion perceptible by the 
ear is called sound; and the considera- 
tion of this motion, its qualities and trans- 
misBon, forms the science of acoustics. 
Pfaikiaophers make a distinction between 
sound and noise: thus those actions 
which are confined to a single shock up- 
on the ear, or a set of actions circum- 
Kiibed within such limits as not to pro- 
duce a continued sensation, are called a 
flMfe ; while a succession of actions which 
produce a continued sensation are called 
a somuL It is evident fiom the mechan- 
ism of the ear, so far as it is understood, 
that it is a refined contrivance for convey- 
ing a motion firom the medium which 
surrounds it to the auditory nerve ; and 
that this nerve must receive every motion 
excited in the tympanum. Every motion 
thus excited, however, does not produce 
the sensation of sound. That motions 
may be audible, it is necessary that they 
impress themselves upon the medium 
wfaieh surrounds the ear with velocities 
comprised within certain Bmits. These 
motions are commonly produced by dis- 
torttng the equilibrium which exists be- 



tween the parts of a bodv. Thus, for 
example, if^we strike a bell, the part 
which receives the first impulse of the 
blow is driven nearer to the surrounding 
parts ; font, the impulse bavins ceased, it 
IS uned back by a force of repulsion 
which exists in the metal, and made to 
pass beyond its former poation. By the 
operation of another property of the met- 
al, namely, cohesive attraction, it is then 
made to return in the direction of its first 
motion, again, beyond its position of re- 
pose. Each of these agitations influ- 
ences the adjacent parts, which, in turn, 
influence those beyond them, until the 
whole mass assumes a tremulous motion ; 
that IB, certain parts approach to and 
recede from eacn other; and it only 
recovers its former state of repose, after 
having performed a number of these 
sonorous vibrationa It is evident that 
such vibrations as are here described 
must result fiom the combined operation 
of attraction and repulsion, which, to- 
gether, constimte the elasticity of solid 
bodies. When fluids, whose elasticity is 
confined to repulrion, emit saunds, a force 
equivalent to that of attraction in solids 
is supplied to them by external pressure. 
The sonorous vibrations of bodies are ex- 
ceedingly curious, and the more diffi- 
cult to pe understood fix>m our habits of 
measuring changes or motions by tlie 
ffight ; but these motions affect very sen- 
sibly another oraan, while they are al- 
most imperceptible to the e^e ; and, as 
we are without the means of^ converting 
the ideas derived fix>m one sense into 
those derived from another, the sensa- 
tion of the motion of sound does not as- 
sist us to understand its precise nature, 
as compared with visible motions. Thus, 
the ear at once perceives the difference 
between a crave and an acute sound; 
but it is only firom attentive observation 
by the eye, that we discover the different 
rapidity of succession in the vibrations 
which produce them. The vibrations of 
a great many bodies, as strings, bells aiid 
membranes, when emitting sounds, may, 
however, be distinctly seen, and even 
felt; but they may often be rendered 
more senable to the eye by a little arti- 
fice, such as sprinkling the vibrating 
body with sand, or some light, granular 
substance. Sound may be produced 
without vibrations or alternations ; thus, 
if we pass the nail auickly oyer the teeth 
of a comb, the rapia succession of sin|^e 
shocks or noises produces all the effect of 
vibrations. It must be evident that the 
rapid motions here described, whether 



36 



ACOUSTICS. 



originating in vibrttdons, or a succession 
of concussions, must be communicated 
from the body, in which they are excited, 
to the sheet of air, or whatever else be 
in contact with it, and from this again to 
another sheet beyond the first ; thus dif- 
fusing the motion in every direction. 
The agitation of the sounding body must 
thus be communicated to the surround- 
ing medium to a great distance, and im- 
pressed upon any body situated within 
this distance ; if this body be the ear, the 
tremor excited in it by these agitations 
will be perceived by the mind. . The 
necessity of some medium for the trans- 
mission of sound is proved by experi- 
ment. If a bell be rung in an exhausted 
receiver, the sound wiU be hardly per- 
ceptible, while the tones will become 
clear and distinct, on re-admitting the 
air. Having thus given a general outline 
of the source and propagation of sound, 
we shall proceed to consider, with as much 
minuteness as the limits of this work will 
permit, some of the more important facts 
connected with them. — ^The most obvious 
characteristics, by which we distinguish 
difierent sounds, connst of differences 
in their degrees of what we call loudness, 
and acuteness, or pUcL We can pro- 
duce, at pleasure, sounds having different 
degrees of loudness, from the same sono- 
rous body, by making the concussions 
upon it more or less violent ; disturbing 
in a greater or less degree the arrange- 
ment of its parts. So two bodies of like 
substance and figure, but unlike mass, 
when subjected to the same shock, emit 
sounds unlike in loudness; and, again, 
bodies of like mass and figure, but unlike 
substance, form sounds more or less 
loud, when subjected to the same shock* 
In this latter case, the loudness has a re- 
lation to the Quantity of elasticity pos- 
sessed by the bodies ; and in all cases, 
when the disturbance of the parts is car- 
ried beyond the elastic power of the body, 
90 as to produce a permanent change of 
figure, no increase of loudness is induced. 
From a consideration of the preceding 
facts, we may conclude, that loudness de- 
pends upon the quantity of motion, or 
Honorous vibration, in which it originates. 
The other principal characteristic of 
sound, its acuteness or pitch, depends 
upon the frequency with which the con- 
cussions or vibrations of the sonorous 
body succeed each other. That sounds 
may be audible to a common ear, it is 
nec^saiy that the concussions upon the 
medium, which communicates them, 
should fbUow each other in such succes- 



sion, that not more than 8192, nor less 
than 32, distinct concussions ^all be 
made upon the medium during the lapse 
of one second. Some ears, however, 
can perceive sounds emanating from vi- 
brattons a little beyond the extremes to 
which the perceptions of other ears are 
confined. We should be careful not to 
confound the freauency of vibrations 
with the velocity of vibratory motion. A 
string may vibrate with a ^ater or less 
velocity, as it passes its axis to a greater 
or less distance ; yet the times of its vi- 
brations may be all equal. The differ- 
ence of velocity, affecting the quantity of 
motion only, would produce no change, 
except in the loudness of the sound. 
To those sounds which proceed from in- 
frequent vibrations, we give the name of 
^rave or law ; those from fiiequent vibra- 
tions we call sharp or acute. When vibra- 
tions succeed each other in equal times, 
their sound excites a pleasant sensatio:i, 
and they are called muncoL When two 
bodies are made to sound together, if their 
vibrations are performed in equal times, the 
sounds are said to be in tffttfon. When the 
vibrations are performed in unequal times, 
so that some of those of the one are not 
accompanied by those of the other, the ear 
perceives a degree of dissonance in the 
sounds. I( however, the vibrations meet 
afler short and regular intervals, the dis- 
sonance is not easily detected, and the 
sounds are said to accord. During the 
continuance of most priniary sounds, 
however excited, we perceive other and 
more acute sounds co-existing with them. 
These are called their harmonics. They 
are supposed to originate in a series of 
secondary vibrations, more short and fre- 
quent than the principal vibration. Thus 
a sounding stnng, for example, may be 
supposed not to pass its axis in a simple 
curve, but to resolve itself into a tortuous 
line, formed by a number of smaller 
curves, each of which vibrates across its 
own axis, thus producing its harmonics. 
It is perhaps some cornbination of the 
harmonics with the primanr sound, that 
characterizes the sound of^ different in- 
struments, though of tlie same loudness 
and pitch, so that we can distinguish one 
from another. The air, being the common 
medium which surrounds the ear, is that 
by which sounds are usually transmitted, 
lliis transmission is performed with a 
velocity of about 1130 feet in a seconds 
All other bodies, however, are capable of 
transmitting sound. It may be done 
perfectly, even by the solid parts of the 
head. If, for example, we hold the stem 



ACOU8TI0S. 



87 



of ft mieii between tihe teetlly and eorer 
liie ein with the haadfl^ the beali ere 
lieenl mora dietbictfy than when the in- 
emimeiit ie held at an equnl distanoe in 
the air. Tlie nibbing together ef two 
slonee under wnter may be heard, by an 
ear in the same medium, at the distiaice 
of half a mile. When the nr, or anj 
ether body of indefinite esdtent, is di»- 
tmbed, in a point situated within it, by « 
flonoPDos yibradon, it fynns a wave whicii 
pnmrn fiom the distuibed point, ae a cen- 
tra^ in eveiy direction. It follows tint as 
the wave extende itself, the mass to be 
put in motion increases until the original 
motion is rendered insenaUe from.tfae 
magnitude c£ the mass to which it has 
communicated itself. The velocity with 
which waves, thus fi»ined,movo through 
ny homoffeneooe elastie medium, is al- 
ways equS to that which a heavy, body 
voold acquire by falling thipough half the 
height of the modulus of elasticity.* In 
apptpag this law to the transmission of 
soond l^ the air, it was for a long time 
4bund not to i>^ive the rame results as 
were obtained by expeninent Ihe dis* 
crepancy, however, has been most in^ 
niously reconciled by a sniall correction 
for the latent heat made sensible by the 
compression ; the effect of this being to 
increase the height of the modulus of 
efauBticity. We ought, thereiwe, to find 
that liquids, and more especially some of 
the solidsj should transmit sound mnch 
more rapidly than air; and this agrees 
most perfeedy with various experiments. 
Caet-iron, for example^ baa betti found to 
tranamit sound with a velocity 10^ times 
greater than air. Sound does not readily 
pass firom one medium to another ; a 
sound made m the air is not easily distin- 
guished under water, although the dis- 
tance be very small. It \b €rom this,' 
prri>ably, that cork and all soft cellular 
bodies are bad conductors of sound, as in 
these the soond must,. in passing through 
the walls of the cells and the air con- 
tained in them, change successively fit>m 
one medinm to another. All sounds, 
whatever be their loudness or pitch, are 
tranemitted with the same velocity; a 
fibct most completely provecl by every 
musical performance. Were it other- 
wise, indeed, this beautifol art could not 
cxisL To make this apparent, it is only 
necessary to consider, that harmony is a 
eombinatiim of different sounds ananged 
widi certain relations of time imd pitch. 
Ncrw, if one sound were transmitted with 
• Tfcc height of the moduhis of clastirfty ofahris 

VOL. I. 4 



greater vekmty thati another, dieso rek- 
tiODS would differ at di£ferent distances, 
or be oonAwndad, except at a single given 
poan. Nay^iurther; mekidy, which is a 
soco oM san of single soundi^ would not 
jraach different em vrixh the same rela- 
tions of time^ if the different notes were 
not transmitted with equal velocities; 
Some irfwe r va tions on aouhd, in very high 
latitiidea, seem to contradict the above 
law of tmsmiarion. The seeming anom- 
dy, however, is sufficiently reconciled 
by supfKWig the different strata of air, 
throogh wiiich the sounds, in those in- 
rtnnresi, were transmitted, in very dif> 
ferent bygromettical or thermometrical 
states; whonh would make con^sponding 
diflerences in their modulus of elastieity. 
When a wave of sound meets an elastic 
suHaoe, it is partly transmitted and pmtly 
refle c ted. This reflection, wh«i it re- 
turns back perpendicularly, is called an 
ccAo. That an echo may be distincdy 
heasd, it is neceasary that the reflectinj^ 
Bwftee be at such a distance that the ori- 
ginal sound shall have ceased before the 
reflected one returns to the ear ; other- 
wise they will be blended, and the echo 
not perceived. — ^Hitherto we have consid* 
ersd the propagation of sounds in an un« 
confined medium^ particulari^ the air, in 
which the wave of sound can difiuse it- 
sdf in every direetion. When this diffii* 
aion is prevented by endoeing the medi-* 
um in a suiftce capable of reflecting the 
wave so that the sound shall be confined 
to one direction, the transmission fironi 
one point to another is much more per- 
foct Experiments have been made in 
tins way, in which a hollow cylinder, 
about half a mile long, was formed by cast- 
iron pipes. The sound was transmitted 
by the air, in this cylinder, with wonder- 
fiil distinctness. The least whisper, at 
one end of the cylinder, was distincdy 
heafd.at the other end. Bo perfect, in* 
deed, was the transmission, ^ that, not to 
hear, it was absolutely necessary not to 
speak." Captain Parry and lieutenant 
Foster made several experiments, during 
the northern expeditions, to ascertain the 
velocity of sound. A table of them is 
given in a number of the Edinburgh Phil- 
osophical Journal. These experiments 
were made at Port Bowen, by means of 
a brass aix-pounder, over a range of 
13,893i^ foet. The results given are the 
mean of four shots in one case, of five in 
anothaiv and, in the rest, of six shots by 
each observer. The mean results varied 
fiom 12V«17 to 1F,7387 and ir',5311 
fortiie time in which the range of 12,393.89 



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ACOUSTICS— ACBOOORINTHUS. 



jfeet was tmTened by the sotnid. At the 
period of die eiqwrimeiit which gave the 
met of tibeee roBuhB, there was a cafan ; 
during the second, the wind was li§^t; 
during the third, a strmg wind was blow- 
ing. The Teloci^ per second, in feet, was, 
in the first instance, 101(X28 ; in the sec- 
ond, 109a33; in the third, lliaiO. Omit- 
ting die last of die ten results (the last 
above civen), on account of the strong 
wind, die mean of the other nine gives a 
velocity of 1085.19 feet, at the tempera- 
ture or 17^73; Fahrenheit.— The mean of 
a table of velocities feimed from observa- 
tions made at Fort Franklin, by lieuten- 
ant Kendall, who accompani^ captain 
Franklin, in his second journey to the 
shore of the Polar sea, gives a velocity 
of 1069^ feet per second, at the tempera- 
ture of 9l14, Fahrenheit— The science of 
aeousdcB, like the other physical sciences, 
has been in a constant state of advance- 
ment since the revival of learning. It 
i^ipearB that Pythagoras knew the rela- 
tion between the leneth of strings and 
the musical sounds which they produce. 
Aristotle viraa not only aware of dus rela- 
tion, but, likewise, that the same rela- 
tion subsists between the length of pipes 
and their notes, and that sound was trans- 
mitted by the atmosphere. This consti- 
tuted the sum of ancient learning in this 
branch of science. These fects wei« 
taught by Galileo, and, moreover, that the 
dinerenoe in the acuteness of sounds de- 
IMnds on the dififerent finequency of vibra- 
tions, and that the same string, if of uhi- 
ferm thickness and dennty, must perform 
its vibrations in equal times. But, with- 
out attenqvting a history of modem dis- 
coveries in acoustics, we can only men- 
tion, that the names of Tavlor, Moreland, 
Newton, Daniel Bemouilu, D'Alembert, 
Euler, Robison, Lagrange, Lwlace, 
Chladni, T. Youns and Biot are all con- 
nected vrith it. Of these, Newton gave 
the law of transmission, which we nave 
stated in this article, and the correction 
fer heat was made by Laplace. 

Acas; a measure of land, containing 
four square roods, or 160 square poles or 
perchea The statute length of a pole or 
perch is 5^ yards, or 16^ feet ; but the 
ien^ of a pole, and, therefore, the size 
of the acre, varies in different counties in 
England The Scottish acre contams 
also four square roods ; one square rood 
in 40 square fells. *The English statute 
acre is about three roods and six felh^ 
standard measure of Scotland; or the 
En^ish acre is to the Siottiidi as 78,694 
to fOO/XXk The French acre, arpad^ is 



eqvnl to 54,450 square Ea^ish feet, M 
which the English contains only 43^60. 
The Weldi acre contains commonly two 
English ones. The Irish A. exceeds the 
English by two roods, 19f^ perches, 
The U. S. of A. use the English Btatu|p A. 
Acre (Akka, St Jean cPAcre) ; in the 
middle ages, Ptokmais, a city and harbor 
on the coast of Syria, capital of a Turkish 
pachalic, between the pachalics of Da- 
mascus and Tripoli, which contains 
420,000 inhabitantB, and 6275 sq. miles. 
This city, situated at the foot of mount 
Carmel, is the chief emporium of Syrian 
cotton, and contains about 16,000 inh^- 
itants ; Its harbor, though fuU of sand- 
banks, is still one ^tbe best on this coast 
At the time of die crusades, A. was the 
principal landine place of the crusaders, 
and the seat of die order of the Imights 
of St John as kte as 1291 ; hence the 
French name, 8L Jean fPAcre. The 
Turks, under Djezzar, pacha of this place, 
who is ftmous for his cruelty, sustained, 
with the asristanoe of the British com- 
modore Sidney Smith, a mege of 61 days, 
by the French am^ under Buonaparte. 
After a great loss of men on all sides, the 
French abandoned the siege. (SeeEgypi^ 
kmdk^ qftke Drench in,) 
. AcRiDOPHAoi (Gr., from ^^i?, a locust, 
and ifuyw, to eat); an ancient Ethiopian 
people, vvho are said to have fed on lo- 



AcRisius; the fedier of Danae. (See 
Dmuti.) 

AcROCUUuniUM ; in anc. geogr. a 
promontory of Epirus, on which are situ- 
ated the Acroceraunia or monies Cerau- 
nii. They run between the Ionian sea 
and the Adriatic, where Illyria ends and 
Epirus begins, and are the modem Monti 
ddia Chimera. 

AcROco&iKTHUs ; a steep rock, about 
2100 feet high, near the city of Cor- 
inth, of a gray color, and picturesque 
form, crowned with the. remains of old 
Venetian fortifications, repaired a litde by 
the Greeks, since the commencement of 
their revolution. It was femous, in an- 
cient times, for its dtadel, and on its top 
stood, according to Pausanias, a temple 
of Venus. At its foot is a fountain, the an- 
cient Pyrene. The shape of the A. is that 
of a truncated cone, lliis litde fortress 
has been several times taken and retaken 
in die war between the Greeks and Turks. 
The view from the txN> is one of the most 
charming in the world. It is thus describ- 
ed in the ** Jounial of Dr. Lieber," before 
whom no Christian traveller, in modem 
times, had probably visited it, as the 



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ACROCOBINTHUa-ACT. 



89 



TuiIds did not aHow Christians to aseend 
h while it was in their hands:— ** The 
\iew from tliis spot amply rewaided me 
fi>r my trouble. To the north lay the 
high and snowy sununits of Helicon and 
Parnassus, as described bv Strabo,cxtend- 
ing &r under the clear blue of a southern 
sky. On the west was seen tlie bay of 
Crissa, mount GithsBron, and the, prom- 
ontory of Ofanite. On the east the Saro- 
nic gulf washes the islands of Salamis 
snd iGipDa. To the north-east lay the 
diore of Attica. There we could see Pen- 
telicus, Hymcttus and Laurion, and even 
down to the cape of Sunium. The day 
was Teiy clear, so that I could diaoem 
the acropolis of Athens. To the south 
I could see &r into the territoir of Argo- 
fia. To the west Achaia and Sicyonia 
lay in »ght The view comprehended 
the scenes of the beat displays of Grecian 
an, science and valor." 

Acropolis (€?redt); the hishest part 
or citadel of a city, {nrticulaily that of 
Athens, where the treasury and public 
records were kept. It is situated on a 
rock, and has onen been the subject of 
contest in the late war between the Greeks 
and the Ihuks. 

Acrostic (Greeitj; a poem, of which 
the fiTFt, and sometimes the final letters 
cf the lines or vcz 7; u fcmi some particular 
word or words. The middle letters, also, 
are sometimes used for the same purpose. 
An example of the three kinds unitea may 
be seen in the following Latin hexameters : 

I atercanciamicaiis I gniti liderB CttI I. 
E zpeQit teaebras E loto Phoebus ut<»ibE; 
S iccaKasrcinovet fESUS caliginia umbra S. 
V irificwiaqae rinuil V ero pnecordia mot U, 
8 olem jwtitift SeseprobalessebeatiS. 



The French abb^s and nobles, before the 
revohition, often exercised their ingenu- 
i^ in the composition of these poetical 
trifles. The rrench Encydopidie mo- 
deme says, VacrosUcke HaU alare uapoUme 
dt eour ou dt rudU, 

Act, in law ; an instrument in writing 
for declaring or justifying the truth of 
any thing. In this sense, records, decrees, 
sentences, reports, certificates, &c. are 
called acts. The French lawyers distin- 
guish between, 1, pioale records {actea 
sons €eing prioi), which must be acknowl- 
edged by tnc parties, in order to have legal 
force ; U, imblic docvmenU (ojdUa cadhm- 
&fujt9)t wnich have legal fbrce, without 
being acknowledged by the parties, as 
long as they are not proved spurious \ and, 
3, txteuHot acts i^adUs exiaJoires)^ which, 
tmtil their genumeneas 19 called in ques- 
tion {inscription hfcmx), are also binding 



without aeknowledgmsiit by the parties 
subject to their operation. Of thir kind 
are the records of the pubhe notaries (odes 
fiotert^), and aU the official documents of 
the French courts of justice. In Eng- 
land and the United States, act imptiesi£- 
ere^ ,* hence, an act of parliament is a de- 
cree of parliament, confirmed by the king, 
a statute. {Be% Qrtal BnUKn.) At the dose 
of each aunual sessiont ^^ decrees or acts 
of pariiament are collected into one body, 
which forms the statute of that session, the 
several decrees of which are contained in 
separate chapters. They are quoted aooor^ 
ding to the year of the lung's reign, and ac- 
cording to the chapter; e. g. 3ie act of 
hodieas corpus is the second diapter of the 
statute of the year 1680, the 3lst year of 
the reign of Charles II, and is qucMed, 31 
Ch. II, c 22. In America, there is no uni- 
form mode of quotinv statutes: each sep- 
arate act is deeuHM a distinct statute. 
Generally, the acts are cited by their date 
and year *, and, if more particukri^ is ne- 
cessary, by the chapter, when the statutes 
are divided into chapters. Ads in Ger- 
many are the records and documents of 
any. transaction, especially of a lavrsuit 
The whole process, in that country, is 
carried on 'm writing. Nothing is receiv- 
ed as evidence, umess laid before the 
court on paper. When a criminal pro- 
cess begins, the prisoner is brought before 
a judge or assistant and a writer. The 
judge questions: the question is vmtten 
on the left side of a folio sheet ; on the 
right side the answer of the prisoner is set 
down. The same takes place vrith every 
witness. The reader can imagine to what 
an immense bulk these acts often in- 
crease in the course of a «n|^e process. 
If there are witnesses in other places, an 
order to examine them is sent, and the 
papers containing the minutes of their tes- 
timony «re transmitted to the place of trial 
The examining judge is called the judge 
of inauiation (wqvdsiiionS'ricbiar). At 
the close of each staae of the exami- 
nation, the^ prisoner subscribes the min- 
utes made during that time v^th the 
words, ^read m my hearing, approved 
and signed." He also signs his name, as 
do likewise the judge and the writer. 
When the acts are completed (dosed), 
they are delivered to the court, who asp- 
point anodier judge to report on them 
and move for judgment, while another 
still acts as couns^ for the prisoner. Af- 
terwards, the whole court tn oteno de- 
cides. In fact, in Germany, tne whole 
course of administration is conducted in 
writing. In Saxony, such acts are afanosc 



40 



ACT— ACTION. 



endlesB. In PruaBia^ alw, they a^B very 
numerous. All acts ai^ preeDrved in ar- 
chives. After sentence passed in one 
eourt, the whole pile of acts is sent to a 
ocnut oj^ appeal. 

Act, in tne universities, signifies a the- 
sis maintained in public by a condidatis 
fyr a degree. 

Act or Faith. (Sec MquisUion.) 

Acta Eruditorum ; the first literary 
journal that appeared in Geimany. It 
enjoyed a long existence and great popu- 
larity. The example set by the Journal 
da Saoansj and by the Giomak de* LU- 
terati, but especially the increasing spirit 
of enterprise and activity among the Ger" 
man booksellers, induced Otto Mencke, 
professor at L<npsic, to lay the foundation 
of this periodical publication, in 1680. 
laving formed the necessaiy connexions, 
on his traveb through Holland and Eng- 
land, and being assisted by the most em- 
inent German scholars, he commehced 
the journal in 1663, which increased in 
popularity fiom year to year. Among 
the contnhutors were Carpzov, Leibnitz, 
Thomasius, &c. Its object was, to give 
a fintfafiil and particular account of books ; 
and it was conducted on the same plan, 
even after a better taste in composition 
and greater independence wero introdu- 
ced into literary discussions in the French 
journals published in Holland. The Ger- 
man journal began, however, to decline 
padually in value, and in the number of 
Its subscribens, particulariy after 1754 ; and 
the irregularis of its appearance became 
at lengSi so great, that the last volume, 
for 1776, was published in 1782, exactly 
a century fipom the time when the journal 
was commenced. The whole consists of 
117 volumes in 4to., including the supple- 
mentary volumes and indices. Leibnitz, 
in this journal, first gave to the world his 
notions respecting the differential calcu- 
lus. 

Acta Sanctorum ; a name sometimes 
applied to all collections of accounts of 
ancient martyrs and saints, both of the 
Greek and Roman ehurehes. It is used 
more particularly as the title of a volumi- 
nous work, cxMnprising all those accounts, 
which was commenc^ at the instigation 
of the Jesuits, in 1643, by John Boiland, a 
Jesuit of Antwerp, and after his death 
continued by other divines of the same 
order, known by the name of BoUandisls^ 
(q. v.) to the year 1794, but not yet finish- 
ed, (Antwerp, Brussels and T<Higerloo, 
1643—1794, 53 volumes in folio.) Some 
imperfect notices of persons distinguished 
ibr their holy lives and religious constan- 



cy, during ^e period of the persecution 
of Christian believersy are found as early 
as the second and tliird centuries ; par- 
ticular oamtives and biographies com- 
menced with the 4th century, and were 
infinitely muhtplied till ' the close of 
the middle ages. Since the 6th century, 
many worics have been compiled fiiom 
this immense mass of materials. The 
first critical collection of original legends 
was edited by Boninus Mombritius, in 
1474. The above-mentioned collection, 
however, surpasses all others of the kind 
in extend fidelity and impartiality. It is 
Hkowise distinguished for sound criticism 
and excellent illustrations, which will 
make it forever a most valuable store- 
house of ecclesiastical history, if truth is 
critically separated fix>m fiction and su- 
perstition, by the historian who describes 
the manners and the spirit of those ages. 

Actjeon ; in fabulous history, the son 
of Aiistseus and AutonoC ; a great hunter. 
He was turned into a stag, l^ Diana, for 
looking on her when (£ewaB bathing, 
and was torn to pieces bv his own dogs. 
Also, a Corinthian youth. Killed by Archi- 
as, one of the Heracfidie, in an attempt to 
carry him off'fit>m his fiither*s house. 

Action (taw) a term including private 
suits end public prosecutiona Actions 
are, therefore, criminal or civil ; criminal, 
for the punidiment of crime ; civil, for 
the obtainihent of right Civil actions 
are divided into red, personal and 
mixed. Action real is uiat whereby 
a man claims title to lands or tene- 
ments in fee or for life. Aetion ptason- 
al is brought upon contracts, or injury 
to person or estate. Action mixed fies 
for a thing and against the person who 
has it. It seeks an object, and a penalty 
for its detention. Many personal actions 
die with the person. Real actions sur- 
vive. In all actions merely personal, for 
wrongs actually committed by the defend- 
ant, as trespass, batter>', slander, the action 
dies with the person, and never can be 
revived, either by or against the executors 
or other representatives. But in actions 
on contracts, where the right descends to 
the representatives of the plaintiff, and 
those of the defendant have received ef- 
fects from the deceased sufficient to an- 
swer the demand, though the suits abate 
by the death of the parties, yet they may 
be revived agunst or by the executors. 
Again, actions are either local or transi- 
tory. Actions, real or mixed, for the re- 
covery of the freehold, or for damage 
done to it, are to be brought in the same 
county where the land fies. Actions on 



ACTION— ACTRESSES. 



41 



contncli, or lor ^rsoHal injuries, are not 
fimitod ID & particular countf. Actions 
are fikewiBe joint or seyeral ; |oint, where 
seTeial persons are equally conoemedy 
and one cannot bring the action^ or be 
sued, without the other; several, in case 
of DM P ao B, &c^ where persons are to be 
sevenXly charged. Every trespass com- 
mitfeed by many is severaL 

AcTiuM, a fHKHnontory on the western 
coast of Greece, in ancient Epinis. the 
nofthem extremity of Acamania (now 
Manm\f at the entrance of the Ambra- 
cwn goH; at present called capo di Figo- 
(a, or jftnb, on the gulf of Arta, is mem- 
onUe on account of the naval battle 
fongbt here between Antony and Octa- 
vios, Sept. 2, R C. 31, in sight of their 
amies, encamped on the opposite shores 
of the AmtNTBcian gulf. The forces of 
Octavius consisted of 80,000 in&ntry, 
12,000 cavahy, and 260 ships of war ; 
those of Antony, of 100,000 in&ntry, 
12,000 cavaliy, and 230 ships of war. 
Notwithstand^^ the advice of his most 
experienced generals, to meet Octavius 
by land, Antony, at the instigation of Cle- 
opatra, deterniined upon a uaval enme- 
ment. His vessels advanced, beauufuil^ 
ornamented, and remariLt^le for their 
size ; those of Octavius, although smaller, 
were more skilfully managed. Both fleets 
were manned with the soldiers of the 
Roman legions, who conndered a sea- 
fight like a battle on land, and the ships 
as foils which were to be stormed. Those 
of Antony threw fire-brands and missile 
weapons fiom catapults, whilst those of 
Octavius applied grappling-irons to the 
ships of the enemy, and boarded them. 
Soon after the beginning of the battle, 
before any thing decisive had taken place, 
the timid Cleopatra fled witli 60 Egyp- 
tian ships, when she perceived the centre 
of Antony's fleet in an un&vorable posi- 
tion. Antony imprudently followed her. 
Octavius, perceiving his flight, |5roclaimed 
it aloud, and the deserted fleet was soon 
oTercoroe, notwithstanding a brave resist- 
ance, and immediately went over to the 
enemy. Antony's troops, which were 
diawn up on the shore, and had beheld 
with amazement the flight of their leader, 
followed the example of the fleet. Antony 
fled vrith Cleopatra to Effvpt, where he 
killed himself, to avoid tailing into the 
bands of his enemies. Augustus enlarf^. 
ed the temple of Apollo at Actium, m 
rommenioration of his victory, dedicated 

o Neptune and Mars the standards 
irhich he had taken, and instituted games, 
D be celebrated every 5 years, in com- 



memoration of this battle, whioh made 
him master of the world. 

AcTOK, Joseirfi, prime minister of Na- 
ples, was bom in 1737, of Iridi parents, 
who had settled in Besan^on. After he 
had finished his education, he entered 
the French navy, which he soon quitted 
fiur the Tuscanj and was subsequently 
employed in tfie Spanish expedition 
agamst Barbery, in which he found an 
omwrtunity to distuo^ish himself. This 
lea him to the Neapolitan navy, and then 
to the Neapolitan court, where he acquir- 
ed the &vor of queen Caroline. He was 
successively appointed minister of the 
navy, minister of war, then director of the 
finances, and, finally, prime minister. In 
this office he contracted an intimacy with 
the English ambassador, sbr William 
Hamihon, and, in concert with him, exer- 
cised a great, and bv no means beneficial 
influence over the fortunes of Naples. A. 
YB a new example, how dangerous it is for 
monarehs to intrust favorites with uidim- 
ited power. His implacable hatred against 
France led him, during the continuance of 
the Italian wars, to the most extmvagant 
measures, which always turned otut dis- 
advantageously for the royal family, and 
strengthened the French party, fi^m 
which that of the Carbonan was after- 
wards formed. A. accompanied the king, 
in 1798, on Mack's expedition against the 
French army. During the presence of 
Nelson, he had previously presided over 
the renowned junto, which, to satisfy its 
hatred against men of different political 
o|Mnions, with unprecedented cruelty, 
sought out victims in all ranks. After 
the unfortunate issue of Mack's expedi- 
tion, A. >vas removed fix>m the helm of 
the Neapolitan government. He died in 
1808, hated and despised by all parties. 
Actors. (See Actrt»9t»,) 
Actresses, in the drama, appear to 
have been wholly unknown to the an- 
cients, men or eunuchs always performing 
the female parts. Charles II is said to 
have first encouraged their public appear- 
ance in England ; but there is eviaence 
that the queen of James I performed in 
a court theatre. Actors were k>ng ex- 
cluded finom good socienr, and actresses 
still longer, and perhaps the English were 
the fiist who admitted the most distin- 
guished into thehr first cucles. Instances 
of exemplary conduct are not wanting 
amongst actresses in modem times. 
France, England, Italy and Germany 
have had many of unbtonushed repula- 
At Athens,acton were hi^^ hon- 



tion. 
ored. 



At Rome, they were despiaad, and 

..gitized by Google 



ACTR£86£S~ADALBERT. 



deprived «f tba lidit of m^Eng^ Tho 
reason of this diffmiMie i% that, amiNig 
the 6i«ek8» the actCMs were freebofn citi- 
zens, and the dramatic perfimnancee had 
their origin in the saered festivals; boi, 
among the RoinaiiB,the dnuraftwas intro- 
duced by persona of the lowest class, 
Etruscan payeis and peasaBts of Atella. 
Actt>rB and actresses continued for« long 
time to be treated with Iktts regard in 
France, after they had been admitted kiSo 
good society in England. Mairiages of 
Englishmen of high rank with actresses 
are not rare. In some parts of Germany, 
actors were formerly buried like suicides, 
in a comer of the burying-ground, sepa- 
rated from the other fftaves. How much 
the ancients studied me dramatic art may 
be seen from one &ct, that Polus, a fk- 
mous Greek actor, when he had to play 
Electra, in the tragedy of Sophocles, 
made use of an urn containing the aabes 
of his own son, to represent the funeral 
urn of Orestes. But here art ceased ; this 
was again nature. 

Acts of the Apostles (noa^Mt roiv anoa- 
fo^m) ; one of the books of the N. Testa- 
ment, written in Greek by St. Luke (q. v.), 
the author of the Gospel which bears his 
name. It is addressed to Thcophilus, of 
whom nothing is known, and is evidentlv 
intended as a continuation of the Gospel, 
which the author himself calls his ^nrst 
book.'* (JkU i, 1.) It has been universally 
received, and is ^nerally allowed to have 
been written A. D. 63 or 64, but in what 
place is doubtful ; Jerome says, at Rome ; 
GrotiuB and Lardner think, in Greece; 
Michafilis, in Ale^Eandria. It embraces a 
period of about 30 years, bej^inning im- 
mediately afler the resurrection, and ex- 
tending to the 2d year of the imprison- 
ment of St Paul in Rome. Very little 
information is given of any of the apos- 
tles^ excepting Sl PetOT and St Paul, and 
the accounts of them are partial and in- 
complete. Thus thfe history of St Peter 
terminates with the death of Herod, al- 
though that apostle is considered to have 
lived and preached ^ years longer. It 
describes the gathering^ of the in&nt 
church after the deatli of its Founder ; the 
fiilfilment of the promise of Christ to his 

ritles, in the descent of the Holy Ghost ; 
choice of Matthias in the place of 
JudaSy the betrayer; the testimony of the 
apostles to the resurrection of Jesus in 
ima discousBes, attested by miracles and 
sufferinfls ; their preaching in Jerusalem 
and in Judea, ancf aflerwa^ to the Gren- 
tiles; the conversion of Paul, hts.preacfa- 
ing in Am Minor, Greece and wy, his 



miracles and labors. Its place is gener- 
ally at the head of the apostolicon, or be- 
fbice the episdes; but in some MSS. it is 
found after the Id Catholic epistles. The 
a^ie of thb work, which was originally 
composed in Greek, is purer than mat of 
the Qlher canonical writers ; and St Luke, 
in his quotations from the Old Testament, 
always makes use of the Septuagint ver- 
sion. 

AcuifA, Christopher de, a Spanish 
Jesuit, bom at Burgos, in 1597. He is 
principally known as the author of a 
duious woik, JViievo Dtscvhrindtnio dr 
Qran Rio de los AmazanesAA new Descrip- 
tion of the Great River or the Amazons,) 
Madrid, 4 parts, 1641. Only two copies 
are said to exist at present In 16^ a 
translaticm of one of them into French 
was puUished in 4 vols. 15huo. A.'s work 
is very curious. 

AcupuifCTCRE. K&mpfer made known, 
more than 100 years ago, the Japanese and 
Chinese method of curing arthritic and 
rheumatic complaints by acupuncture; 
but it is only a few years since it has 
been cai^ftilly examined and applied in 
England and France. (See ChitrchUFs 
Th-eidiae on Acupuncture,) In Japan and 
China, this mode of curing is applied 
much more frequently than in Europe*, 
and ev^3 to the tenoerest paits of tho 
body. It consists in driving a fine needle 
one or two inches into the nesh of the af- 
flicted part The opinions of the cause 
of relief by acupuncture are still ver}' dif- 
ferent Some writers think a galvanic 
influence on the nerves takes place. 

Acute. (See Acceni.) 

Ad libitum, used in music for a pia- 
ctrcy when the principal performer is at 
liberty to give way to his conceptions, to 
change the measure from quick to slow, 
or the contrary, without accompanunent, 
and to manifest his ability in the efj^ions 
of his fency. The term is often used in 
the full score, to denote those ports which 
are not essential, and may be oniitted. 

Adagio (lUd.) expresses a slow time. 
Used substantively, it expresses a slow 
movement Sometimes the word is re- 
peated to denote a still greater retardation 
in the time of the music. 

Adalbert, or Aldebert ; a native of 
France, who preached tho gospel in 744, 
on the banks of the Maine. He is re- 
inarkable as the first opponent to tlie in- 
troduction of the rites and ordinances of 
the Cath<^c church into Germany. He 
dared to assert, that the multiplication of 
saints and relics, and the practice of con- 
fe«ion, were superfluous. On this ac- 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ADiKLBERT'-.ADAM. 



43 



i of heresy, bf Bon- 
the apostle of Geniuiiiy» 9M con- 
1 by two coimcilB, at SouBone in, 
744»8iid «t Rome in 745. Having fimfiy 
made his escape from vrison, he is said to 
have been murdered oy some peasants, 
OD the banks of the Pulda. 

Adai^sert, archbishopof Bremen and 
Hambuis, a descendant of a princety 
house of Saxony, received his office, in 
1013, fiom the emperor Henry III, whose 
reiati<m, friend and follower he was. He 
arcompanied Henry to Rome, where he 
was a distingiUBhed candidate for the 
papa] chair. Pope Leo IX, in whose 
iiehalf he had spdcen at the synod of 
Mentz, 1049, made him his legate in the 
notth of Europe, 1C60. He superintend- 
ed the churches of Denmark, Norway 
and Sweden, but aspired in vain to the 
dignity of pope, or patriarch of the North. 
During the minority of Henry FV, who 
sAerwards became emperor, he usurped, 
in concert with Hanno, archbishop of 
Cologne, the guardianship of the young 
fwince, and the administration of the em- 
pire, and gained an ascendency over his 
rival, by indulging the passions of his 
popiL After Heniy had become of age 
to role, A. exercised the government 
without control, in his name. A.'s pride 
and aibitrary administration inducea the 
German princes, in 1066^ to remove him 
by force from the court ; hut after a short 
contest with the Saxon nobles, who laid 
waste Ins territory,' he recovered his for- 
mer power, which he held till his death 
at Goslar, March 17, 1072. He excelled 
his contemporaries in princely qualities, 
in talent, and in strength of mind ; and if 
he had possessed magnanimity, and a 
wise spirit of moderation, h^ would have 
deserved the name of the great, which has 
been given him. The injustice and tyran- 
ny which stained his administration were 
mainly instrumental in producinff the 
ronftision and calamities, in whicn the 
rpign of Henry IV was involved. 

Adalbert of Praffue, the apostle of 
Prussia proper, son of a Bohemian noble- 
man, was educated in the cathedral of 
MagdebuT^, between the years 973 and 

962, and appointed bishop of Prague in 

963. He labored in vain to convert the 
Bohemians ftom paganism, and to intro- 
duce among them the ordinances of the 
church of Rome. Discouraged by the 
fruitlessness of his pious zeal, he left 
Prague, J^, and lived in convents at 
Montecasino and Rome, until the Bohe- 
mians, in 993; recalled him. But after two 
years, he again left them, disgusted with 



their baibarous manners. He letmied 
to Rome, and soon followed Ihe emperor 
Otho III to Germany; on which jouniey 
he baptized, at Gran^ St Stephen, who 
subsequently became king or Hansary. 
After a visit to the monasteries of TaaarB 
and Floury, he proceeded to Gnesen, to 
meet Boleslaus, duke of Pohmd; and 
being informed that the Bohemians did 
not wish to see him again, he resolved to 
convert the pagans of Prussia. But he 
k)st his lifo in the attempt, being murdered 
by a peasant, Aprfl 23, 907, near what is 
now Fischhausen. Hjs body was bought 
by Boleslaus, for its weight in gold, and 
became ftunous for its nuracufous power. 
It was even visited at Gnesen by Otho 
III, in 1000, and removed fiom Bohe- 
mia by duke Brzetislaw. Its influence 
was greater than that of the saint himseK 
The Bohemians, who before had leftned 
to receive the ordinances of the church, 
now suffered them to be introduced into 
Prague, on the sole condition, that these 
miraculous bones should be transferred to 
their city. 

Adam (Hebrew, ^S^rme^i <if earA), the 
father of the human race, was, according 
to Genesis, made of clay, on the sixth day 
of the creation. God finished the work 
of creation by forming man accordiiiff to 
his own image, making him master of all 
created thin^ He gave him Eve for 
his companion (in Hebrew, Heva, the 
mother </ the Iwing), formed of his fiesh, 
that the earth might be peopled by their 
union. The gar£n of fSden, diversified 
with firuitftil trees, was their abode, in 
which they found every thing to Satisfy 
their wants, and to afibro them pleasure. 
But in the centre stood the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil; aild of 
this their Creator had forbidden them to 
eat Eve was beguiled by the serpent to 
take of this finit, and to cat of it with 
her husband. This crime destroyed their 
felicity. The appearance of thmgs was 
suddenly changed before their eyes. They 
perceived their nakedness, and endeavor- 
ed to conceal it. In vain did A. seek to 
hide himself from the sight of God ; in 
vain did he throw the blame of his trans- 
gression upon Eve; a curse followed 
Oiem and the whole creation. Driven 
fh>m the state of innocence, in which he 
was bom, A. saw himself condenmed to 
earn his bread by the sweat of his brow 
All the erils of life and the terrors of 
death came upon him. He had three 
sons, Cain, Abel and 3eth, and died at 
tlie aee of 930 years, 130 of which he 
passed in Paradise. The histoiy of A. is 



44 



ABAM-JOHN ADAM8. 



found, with little variation, in the tradi- 
lione of nearly all ancient nations, who 
abem to have derived their infbnxiation 
fiom a common source. 

Adam. Three brothers of this name 
were sculptorB. The eldest^ Lambert 
Sigisbert, bom in 1700, at Nancy, where 
his jQither was also a sculptor, went, at 
• the age of 18, to Metz, and thence to 
Taris. After four years study in this cttv, 
■ he received the iirst prize jQpom the acad- 
emy, and soon afterwards went as a royal 
pensioner to Rome, where he passed 10 
years. The cardinal of Polignac com- 
miasioned him to supply the parts want- 
ing in the 12 marble statues, found in the 
piuace of Marius, and known by the name 
of the famSy qf lAfcomedeSf which task 
A. executed with great skill. When the 
erection of the large monument at Rome, 
known by the name of the ybuntom of Trt- 
vif was contemplated, A. was one of the 
16 statuaries appointed to fomish designs. 
That which he offered was accepted, but 
the jealousy of the Italian artists opposed 
its execution, and in 1733 A. returned to 
France. In 1737, he was chosen mem- 
ber of the academy, and afterwards pro- 
fessor. The statue of Neptune calming 
the waves, with a Triton at his feet, is a 
fine specimen of his skill. Besides vari- 
ous other works, he now finished die 
group of Neptune and Amphitrite, to 
adorn the basin of Neptune at Versailles. 
A. was skilful in working marble ; his 
anatomy is correct and his drapery good ; 
but he was led astray by the bad taste of 
his time, which confounded the provin- 
ces of painting and sculpture. He died 
in 1759. — His brother, Nicholas Sebas- 
tian, bom at Nancy in 1705, studied the 
same art, imder the care of his fatlier, and 
in the academy of Paris. At the age of 
18, he was employed in a Castle near 
Montpellier, and went, after 18 months, to 
Rome, in 1726. After two years, he 
gained the prize offered by tlie academy 
of San Luca, worked in connexion with 
his brother, spent nine years abroad, and 
was finally adniittcd into the academy of 
Paris. His Prometheus lacerated by the 
vulture was exhibited as a specimen of 
his powers, but not finished until some 
time after the exhibition. His masterpiece 
is the tomb of the queen of Poland, wife 
of Stanislaus. In n>gard to his merits, 
what has been said of his brother holds 
tme of him. He died in 1778.— The third 
brother, Francis Gaspard, bom at Nancy 
in 1710, was also a pupil of his father. In 
1728, he joined his brotliers in Home, and 
improved greatly in their company. He 



then returned to Paris, gained the fint 
wize of the academy, and m 1742 visked 
Kome again, where he completed hia 
studies. He then went to Berlin, instead 
of his brother Nicholas Sebastian, whom 
Frederic II had invited thither. He 
labored there several years, and died at 
Paris in 1759. 

Adauant. (See DiomotidL) 

ADAMAiTTiifE Spar ; a stone of pecu- 
liar hardness, approaching to tliat of the 
diamond. It wul cut guss easily, and 
mark rock crystal. It is found in China 
and India, and, as M. Pini alleges, in 
Italy. 

Adami Pomum. (See AdoiaCs JlpfiU,) 

Adamites ; the name of a Chnstian 
sect, said to have existed in the 2d cen- 
tury; and also of a band of heretics, 
wkucli, in 1421, a^eared in Bohemia, 
during the conunouons occasioned by the 
doctrines of Hubs. They were called A. 
because both men and women were said 
to appear naked in their assemblies, 
either to imitate Adam in the state of in- 
nocence, or to prove the control which 
they possessed over their passions. The 
tradition respecting the former sect of this 
name appeius to have had its origin in a 
luune or derision given to the Carpocra- 
tians of indifterent reputation. (See 
€irno«Kc9.) The accounts of the latter A. 
are not to be relied upon with more cer- 
tainty. These were also called Picardst 
firom the founder of their sect, Picard, 
(oeribaps also Begkardm) They aopeared 
about the year 1421, on an island in the 
river Lusmicz, where Zisca surprised 
them, but was nut able to destroy the 
whole sect. In the following year, 
thev were widely spread over Mhemia 
and Moravia, and especially hated by the 
Hussites (whom they resembled in hatred 
towards the hierarchyj, because they re- 
jected the doctrine or transubstantiation. 
They subsequently formed one sect with 
the remaining Taborites, who have occa- 
sionally been confoimded with the A. 

Adams, John, a distinguished patriot 
of the American revolution, was born 
at Braintree, Massachusetts, October 19, 
1735. The ancestors of Mr. A, had left 
England for the wilds of America, in or- 
der to enjoy their religious opinions un- 
molested. They were among the fir2»t 
settlers of Massachusetts, Hennr Adams, 
tlie great-great-grandfather of John, and 
one of the original proprietors of the town 
of Braintree, having ned from Englimd, 
with other Puritans, in the year 1630. 
Their condition was that of substantial 
yeomen, who poasessed the fee simple of 



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JOHNADAMa 



tlMir hsdfl^ md maiDltmed Uieniflelves 
and ftmilies by oMDnal labor. Mr, A. 
bmog, wben. yet a boy, eriiiced great 
Aodiiefls lor books, and readinoK in 
learningy his fttber determined to give 
Jiim a coDegiatB educatkm, and pbeed 
him, in oooseqnencef under the care of 
Mr. Marah (who WB0 afterwafds the pre- 
ceptor of the celebrated Joaiah QuincyX 
diat he might be preoared for entrance 
into the uniyefsity of Cambridge. He 
remained in that institution until the vear 
1755, -when he receiyed his bachelor's 
degree, and in 1758 that of master of 
arts. Whilst at college, he is said to have 
been distinguiahed by intense application, 
letendTenesB of memory, acutenefis of 
reasoning, boldness and originality of 
thou^t, strength of bnmiage, and an 
honesty of chanieter whicn could neither 
assume nor tolerate disguise. After be 
had left college, he commenced the study 
of law, at Worcester, with colonel James 
Putnam, and, during the jperiod he was so 
ennged, instructea pupils in the Latin 
and Greek languages, in order to be able 
to defiaj his expenses himself. — ^Beibra 
proceedmg fialher,it may not be amiss to 
notice the posture of afBurs in Masaacha- 
setts at that epoch. For a long time past, 
that piovince had been disturbed by al- 
most unremitted contentions between its 
inhsbitants and the parliament of Great 
BritaiB, on vaiioua important suliiects. 
The English legislature had, in fiwt, 
nothing to do with the colonies, as all do- 
miniMi acquired by conquest or diseoTery 
inraiiably accrued to the king. To him 
afene the emigrants paid allegiance and 
applied for protection, and, although par- 
liament idways affected to believe itself 
entided to repilate their concerns, they re- 
ceived very little inteiniption fiom it in the 
exen»se of the privilege granted them 
by the kinf of goveming and legislating 
Iot themsMves. In the course of time, 
however, parliament became jealous of 
the power, approaching to independence, 
which they enjoyed, ai^ began to impose 
unconstitutional restraints . upon ueir 
f'ommerce, to violate their chanras, and, 
in ahofft, to treat them so arbitrarily, that 
their afixit was completely roused, and a 
vigorous resistance called forth. Massa- 
chusetts, especially, had become a theatre 
of perpetual strun^le for power on the 
one side, and for freedom on the other. 
But it was hitherto only an inteUectual 
waifore, no idea of a separation from the 
mother countnr having ever been enter- 
tained.— In 1758, Mr. A. left the office of 
colonel Putnam, and entered that of Jere« 



miah Gridley, then ationiesF-gettenilvf die 
provinee, and of the bluest emineiioe at 
the bar. Gridley had, aome veers prayi* 
ously, supermtended also the leaal studies 
pf James Otis, and, proud of lus two p«* 
pils, used often to say, that ^he had raised 
two young eagles, who were, one day or 
other, to peek out his €ywJ* In 1750^ 
Mr. A. was admitted, at his reoommendar 
tion, a member of the bar of Suffolk. 
Mr. A commenced the practice of his 
profesaon in that part of nis native town 
now called Qmney, but firit brou^t 
himself into notice by his defence of a 
imeoner in the county of Plymouth, froon 
which time a sufficiency of lucrative bu- 
siness generally occupied his attendoD» 
In 1761, he was admitted to the dcoree 
of barrister at law, and shortly after- 
wards was placed in die poesession of a ' 
small landea estate bf his nther^ deeeaaa* 
In Febniarr of th» year, an incident 
occurred, vmich inflamed his enthusiasm 
in the cause of his coimtiy's lifditB to the 
highest pitch. The British cfiuBet had 
long shown a desire to assert thesoverBi|^ 
authority of parliament over the colonies 
in all cases of taxation amd internal pohey ; 
but the first evidenoe of its haviiig delar- 
mined to do so was an order in council, 
issued this year, enjoining the officers of 
the customs in Massachusetts Bay to exe- 
cute the ocfo oftradtf and make appficatioii 
fattmigqf am$ianee to the supreme judi- 
cature ofthe province. These writs wens 
a species of general search-warrants^ au- 
thorizing those who were empowered to 
eany them into effect to enter all houM^ 
vraiehousBS^ &c^ ftsr the puipoae of di»- 
covering and seizing such gwids as were 
not dischanpd fiom the taxes imposed 
upon them hy the acts. The officers of 
the customs implied for than, in pursu- 
ance of their mstructions, to the eourt at 
Salem, but the demand was reftised, on 
account of doubts oonceming dieir con- 
stitutionality. It was then determined to 
have the aftabr argued by counsel in 
Boston. Great alami now pervaded the 
whole community. Mr. Otis was eiung- 
ed, by the merchants of Salem and fioe- 
ton, to oppose the conoeasion of so for- 
midable an instrument of arbitrary power. 
In Older to do so Irith entire freedom, he 
resigned the lucrative station of advocate- 
generd in the court of admiralty, viFhi<^ 
he then enjoyed. Of the masteriy man- 
ner in which he performed his duty, Mr. 
A., who was oresent at the discussion, 
has transmitted a vivid account ^ Otis,*^ 
says lie, <<was a flame of fire! With a 
promptitude of dassical allusion, a depth 



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JOEN ADAMB. 



of ranereh, a rapid saininary of historical 
Qi^ents and dates, a profusion of lej^ au- 
thorities, a prophetic glance of his e^ 
into futurity, and a rapid tortent of im- 
petuous eloquence, he hurried away ail 
Before him. American htdependenee wu 
then and Hurt^ hom,^ He afterwards 
adds, ** Every man of an immensely crowd- 
ed audience appeared to me to go away, 
SB I did, ready to take arms against writs 
of assistance. Speaking of this discourse 
on anodier occasion, he said, ** that James 
Otis, then and there, first breathed into this 
nation the breath of life." — In 1764, he mar- 
ried AlMcail Smith, second daughter of the 
reverend William Smith, of Weymouth, 
and grand-daughter of colonel Quincy, 
of mount WoUaston, a lady every way 
worthy ofher husband, endowed by nature 
with a countenance singulariy nci)le and 
lovely, and with a mind whose fine powers 
were improved by an excellent education. 
Her ardor in the cause of her country 
was as elevated as his own, and her piety 
unaffected and exemplary. — ^Abouta year 
afterwards, Mr. A. published in the Boston 
Gazette several pieces, under the title of 
^ An Essay on Cfanon and Feudal Law," 
which were reprinted in London, in 1768, 
and called ** A bissertation on Canon and 
Feudal Law." It is, perhaps, not the 
smallest proof of its merit, that it was 
there attributed to Gridley, who at that 
time enjcyed the hi^est reputation for 
ability. The friends of the colonies in 
England termed it "one of the very 
nest productions ever seen from N<Ntn 
America." The name of the real author 
was afterwards divulged, in 1783, when 
it was published in Philadelphia, bv Rob- 
ert BeU, in a pamphlet form, with lord 
Sheffield's observationB on the commerce 
of the American States, and entitied ** An 
Essay on Canon and Feudal Law, by 
John Adanis, Esq." It seems to have 
be^i the principal object of the author to 
extiniFuiah, as fiir as poenble, the blind 
and lumost superstitious veneration of his 
countrymen for the institutions of the 
parent country, by holding up to their 
abhorrence the principles of the canon 
and feudal law, and showing to them the 
conspiracy which existed between church 
and state, for the purpose of oppresrang 
the people. He inculcates the sentiments 
of genuine libem, as well as the neces- 
sity of correct information on the pan of 
his fellow-citizens, in order tiiat they 
mi^t be prepared to assert and maintain 
theur rights by force, if force should ever 
become necossory. It was indeed a work 
eminentiy calculated to excite the people 



of America to resist, at aH hazards, any 
kifiingement of their liberties.— In De- 
cemb^, 1765, Mr. A. was encaged, as 
counsel with Mr. Gridley and Mr. Otis, 
to support, before the governor and 
councu, a memorial presented to tiie for- 
mer, firom the town of Boston, praying 
that the courts, which had been closed 
on account of the oppomtion to the stamp 
act, might again be opened. Through 
their united exertions, the petition was 
successfid. In the same year, he remov- 
ed to Boston, where he continued in the 
practice of his profession on a veiy ex- 
tensive scale. After he had resided there 
about two years, the crovni officers of the 
province, thinking, perhaps, that his pat- 
riotism was not without its price, made 
him an offer, throuch Mr. Sewall (between 
vHiom and himself an intimate friendship 
subfflsted, formed at the time when he 
was studying with colonel Putnam), of the 
office of advocate-general in the court of 
admiralty, the most lucrative post in the 
gift of the governor. This office also was 
one which conducted its incumbents di- 
rectiy to the highest provincial honors. 
He refused it, however, as he says in his 
jxeface to the late edition of Novcanglus^ 
''decidedly and peremptorily, though 
respectfully." — ^In 1769, he was appointed 
chairman of the committee, chosen by 
the town of Boston, for the purpose of 
drawing up instructions to their represent- 
atives, to resist the encroachments of the 
Briti^ government. His colleagues were 
R. Dana and Jos. Warren. At the time 
they v^re thus employed, the metropolis 
viras iiivested by an armed force, both by 
sea and land, and the state-bouse sur- 
rounded by a military guard, with cannon 
pointed at the door. Large majorities of 
both houses of parliament had sisnificd 
their approval of the measures adopted 
by the kmg ; had promised him their sup- 
portf and besought him to prosecute, 
ufWim the realm, dl those who had been 
guilty of treasonable acts, in Massachu- 
setts, since the year 1767, in accordance 
with the decree of parliament of the 35th 
of Henry VIII. Nevertheless, the com- 
mittee performed their task ♦vrith un- 
daunted firmness, and reported the in- 
structions which, no doubt, contributed 
to produce the 8th>ng resolutions subse- 
quentiy adopted by the legislamre of 
Massachusetts. It was on account of these 
instructions and resolutions, that the pro- 
vincial garrison was withdravim, by order 
of the governor, from the castle, and reg- 
ttlar trwjps, in the pay of the crown, bud- 
stitttted. The instructions also formed 



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JOHN ADAMS. 



47 



one idihe spedfic dhar^ made agannt 
the oolonjr tr^ the commfttee of the loidB 
of ootmcil for plantation affiJn, to the 
lofda of council, July 6, 1770^ — A striking 
example of the firmneaa and uprightneaa 
of Mr. A. occurred during the course of 
that year. He had, hitherto, been Teiy 
acrire in stimulating the people of his 
provin ce to the strenuous maintenance of 
their rii^ts, and had thereby aided in pro- 
ducDDg an excitement greater than he 
could nave wished, and which he found 
it necessary to counteract The people 
of Boston had become exasperated at the 
idea of a garrison placed in their city, and 
were extremely hostile to the soldiers 
composing it. These foehngs led to an 
attack upon a part^ of them under the 
command of captam Preston, March 5. 
lliey fired on the assailants in self4e- 
faiee, and killed several of them. The 
sdifierB were immediately anaigned be- 
hn the civil authority, and Mr. Adams, in 
oolijunction with Josiah Quincy and Mr. 
Samnon S. Blowers, was requested to 
aid uiem upon their trial. Although the 
minds of the people were inflamed al* 
most to madness, and the defence of the 
accused seemed to involve a certain loss 
of popularity, Mr. A. immediately under- 
took to act as their advocate. Mr. A. 
was no demagogue ; he saw that the hon- 
or of his cotmtry was at stake, and he re- 
joiced, as has been vrell said, in the op- 
portunity of showing to the world, that 
the cause of America did not depend 
upon a temporary excitement, which 
could stifle the voice of justice, but upon 
the sober, steady, persevering determma- 
non of the people to support their rights. 
The cause was conducted by him and his 
colleagues with great ability, and the sol- 
dien were all acquitted save two, who 
were found guilty of manslaughter, re- 
ceived a slight branding as a punishment, 
and were then dischar^. Scarcely any 
thing which occurred dtunng the revolu- 
tion confers more honor upon the nation- 
al character, and did more service to the 
cause of America, than this triumph of 
jOBtioe. — ^Mr. A. soon received a proof 
that the public confidence in him was not 
diminialied, by his election, in May, 1770, 
to the legidature of his suite, as one of 
the representatives of the town of Boston. 
His conduct in this new situation display- 
ed the same patriotism, courace and hos- 
tility to the despotism of tne mother 
countiy, by which he had always been 
djaringniiihed. He took a prominent part 
B every public measure, and servea on 
seveial committees^ who reposed some of 



the most important state uapem of the 
time; among which were the address and 
protest to the governor against the remo- 
val of the general court from Boston to 
Cambridge. In Bradford's History of 
Massachusetts, we find the foHowiiig ac- 
count of a controversy in which Mr. A. 
was enmed in the vdbr 1773. ''The 
ministenalregulation for paying the sal- 
my of the judges, which rendered them 
wholly dependent on the crown, was the 
occasion of a learned and able discussion 
in the public papers, by William Brattle, 
senior member of the council, and John 
Adams. The essays of the latter were 
written with great learning and abili^, 
and had a happy efiect in enlightening, 
the public mmd on a Question of very 
ffieat importance. It suojected him, in- 
deed, to the displeasure of «N>vem<Mr 
Hutdiinson and the ministerial party; 
and at the next election in May, when 
chosen by the assembly into the council, 
the governor gave his negative to the 
choice. These essays were published in 
the Boston Gazette of February, 1773, 
under Mr. Adamses [Nroper signature, and 
would make a pamphlet of 50 or 60 pa- 
gee." — ^In 1774, he was again rejected by 
governor Gage, and soon afterwards he 
was appointed one of the committee of 
the town of Boston, who piopared the 
celebrated resolutions on the Boston 

-bill June 17, of this year, governor 
, having dissolved the assembly, this 

//before separating, passed a resolu- 
tion to appoint a comimttee to meet other 
committees fi^m other colonies, for the 
'purpose of consulting upon their com- 
mon interests, and, in consequence, Mr. 
Thomas Gushing, Mr. Samuel Adams, 
Mr. John Adams and Mr. Robert Treat 
Paine were elected to the first continen- 
tal congress, which met at Philadelphia 
in the following September. Soon after 
Mr. A. was chosen, an incident occurred 
which gives an idea of his feelings on 
contemplating this great and daring na- 
tional movement His friend Sewall, 
who had taken the ministerial side in pol- 
itics, and was at that time attorney-gen- 
eral of the province, hearing of his elec- 
tion, invited him to a morning walk, in 
the course of which he endeavored to 
dissuade him firom his purpose of assum- 
ing the seat in conjoness to which he had 
hewn appointed. He told him that the 
detemunation of Great Britain to pursue 
her ^stem was fixed; that her power 
was irresistible, and would involve him 
in destruction, as well as all his associates 
who persevered in opposition to her de- 



JOflN ADAMS. 



signs. •'IkRdw^^nplMd ha, «<that Grant 
Imtain has determined on ker systan, 
und that very detemination deteimiiias 
me on znine. You know that I have 
been eonatant and unilbnn in O|ipo8itioii 
to her desiffna. The die ia now eaat I 
have pasaed the Huhioon. Sink or avfim, 
live or die, survive or periah with m^ 
countiY, ia my fixed, iwalteiahle detenm- 
nadon/* On bidding him adieu, Mr. A. 
said to hia fHend, ^ f aee we must part, 
and with a bleeding heart I say, I ftar 
ibrever. But, you may depend upcm it; 
this adieu is the aharpeat thom on which 
I ever set my foot" Mr. A. took hia 
aeat in eongreas, SepL 5, 1774, the firat 
day of their eeeaion, and waa aoon choaen 
a member of some of the most important 
eommittees, such as that which drew up 
the statement of the rights of the eoloniea, 
and that which prepaied the addreas to 
the long. He and his coUeagoea carried 
with diem &e character of bong so thor- 
oughly desiroua of independence, that, 
berore they arrived at Philadelphia, warn- 
ing had been given to them, by many of 
die most reej^ctable inhabitants of the 
Middle States, not to utter a word on that 
subject, as it was as unpopular as the 
stamp act itself Almost ail the delegates 
from the other colonies were impressed 
with the idea that Ebigland could be 
brought to terms, vnthout resorting to a 
declaration of independence. Washing- 
ton alone, of the Vnginia delegation, was 
doubtAil whether tl^ measures adopted 
by congress would be efficacious in at- 
taining the object for which they were 
designed. In one of his letters, Mr. A. 
savB, that Richard Henry Lee used the 
following language to him, when they 
parted : ** We ahiul infallibly cany all our 
points; you will be completely relieved; 
all the offensive acts will be repealed; 
die army and fleet will be recalled, and 
Britain will give up her foolish project" 
On his return to Massachusetts, he be- 
came engaged in a controversy with his 
friend Sewall, who was wridng a series 
of essays under the appellation of Jlfo«9a- 
chuBetUnsiSy for the purpose of vindicating 
the cause of the government party. Mr. 
A.'s papers were published in the Boston 
Gazette, with the signature ofMtvanglus, 
and exhibit the cause of America in the 
most triumphant and fiivorable light — 
When Mr. A. resumed his seat in con- 
gress the fbllo wing year, hostilities had in 
realiu commenced between Great Britain 
amTthe colonists, though as vet not openly 
^yfbcSr^df^uodL tha hkwvl of numbers of 
/ brave men had stained the pTalnrof Lex- 



ingtaoi aad Coooeid. On rsceiviaff the 
«cooont of this battle, cengreaa aetei^ 
mined npou war. It was neoessazy to 
fix upon some one fin* the poet of eom- 
-in-chief of the troops which 
ordered to be raised. The 
eyes of all the New Elngland delegation 
were turned upon geneiral Ward, then 
at the head of the army in Massachu- 
setta. At § meeting of them, when 
that ofSkwr was proposed for nomi- 
nattion, Mr. A. alone dissented, and 
urged the selecti<m of George Washing- 
ton, one of the representatives from Vir- 
ginia. He was resisted, and left the 
meeting with the declaration that Wash- 
ington on the next day should be nomi- 
nated. He was accordingly nominated, 
at the instigation of Mr. A., by governor 
Johnstone of Maryland, and chosen with- 
out an (^posing voiee. — ^Five days after 
the appomtment of general Washington, 
Mr. Jefferson made his first a]^[>earance 
on the floor of congress, having been 
choaen by the people of Virginia to fill 
the place of Patrick Henry, who had late- 
ly been elected the governor of that prov- 
ince. Between this distinguished man 
and Mr. A. a fiMndship si]^edily arose, 
which subsisted, with a short interrup- 
tion, during the remainder of their lives. — 
When Mr. A. returned to Massachusetts, 
afler the diaselation of the congress of 
17/5, the poet of chief justice of me state 
was offered to him, which he declined, ou 
account of hia belief that he should be 
able to render more effectual service to 
the cause of his country in its national 
coundla. At the time diat he resumed 
his seat in them in 1776, hostilities were 
active between Great Britain and the oolo- 
niea But the object of the latter was as 
yet merely to resist the authority assumed 
by the parent country to impose taxes 
upon them a| j^Ieasine. Few persons 
entertained the idea of a dissolution of 
oannexkm; veiy few, even of the delegates 
in congress, seemed to desire it; but 
among those ftw John Adams vras the 
foremost We have already mentioned 
its unpopularity. As soon as Mr. A. was 
suspected in Philadelphia of being an ad- 
vocate of that measure, he was repre- 
sented constanU^r in the most odious 
light, and even pointed at and avoided on 
appearing in the street& Still, however, 
1^ persevered, made every day proselytes, 
and, May 6, 1770, moved in congress a 
resolution, which was, in fact, a virtual 
declaration of independence, recommend- 
ing to the colonies **to audopt such a 
goveinment as would, in the opinion of 



JOHN ADAMS. 



49 



the rqvesentatiyes of the people, best 
conduce to the hi^pmess and safety of 
their eoostituentB and of America." This 
passed, after a hard struggle, on the 15th 
of the same month, and was the prelude 
to the glorious and daring resolution, 
moTed by Richard Heniy Lee, of Virginia, 
on the 7th of June following, and second- 
ed by Mr. A^ ** that these united colonies 
are, and of right oucht to be, free and in- 
dependent states ; that they are absolved 
from ail allegiance to the British crown ; 
and that all political connexion between 
them and the state of Great Britain is, 
and of right ought to be, totally dissolved.'' 
The debate upon this motion viras of the 
moot animated character. It continued 
from the 7th to the 10th, when the fur- 
ther discuasion of the measure was post- 
poned to the 1st of July. A committee 
of five was also appointed to prepare a 
provisional drau^t of a declaration of 
mdependence. The members of it were 
chosen by ballot, and were Thomas Jef- 
ferson, John Adams, Beniamin Franklin^ 
Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Living- 
ston. Mr. Jefferson and Mr. A. were 
deputed a sub-committee to prepare the 
instrument, the former of whom, at the 
earnest solicitadon of the latter, became 
its author.— On the Ist of July, Mr. Lee's 
resolution was again considered, and de- 
bated daring that and the following day, 
when it waa finally adopted. The draught 
of the declantion was then submitted for 
the purpoae of undergoing an examination 
in detaaJ. It was passed on the 4th of the 

e month, as prepared by Mr. Jefier- 
wich only a fow olterations, which 

e made through a prudent deforence 
to the views of some or tlie states. Mr. 
A. ahrays preferred the draught as it 
originally stood. The declaration was 
not adopted without serious opposition 
from many members of the conffreas, in- 
diiding John Dickinson, one of the ablest 
men in that assembly. But their argu- 
ments were completely overthrown oy 
the force and eloquence of Mr. A., whose 
speech on the subject of independence is 
nid to have been unrivalled. Mr. Jefier- 
son himself has affirmed, ** that the great 
pillar of support to the declaration of in- 
dependence, and its ablest advocate and 
champion on the floor of the house, was 
John Adams." Speaking of his ^neral 
character as an orator, the same illustri- 
ous man observed, that he was ^ the Co- 
losus of that congress : not gracefiil, not 
elegant, not always fluent in his public 
admesses, he yet came out with a power, 
both of thought and expression, which 
VOL. I. 5 



nioved his hearers fix>m their seats.'^—- Mr 
Silas Deane, who was a commissioner 
with Dr. Franklin and Mr. Arthur Lee, 
at the court of Versailles, having been re- 
called, Mr. A. was chosen, Nov. 28, 1777, 
to fill his place. By this appointment, he 
was released fi'om the laborious and im- 
portant duties of chairman of the board 
of war. which post he had filled since 
June 13, 177& It is stated that he was a 
member of ninety committees, twice as 
many as any other representative, except 
Richard Henry Lee and Samuel Adams, 
of twenty-five of which he was chairman, 
although it was the policy to put Virginia 
generaUy at the head. Among these 
committees were several of the greatest 
consequence ; one of them was that which 
was sent to Staten Island at the request 
of lord Howe, who had solicited an inter- 
view with some of the members of con- 
ip'ess, which, however, produced no ef- 
fect, on account of the refusal of his lord- 
ship to consider them as commissioners 
fi'om congress, and the declaration made 
by Mr. X, that ^ he might view him in 
any light he pleased, except in that of a 
British subject." — ^About two months af- 
ter his appointment, Mr. A. embarittd 
in the Boston fiieate, and arrived safely 
at his place of destination, though an 
English fleet had been despatched to in- 
tercept him. llie treaties of commerce 
and alliance with France were signed 
before ho reached that countrv, and, afler 
remaining there until the follovring Au- 
gust, he returned to the United States, the 
nomination of Dr. Franklin as minister 
plenipotentiary to the court of Versailles 
having superseded the powers of the com- 
missioners. Immediately on his arrival, 
he was elected a member of the conven- 
tion to prepare a form of government for 
the state or Massachusetts, and placed up- 
on the sub-committee chosen to draugnt 
tlie project of a constitution, to be laid 
before that body. The general frame of 
the constitution, particularly the manner 
of dividing and distributing power, and 
the clause respecting the duty incumbent 
upon government with regard to the pat- 
ronage of literature and the arts and sci- 
ences, were die work of his pen. Three 
months after his return, congress again 
sent him abrozMl with two commissions, 
one as minister plenipotentiary to nego- 
tiate a peace, the other to form a com- 
mercial treaty with Great Britain. He em- 
bariced in the French fiigate Sensible, Nov. 
17, and was forced to land at Ck>runna, in 
Spain, fit>m which place he travelled over 
the mountains to Paris, where he arrived 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



50 



JOHN ADAMS. 



in Feb. 1780. — ^After remaining a short 
time in that city, having found the French 
court jealous of his commission to form a 
treaty of commerce with Great Britain, 
he repaired to Holland in Aug. 1780, the 
same year in which congress passed ft 
vote or approbation of his conduct, instead 
of lecallinff him, as the French minister, 
count de Vergennes, had solicited them 
to do, on account of his refusal to com- 
municate to him his instructions about 
the treaty of commerce, and his opposi- 
tion to a claim set up by France, that, 
when congress called in the old conti- 
nental paper money at forty jfor one, a 
discrimmation ought to have been made, 
in &vor of the French holders of that pa- 
per. — ^The June previous to his journey 
to Amsterdam, Mr. A. was appointed in 
the room of Mr. Laurens to obtain loans 
in Holland, and, in December of the same 
year, was invested with dill powers to 
negotiate a treaty of amity and commerce 
with that countiy. Mr. A. at first had to 
contend vnth great difficulties in Holland. 
He was opposed by the whole influence 
of the British government, as well as by 
ttke power of Uie prince of Orange, and 
even, strange as it may appear, by the in- 
trigues of France herBeu, the professed 
fiiend and avowed ally of the United 
States. He found the people of Holland 
entirely unacquainted with the afiairs of 
his country, and immediately began to 
impart to them information concerning 
that subject, using, for this purpose, prin- 
cipally, two newspapers, one called the 
Leyden Gazette, ana the other Le Politique 
Houandois, in which he wrote various 
political articles. He also published a 
series of twenty-six letters, in answer to a 
set of queries proposed to him by Mr. 
Kalkoen^ an eminent jurist of Amster- 
dam, containing an account of the rise 
and progress of the dispute with Great 
Britam, and of the resources, spirit and 
prospects of the United States. These 
epistles, together vrith some essays i^vTit- 
ten by Mr. Kalkoen, drawing a compari- 
son lietween the struggles of the United 
States for their liberty, and those formeriy 
made by the seven United Provinces, 
which eventuated in their independence, 
had a great effect in enlightening tlie peo- 
ple of Holland, and inspired them with 
sentiments highly &vorable to the Ameri- 
can cause. Shortly afterwards, Dec, 21, 
1780, a rupture took place between Eng- 
land and Holland, occasioned by the ac- 
cession of the latter to the armed neutraJ- 
ity, and the discovery of a negotiation 
between Mr. Lee, the American conunis- 



idoner at Berlin, and Mr. Van Berckel, 
tlie pensnonary of Amsterdam, for a trea^ 
of amity and commerce. — ^Even at this 
early period, he had formed an opinion 
decidedly in favor of the establishment 
of a navy, and expressed it in almost all 
his letters to hi^ mends at home. — ^In Ju- 
ly, 1781, he was summoned to Paris for 
the puipose of consulting upon the offur 
of mediation made by the courts of Aus- 
tria and Russia, and suggested an answer 
adopted by the French court, which put 
an end to the negotiation on that sub- 
ject; the mediating powers refusing to 
acknowledge the independence of the 
United States without the consent of 
Great Britain.— Oct. 19, 1781, Mr. A., in 
opposition to the advice of the duke de 
la Vauguion, the French minister at the 
Hague, and on his own responnbilit}', 
communicated to their high mightinesses 
his letters of credence, presenting to their 
president also, at the same time, a memo- 
rial, dated April 19, in which he justified 
the declaration of independence, and 
endeavored to convince the people of 
Holland that it was for their interest to 
form a connexion with the United States 
and to give them support in their difficul 
ties. As he had not yet been acknowl 
edged by the States General as the min 
ister of a sovereign and independent na- 
tion, the president could not receive the 
memorial in form, but he engaced to 
make a report of the substance of what 
had been communicated to him by Mr. 
A. In the August previous, Mr. A. had 
received instructions to propose a triple 
alliance between France, the United Prov- 
inces and the United States, to exist as 
long as hostilities were carried on by the 
latter against Great Britain, one of tlie 
indispensable conditions of which, on the 
part of Holland, was the recognition of 
American independence. The alliance 
never >vas effected, but the latter oWent 
Mr. Adams accomplished. Jan. 9, 1/82, 
not having received a reply to his memo- 
rial, he waited tipon the prendent, and 
demanded a categorical answer. Tho 
States General then took the subject im- 
mediately into consideration, and Mr. A. 
was acknowledged, April 19, as ambassa- 
dor of the United States to tlieir high migh- 
tinesses, and three days afterwards was 
received as such. — ^Havtng obtained as- 
surance that Great Britain would recog- 
nise the independence of the United 
Slates, he repiured, in Oct 1783, to Paris, 
whither he had refiised to go before such 
assurance was given, to commence the 
negotiation for peace, and there met Dr. 



tf^^ 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



JOHN ADAMS. . 



51 



Fnnkfiiif Mr. Jay and Mr. Laurens, who, 
as weH as Blr. Jefierson, had been ap- 
pointed his collea^es. Thev instrac- 
tions, a port of which was <^ to under^e 
nodimg without the knowledge and con- 
currence of the nnnisterB of rrance, and 
ultimately to ^vem themselves by their 
advice and opmion,** placed them almost 
entirely under the control of the French 
court. They were ffreatlv displeased at 
being thus shackled, ana, after a short 
time, finding themselves in a very embar- 
raanng mtuation, they boldly deterxnined 
to cGsobey their instructions, and act for 
themselves and for their country, without 
consulting the ministers of a supposed 
treacherous aHy. The definitive treatr 
of peace was ratified Jan. 14, 178S.— Af- 
ter serving on two or three commissions 
to form treaties of amity and commerce 
widi fonmi powers, Mr. A., in 1785, was 
appointed^the first minister to London. 
It IS related that, upon his introduction 
to the king, the latter, knowing his d»- 
gufli at the intrigues of the French court, 
and widiing to comj^ment him, express- 
ed his ^easure at receiving a mmister 
who had no prejudices in ikvor of France, 
the namra) enemy of his crown. The 
reply of Hr. Adams evinced Ids patriot- 
ism 'add honesty of character. ^ May it 
please jcnxt majesty," said he, *> I luive 
no prenmices but ror my own countiy." 
In ITS/, whilst in London, he published 
his Defence of die American Constitu- 
tions against die attocksf which they had 
sustuned, and in Oct6ber of that vear, by 
his own request, he was allowed to re- 
tnrn to the United States. Con^f^ss, at 
the same time tiiaSl! they gave hrni such 
pemuBSion, passed a resolution of thanks 
to be presented to him fbr his able and 
fiudblbl dischaige of the various impor- 
tant commismons with which he nad 
been intrusted.— -Immediately after his 
retnm, Mr. A. was elected the first vice- 
president of the United States under the 
new constitution, and re-elected as such 
in 1799L He discharged the duties of 
his oflice until March 4, 1797, when he 
succeeded to tiie presidency, vacated by 
the resignation of general Washington. 
This great man's confidence he possessed 
in an eminent degree, and was considted 
by him as often as any member of the 
ealnnet. Astiie two paities in the seiuite 
were neariy balanced, Mr. A., while act- 
ing, er i^icio, as president of that bod^, 
faMl often to decide questions, by his 
casting vot6, of the highest importance, 
and whieh had excited a great deal of 
party feeling. One instance of this oc- 



curred, when Mr. Clarke'^s resolution pro- 
hibiting all intercourse with Great Britain 
on account of the capture of several 
American vessels by British ships, and 
otiier grievances, was broucht bemre the 
seiuite, after hanng been adopted by the 
bouse of reoresentatives, April 18, 1794. 
Upon this rail the senators were equally 
divided, and Mr. Adams decided against 
it^ tiiinking that it would have no good 
effect upon the policy of England, would 
injure us as much as her, and perhaps 
occasion a war. — ^In 1797, he became, we 
have said, president of the U. S. It will 
not be necessary to enter into a detail of 
the events of his administmtion, as they 
belong rather to the department of the 
historian than of the Inograjpher. It will 
be sufficient to mention a lew important 
circumstances. When he commenced 
tiie discharge of the duties of his ofiice, 
he found the government embrofled in a 
dispute with France, and, in one of his 
eaniest communications to congress, com- 
plained, in dignified and eloquent lan- 
guage, of a grievous insult oftered by the 
government of that countiy t6 the am- 
bassador of the United States. Wishing 
stiH to j>reserte peace, he despatched a 
commission consisting of three envoys, 
Messrs. PInckney, Marshall and Gerry, 
to France. The French government 
treated them in the most contumelious 
manner. Such, however, was the violence 
of party spirit, and so large a portion of 
the American people entertained an' en- 
thusiastic admiration of France, that even 
the measures which Mr. A. then took 
fbr sustaining the national dignity had no 
inconsidenmie efifect in dinunishing his 
popularity. — Bfr. A. was the feunder ofthe 
American navy. Befbre his administm- 
tion, scarcely an Aiherican ship of war 
was to be seen upon the ocean; but, during 
this period, by his strenuous exertions, 
mainly, a very respectable naval force 
Was created. His administration, how- 
ever, was not of long continuance, having 
pleased neither of the two great parties 
which divided the coimtry (the ^reateat 
praise, perhaps, that it could receive), his 
measures being too strong for the demo- 
crats and too weak for the fMeralists. 
In consequence of this, afler his term of 
four veafs had expired, March 4, 1801, it 
was round that his adversary, Mr. Jeffer- 
son, had succeeded by a minority of 1 vote. 
—Aiier his retirement to his farm in Quin- 
cy, Mr. A. occupied himself with agricul- 
tural pursuits, obtaining amusement fiom 
the literature and politics of the day. He 
was nominated as governor of Massa- 

Lv.gitized by VjOO^..^ 



hSl 



BAMUEL ADAMS. 



chusetta, but deolined being a candi d ate, 
wishing only for repose. IniTing the dis- 
putes with England, which occurred 
while Mr. Jefferson was in office, Mr. A. 
published a series of letters, in a Boston 
paper, supporting the policy of the admin- 
istration. His published writings, besides 
those which we have already mentioned, 
are *<I^scourses on Davila," composed in 
1790, while he was vice-president, and 
printed in June and July of that year, in 
the Gazette of the United States. Li 1816, 
Mr. A. was chosen a member of the elec- 
toral coUege, which voted for the elevation 
(^Mr. Monroe to the presidency ; and, the 
following year, sustamed the greatest af* 
ffiction &at he had ever been called upon 
to endure, by the loss of his wife. On 
this occasion, he received a beautiful let- 
ter of condolence fix>m Mr. Jefferson, be- 
tween whom and himself their former 
fiiendship, interrupted for a time by the 
animosities of party, had been revived. — 
In 1820, he was elected a member of the 
convention, to revise the constitution of 
his state, and chosen its preadent This 
honor he was constrained to decUne, on 
account of his infirmities and great age, 
being then 85 years old ; but he attencfed 
the convention as a member, and fidfilled 
the duty incumbent upon him as such. 
After that, bis life glided away in uninter- 
riwted tranquillity, until the 4th of July, 
l^, when he breathed his last vtrith the 
same hallowed sentiment on his lips, 
which on that glorious day, fif)y years 
before, he had uttered on the noor of 
congress — ^"Independence forever." On 
the mominff of the jubilee, he was roused 
by the ringmg of the bells and the firing 
of cannon, and, on bein^ asked by the 
servant who attended hmfi, whether he 
knew what day it was, he rejplied, ** O 
yes! it is the glorious 4th of July — God 
bless it— God bless you all." In the course 
of the day, he said, ** It is a great and glo- 
rious day," and, just before he expired, 
exclaimed, "Jefferson survives." But Jef- 
ferson had already, at one o'clock, that 
same day, rendered his spirit into the 
hands of its Creator. 

Adams, Samuel, was one of the most 
remarkable men connected with the 
American revolution. He was descended 
firom a fiumly that had been among the 
eariy planters of New England, was bom 
in Boston, September 27th, 1722, was 
educated at Harvard college, and received 
its honors in 1740. When he took the 
degree of master, in 1743, he proposed 
the following question ; " Whether it be 
lawful to resist the supreme magistrate, 



if the commonwealth cannot be otherwise 
preaerved ?" He maintained the affirm^ 
ative, and this collegiate exercise furnish- 
ed a very ragnificant index to his subse- 
quent political career. — On leavine the 
university, he engaged in the study of 
divinity, with the intention of becoming 
a clergyman, but did not pursue his de- 
sign. From his eariiest youth, his atten- 
tion was drawn to pohtical afGurs^ and he 
occupied himself, both in conversation 
and vmting, with the political concenia 
of the dav. He was opposed to governor 
Shirley, because he thought too much 
power was conferred upon him, and was 
the fiiend of his successor, Povnml, as 
the latter assumed the popular side. He 
became so entirely a pubhe man, and dis- 
covered such a jealous, watchful and un- 
yielding regard for popular rights, that he 
excited the general attention of the patriot- 
ic party, and they took the opportunity, in 
the year 1766, to place him m the legisla- 
ture. From that period till the close of the 
revolutionary war, he wuB one of the 
most unwearied, efficient, and disinter- 
ested assertors of American fireedom and 
independence. He grew conspicuous very 
soon after his admission into tne house, of 
which he was chosen clerk, it being then 
tlie practice to take that officer fix)m among 
the members. He obtained the same kind 
of influence, and exercised the same in- 
defatigable activity in the affiurs of the le- 
gislature, that he did in those of his town. 
He was upon every committee, had a 
hand in writing or revising every report* 
a share in the management of every po- 
htical meetinff, private or public, and a 
voice in all the measures that vrere pro* 
posed, to counteract themannical plans 
of the administration. The people soon 
fi)und him to be one of the steadiest 
of their supporters, and the government 
was convinced, that he was one of the 
most inveterate of their op^nents. When 
his character was Imown m England, and 
it was also underwood that he was poor, 
the partisans of the ministry, who felt 
annoyed by the ^ disturbances in Ameri- 
ca," resorted to the usual practice, when 
the clamorous grow too troublesome, and 
proposed that he should be quieted by a 
participation in some of the good things 
they were enjoying. Governor Hutchin- 
son, in answering the inquiry of a fnend, 
why he was not silenced m this man- 
ner, wrote, vrith an expresnon of impa- 
tient vexation — ^^Such is the obstinacy 
and inflexible disposition of the man, that 
he never can be conciliated liy any office 
or gift whatever."— He continued in tho 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



SAMUEL ADAMS-'ADAM'S APPLE. 



53 



lepslature till 1774, when he was sent to 
the first congress of the old confederation. 
He was snbeeqiientlychosen secretary of 
Massachusetts in 1775, which office was 
performed by deputy during his absence. 
He was one of the siffners of the declara^ 
tion of 1776, which he labored most in- 
defttigably and unheffltatingly to bring 
forward. He was an active member of 
the convention that formed the constitu- 
tioa of Massachusetts ; and, after it went 
into eflect, he was placed in the senate 
of the state, and for several years presided 
over that body. In 1789, he was elected 
heutenant-govemor, and held that office 
tin 1794, when, after the death of Han- 
cock, he was chosen ffovemor, and was 
annually re-elected till 1797. He then 
retired fiom public life, and died at his 
house in Winter street, Boston, October 
2, 1803, in the 8Sd year of his age.— He 
was one of that class who saw very early, 
that, ''after all, we must fight ;" and, hay- 
ing come to that conclusion, there was 
no citizen more prepared for the extrem- 
ity, or who wDuld faiaye been more reluc- 
tant to enter into any kind of compro- 
mise. After he had receiyed warning at 
Lexington, in the night of the 18th of 
April, of the itttended British expedition, 
as he proceeded to make his escape 
throufffa the fields with some friends, soon 
after the dawn of day , he exclaimed, *^ This 
is a fine day !*• ** Very pleasant, indeed,^ 
answered one of his companions, suppos- 
ing he alluded to the beauty of the sl^ and 
atnoosphere. ** I mean,^ he replied, ''this 
day is a glorious day for America !** His 
litnation at that moment Was full of peril 
and uncertainty, but, throughout the con- 
test, no damage to himself or to his coun- 
tiy eyer discouraged or depressed him. — 
"riie yery faults of his character tended, in 
some degree, to render his services more 
usefiil, by concentrating his exertions, and 

gence or nberaJity towards different opin- 
iona There was some tinge of bigotry 
and narrowness both in his reli^on and 
pofitics. He was a strict Calvinist ; and, 
probably, no individual of his day had 
so much of the feelings of the ancient Pu- 
ritans as he possessed. In politics, he 
was so jealous of delegated power, that 
he would not haye giyen our constitutions 
inhetent force enough for their own pres- 
ervation. He attached an exclusive val- 
ue to the habits and principles in which 
he had been educated, and wished to ad- 
just wide concerns too closely after a par- 
ticular model. One of his colleagues, 
wbo knew him weU, and estimated him 
6* 



highly, described him, with ^od-natured 
exaggeration, in the followmff manner: 
" Siunuel Adams would have the state of 
Massachusetts govern the Union, the town 
of Boston govern Massachusetts, and that 
he should goyem the town of Boston, and 
then the whole would not be intentionally 
ill-goyemed."— It was a sad error of judg- 
ment that caused him to undervalue, &t 
a period at least, the services of Washing- 
ton during the revolutionary war, and to 
think that his popularity, when president, 
might be dan^rous. Still, mese un- 
founded prejudices were honestiy enter- 
tained, and sprang naturally fit>m his dis- 
position and doctrines. During the war, 
he was impatient for some more decisive 
action than it was in the power of the com- 
mander-in-cbie( for a long time, to bring 
about; and when the new constitution 
went into operation, its leaning towards 
aristocracy, which was the absurd impu- 
tation of Its enemies, and which his anti- 
federal bias led hinii more readily to be- 
lieve, derived all its plausibility from the 
just, generous and universal confidence 
that was reposed in the chief ma^strate. 
These things influenced his conduct in 
old age, when he was governor of Massa* 
chusetts, and while the extreme heat of 
political feelings would have made it im- 
possible for a much less positive charac- 
ter to administer any public concerns, 
without one of the parties of that day be- 
ing dissatisfied. — But all these circumstan- 
ces are to be disregarded, in making an 
estimate of his services. He, in fact, was 
bom for the revolutionaiy epoch ; he was 
trained and nurtured in it, and all his 
principles and views were deeply imbued 
with the dislikes and partiahties which 
were created during that long struggle. 
He belonged to the revolution; all the 
power and peculiarity of his character 
were developed in that career; and his 
share in public life, under a subsequent 
state of thmes, mitst be conndered as sub- 
ordinate and unimportant. — His private 
habits were simple, fiugal and unostenta- 
tious. Notwithstanding the austeritjr of 
his character, his aspect was mild, digni- 
fied and gentiemanly. He was entirely 
superior to pecuniary considerations, and, 
after having been so many years in the 
public service, must have been buried at 
the public expense, if the afflicting death 
of an only son had not remedied this hon- 
orable poverty. 

Adam's Apple is a kind of orange, the 
dtnu awaniitm of Linnaeus.— The same 
name is also given to the protuberance in 
the fore part of the throat, occasioned by 



54 



ADAM'S APPLE—ADANSON. 



the projection of tbo ihyroid cartilage of 
Uie larynx. This name oridnated fiY>m 
the traditioD, that a piece of me forbidden 
fruit, which Adam ate, stuck in his throat, 
and occasioned the swelling. 

Adam's Peak ; the highest mountain in 
the iait^d of Ceylon, cafled by the inhab- 
itants Ham^-el. It lies mider 6'' 49^ N. 
lat., 80° 43' B. Ion., and can be seen, in 
clear weather, imm the sea at a distance 
of 150 miles. It lias neither been meas- 
ured, nor geologically examined. The 
chief river of the island, Mahavillagonga, 
the mouth of which forms, at Trincoma- 
lee, the best harbor in all India, has its 
source in this mountain. It is considered 
sacred by the followers of Buddha, many 
of whom make pilgrimages to it. The 
betel-leaf is exchanged by them as a sign 
of peace, for the purpose of strengthening 
the bands of kindred, coniinning friend- 
ships and reconciling enmities. A priest 
then blesses them on the summit, and 
enjoins them to tive virtuously at home. 
According to Davy, the road which leads 
to the sununit is, with all its windings, 8 
miles long, and in some places veiy steep. 

Xn tlie top, the priests show a footstep 
cli Budfdha is said to have made. 
The place is surrounded by venerable old 
trees, particularly rhododendra. 

Adams ON, Patrick, a native of Perth, 
and a distinguished Latin poet, was bom 
in 1536. After havijig studied at Sl An- 
drews, he visited Paris, Padua and other 
places distinguished for their universities, 
and at Geneva imbibed the Calvinistic 
doctrines from the celebrated Beza. On 
his return, he escaped from the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew by flight, and lay 
concealed a long time at Bourges, where 
he composed his paraphrase of Job, and 
some other works. On his return to Scot- 
land, he was appointed minister of Pais- 
ley, and afterwaras, by the favor and in- 
terest of the regent Morton, was raised to 
the archbishopric of St. Andrews. In 
tJiis elevated situation, he was surrounded 
with dangers and difficulties, and the viru- 
lence of tne Presbyterians was successful- 
ly directed ogaindt him, as tlie finnest pil- 
lar of episcopacy. James VI, however, 
imtronised him, and sent him as his am- 
bassador to England, where his eloquence 
and address gained him adihirers, and 
raised such a tide of popularity in fevor 
of the youiig king, his master, tliat tlie 
jealousy of Elizabeth forbade liun again 
to ascend the pulpit while at lier court 
His principal objects in England were to 
gain friends for his itiaster among the no- 
bles, and to support the cause of episco- 



pacy in Scodand. In 1584, he was recall- 
ed, and 80 violent was the irritation of the 
^^sbyterians against him, that, at a pro- 
vincial synod, he was accused and excom- 
municated; and neither appeals to the 
king and to the states, nor protestations 
of innocence, would have saved him from 
this disgraceful sentence, if he had not 
yielded to the storm, and implored nardon 
m the most abject terms. His tire con- 
tinued a scene of persecution ; even the 
monarch grew decu to his petitions, and 
alienated me revenues of his see in fiivor 
of tlie duke of Lenox, so that A., m addi- 
tion to the indignities offered to his office, 
had to endure me pangs of mdigence, in 
tlie midst of a fbrlom and starving family. 
He died 1591. A 4to. volume of his 
works has been published, containing 
translations of some of the books of tlie 
Bible in Latin verse, frequently composed 
to alleviate his grie& and disarm the ter- 
rors of persecution. He also wrote a his- 
tory of his own times. 

Adanson, Michel, a botanist, bom at 
Aix, 1727, made natural histoiy bis &vor- 
ite study, and chose R^mnur and Ber- 
nard de Jussicu for his guides. His em- 
ulation was roused by tlie brilliant success 
of the system of Linneeus. He abandoned 
the study of divinity, and, in the prosecu- 
tion of his fiivorite pursuits, made several 
journeys to regions never yet visited by 
man. In 1748, at the age of 21, he went 
to the river Senegal, in tne belief that the 
unhealthiness of the climate would, for a 
long time, prevent naturalists from visituig 
this country. He collected, with all the 
zeal of an enthusiast, invaluable treasures 
in the three kingdoms of nature ; and, per- 
ceiving the defects in the established das- 
siiication of plants, endeavored to substi- 
tute another more comprehensive. He 
also prepared exact maps of the countries 
through which he travelled, and compiled 
dictionaries of the languages of the differ- 
ent tribes, with whose manners and cus- 
toms he had become acc|uainted. After 
a residence of 5 years m an unhealthy 
climate, he returned to his coimtry, in the 
possession of veiy valuable collections, 
and published, in l75Tf IKHoire Ndturdlt 
du SMfal, Some m^teriy essays of his 
were prmted in the memoirs of the French 
academy, and procured liim the honor of 
l)eing chosen a member of the institute. 
These essays were only preludes to his 
learned and comwehensive botanical 
work, Famaies des Plantes, 2 voU., 1763. 
The work, however, did not e^ct the 
object for which it was written, — the es- 
tablishment of a new system of botany, io 



..gitized by Google 



ADANSON-^ADDISON. 



55 



oppoation to that of Linnmis. He was 
IHvpanng a new edition, with numerous 
ahentions and important additions, when 
he formed the plan ofpublishing a com- 
plete encycloptedia. In hopes of receiv- 
mc support m>m Louis X V , he begim to 
eoflect materials, which, in a short time, 
increased to an immense mass; and in 
1775, be laid before the academy a pros- 
pectus of a work, on so large a acaie as 
to excite general astonishment. It was 
earefiiUy examined, but the result did not 
answer the expectations of the author. 
A.^ plan was good, but he was wrong in 
insistii^ upon the immediate publication 
of the whole. This obstinacy is the rea- 
son that the work has never bben printed. 
He continued, however, to increase his 
materials with unwearied diligence. Some 
Taluable essays, printed in the memoirs 
of the academy, are all of his writings 
that subsequently came before the pub- 
lic The idea of executing his great work 
continually occupied his mind, and he 
employed all his means for this purpose. 
But the revoluUon reduced him to ex- 
treme povei^, and when the national in- 
stitute chose liim one of its members, he 
declined the invitation because he had no 
shoes. A pension was then conferred 
upon him, w'nich he enjoyed till his death, 
in 1806, continually employed in prepar- 
ing; his great work. The number or his 
prmted books is small, in comparison with 
the mass of manuscripts which he has 
left A good selection of these would be 
veiy acceptable to the literary public. 

A]>Di56TON, Henry, lord viscount Sid- 
roouth, son of a physician, who imited 
with the sUidy of his profession a love for 
politics. Heniy A., bom in 1756, was 
educated with f itt, the son of lord Chat- 
ham. The splendid career of his friend 
opened to liim also the path to distinction. 
As a member of pariJament, he supported 
Pitt against Fox with aU his power. In 
1789, A. was chosen speaker of the house 
of common^ and continued m tliis hon- 
orable office, even afler the convocation 
of a new nariiament Ever faidiful to the 
party of Pitt, he only once disagreed in 
opinion with his fiiend on the motion of 
^Vilberforce, in 1792, to abolish the Afri- 
can slave trade, and voted for its gradual 
abolition. Through his influence, the 
time of prohibition was deferred till 1800. 
But this temporaiy difference of opinion 
neither destroyed their intimacy, nor pre- 
vented their agreement in the some gen- 
eral system of politics. Feb. 5, 1801, Pitt 
resigned the office of chancellor of the 
exchequer in favor of A. While in this 



office, A, made several reports on the state 
of tlie finances in England, on the neces- 
sity of new loans, &c. He was an advo- 
cate of peace, after the treaty of Amiens, 
which was considered to have been 
brought about by him. But as soon 
as the treaty was violated, he propos- 
ed measures of hostihty, and showed 
himself ope of the warmest advocates of 
war. His enemies attempted to uijure 
him, during the period of the king's ill- 
ness, in the begmuing of 1804 ; but the 
sudden recovery of me king frustrated 
their designs. New attacks, however,, 
compelled him to leave his station, to 
which Pitt was again rmsed, May 10. 
The king then conferred upon him tJie 
title of lord viscount Sidmoutli, and hon- 
ored him with his confidence. In Jan- 
uary, 1806, he became again comiected 
with tlie govermnent, as keeper of tlie 

rat seal, but soon resigned this office. 
1812, when lord Liverpool was ap- 
pointed first lord of the treasury, iii the 
place of Mr. Perceval, who had been mur- 
dered, lord Sidmouth again took his seat 
in the cabinet, as secretaiy of state for 
the home department, but retired i^i^v 
office in 1822. Mr. Peel was his succes- 
sor. 

Annisoir, Joseph, a poet and miscella- 
neous writer, was bom at Milston, Wilt- 
shire, where his father was rector, in 
1672, and died 1719. He received the 
first part of his education in his native 
place : at tlie age of 11, his father havhi^r 
been appointed dean of Litchfield, he be- 
came a pupil of Mr. Shaw. But we have 
no account of his early character, except 
tliat he djstmguished himself in a hmring 
<nd. At the age of 15, he was entered at 
Queen's college, Oxford, where his Latin 
poem on the inauguration of William and 
Mary obtained his election into Mag- 
dalen colle^, on the founder's bene- 
faction. His other Latin poems may be 
found with this in the Musa Anglicanaif 
collected by himself. In 1693, having 
taken the degree of master of arts, lit* 
publislied his first attempt in English, 
some verses inscribed to Diyden, with u 
translation of part of the fourth Georgir 
of Virgil, and other pieces in prose and 
verse. In 1695, he wrote a poem "To 
King William," and obtained the patron- 
age of lord Somers, keeper of the great 
seal, by addressing it to him. Having 
declined entrance into holy ordeis, he 
obtained a pension of^£d00 by the influ- 
ence of Som^^rs, and Montague, chancelloi 
of the exchequer, to enable him to travel ; 
and in 1701, he wrote the Poetical £pistl& 



56 



ADDISON. 



from Italy, to Montague, now lord Hali- 
fax, of which Dr. Johnson aaya, ^ It is the 
most elegant, if not the most sublime, of 
his poetical compositions." During his 
travels, he began nis tragedy of Cato, and 
composed the Dialogues on Medals, and, 
after his return, which was hastened by 
the loss of his pension, he publislied his 
Travels. In Johnson's opimon, this work 
mieht have been written at home. In 
I7S4, at the request of lord Godolphin, A. 
celebrated the victoiy of Hochstadt, or 
Blenheim, in a poem called the Ccan- 
paign. Before it was finished, it pro- 
cured for him the office of commissioner 
of appeals, in which he was the successor 
of Locke. About this time, he wrote al- 
so the opera of Rosamond, which was 
hissed fh>m the stage, but was published 
with success. The next year he accom- 
panied lord Halifax to Hanover, and was 
soon afler chosen under-secretary of state. 
In 1709, he went to Ireland as secretary 
to the earl of Wharton, and was at the 
same time appointed keeper of the rec- 
ords in Bermingbam^ tower, with an 
allowance of £d(W per annum. While A. 
was in Ireland, Steele, the fiiend of his 
vouth, began the publication of the 
Tattler, a series of essays on literature 
and manners : to this paper A. became a 
contributor. The first number of the 
Tattler appeared in 1709^ and was suc- 
ceeded, in March, 1711, by the Spectator, 
which was continued daily till December, 
L712. Some time afterward, the Guar- 
dian was undertaken by Steele, and to 
this A. contributed. His papers in the 
S|)ectator are mariced by one of the let- 
ters in the name Clio^ and in the Guardi- 
an, by a hand. After the publication of 
the Guardian, the Spectator was revived, 
and the eighth volume completed. In 
this his papers are not distinffuished by 
any mark. The popularity of these works 
was very great, 20,000 copies of the Spec- 
tator being distributed at one time, and 
they yet stand among the classics of Eng- 
lish literature. This preeminence is ow- 
in^; to the genius of^ A. This kind of 
writing was new, and more adapted to 
produce an effect on the great mass of 
society than any literary productions 
which had preceded it It is the prolific 
mother of modem periodical literature. 
It describes and criticises the manners of 
the times, delineates character, exposes 
the follies and reproves the vices which 
fashion countenances. It has contributed 
much to refonn the taste of the English 
nation. A.'s papers, in these works, may 
be divided into the comic, the serious and 



the critical. His humor is peculiar, his 
satire easy and delicate, and his w|t is 
always on the side of truth and virtue. 
Ifis serious papers are distinguished by 
beauty, propriety and elegance of style, 
not less than by their pure tone of moral- 
ity and reli^on. They are a code of 
practical ethics. His critical essays con- 
tain many just remarks, conveyed in an 
easy and popular manner, and display the 
results of^much study and delicate taste. 
In 1713, A.*s tragedy of Cato was repre- 
sented with very great success. It had 
a run of 35 nights, and was always receiv- 
ed with applause. This was undout rodly 
owing to party feelings ; the whigs hail- 
ing whatever was favorable to lit^nv in 
the production of a whig, and the ti ries 
reecnoing the approbation, to show that 
they did not feet the censure it was sup- 
posed to convey. But, although not ca'- 
culated to engage an English audienc«-, 
the poetry is mie, and the principal char- 
acters well supported. A. was afterwards 
ensajged in several periodicals, principally 
political, went again, as secretary or thf' 
viceroy, to Ireland, and was appointed 
one of the lords of trade. In 1716, he 
married the countess of Warwick, who 
was won with difficulty, and whose 
haughty treatment of him often (hrove 
him to a tavern. The year after his mar- 
riage, he was appointed secretary of state : 
but his inability to speak in pubtic, and 
his solicitude about the elegance of his 
expressions, rendered him unfit fi>r the 
duties of the office, and he soon retired, 
with a pension of £1500. His princiiiai 
work, after this, was the Evidences of 
Christianity, a work useful at the time, 
as recommending the subject by elegance 
and perspicuity to popular notice, but 
since superseded by more complete trea- 
tises. His death was that of a Christian 
philosopher. Before he expired, he sent 
for his pupil, lord Warwick, a young man 
of loose hfe, and addressed him in these 
words: "I have sent for you that you 
may see how a Christian can die." This 
scene is alluded to in the lines of Tickell 
on his death : 
** He taught us how to live, and— oh ! too hizfa 
The price of knowledge— taught us how todie.'' 

He was buried in Westminster abbey. 
A. was a sincere believer in the Chris- 
tian revelation ; in politics eamest, but not 
violent, he was respected, if not beloved, 
by individuals of both parties. Serious 
and reserved in his manners, modest and 
even timid in society, he spoke little be- 
fore stranffera. ** I have never," said lord 
Chesterfield, ^ seen a more modest, or a 



ADDISON— ADELUNG. 



57 



more avkwaid man ;** but he was easy, 
fluent and &miliar, in the company of his 
fiiends. He studied all the moniing, 
dined at a tavern, and spent the eveningf 
at Button's, a coffee-house frequented by 
the wits of the time. As a poet, he is 
distinguished for taste and elegance, but 
is dettxtute of high poetic genius. His 
prose is remaikable for its purity, perspi- 
cuity and simplicity, and tor the higher 
graces of harmony and richness of meta- 
phor. It b the sentence of the great 
judge of Knfdiah literature, that ''he who 
would write lEInglish with correcmess and 
elegance must give his days and nifhts 
to the study of Addison." His chief 
works are the tragedy of Cato, his papers 
in the Tattler, the Spectator and the 
Guardian, and the Evidences of the Chris- 
tian Religion. 

Annasss. In modem times, importance 
has been given to the manifestation of 
public opinion to the sovereign, in the 
Ibnn of addresses ; and governments, in 
difficult emergencies, have in mm ad- 
dressed the people. A communication 
from the nilets to the citizens is called a 
procUanaHotu In France only, at the time 
when the sovereignty of the people was 
acknowledged, the higher authorities sent 
addresses to Uie people. An address is 
essentially different fiom a petition, since 
■t contains only an expression of thanks, 
SBtisfictioii or dissatis&ction, communi- 
cates infbrmatiou, justifies measures, &c 
This practice owes its origin to the British 
parfisinent, which is accustomed to an- 
swer the king's speeches, detivered at the 
commencement imd close of each session, 
by a public acknowledgment of the obli- 
gatioDs of the nation. The same custom 
is adopted by the congress of the United 
States. (SeeJ^tnotCsMantudofParliar- 
naiimy Practue.) The constitutions of 
the several German states grant this right 
in a very limited sense. In Wurtemberj^y 
it has been declared unconstitudonal, in 
rderence to the army, and in Bavaria, 
the estates have only liie right of trans- 
mifiting petitions to the kiii^, and of com- 
pbiniDg against the ministers of state. 
rbe ri^l of the citizens, in associations 
or otherwise, to present addresses, is con- 
nected with the tight of complaining, con- 
voking aasemblicM and signing in a body. 
It is cwvioua, that addresses of thanks and 
wiB&ction, like those with which Napo- 
leon was BO much pleased, are of impor- 
tance only in case the expression of pub- 
lic opinion is free. 

Adeui. {SeeAdhdmy 

AncLUnre, John Christopher. This 



scholar, .distinguished for his exertions to 
improve the literature and language of 
his country, was bom August 8, 1738, at 
Spantekow, in Pomerania, where his fa- 
ther was a clergyman. He received his 
first instruction partly at Anklam, partly 
at Klosterbergen, near Magdeburg, and 
finished his education at Halle. In 1759, he 
was e4)pointed professor in the Protestant 
academy at Erfim ; but, two years afler, 
ecclesiastical disputes caused him to re 
move to Leipsic, where he applied him 
self^ with inde&tigable activity, to the ex 
tensive works by which he has been so 
useflil to the German language and liter- 
ature, particularly his (S-ammatisch-knt. 
JFMerbuch der hochdeutschen Mmdart, 
Leipsic, 1774—86, 4 vols, and Ist half of 
the 5th. In 1787, he received, fi[om the 
then elector of Saxony, the place of 
first librarian of the public hDraiy in 
Dresden. This office he held till his 
death. Sept 10, 180a A. has alone per- 
formed for the German language what 
whole academies have done for others. 
His grammatical, critical dictionary sur- 
passes the English lexicon of Johnson in 
the accuracy and order of the definitions, 
and more especially in the department of 
etymology, out is inferior to it in the 
selection of classic authorities, because 
A.'s predilection for the Upper Saxon, or 
Misman authors, induced mm to neglect 
those writers whose country or style he 
disliked, and his taste was so limited, that 
he would not allow of any deviation firom 
the established forms and settied laws 
of style. His methodical mind was stmck 
with terror at the irregularities and the 
flood of new words with which he thought 
the Grerman language menaced, and could 
not appreciate its a<£uirable flexibility and 
OOpiouanesB, in which it is equalled by 
the Grecian alone. Voss and Campe 
have animadverted upon this defect with 
ereat truth, but perhaps with too litde for- 
bearance. The second edition of the dic- 
tionary of A., 1798 — 1801, contains a 
number of additions which are valuable 
in themselves, but in no proportion to the 
progress which the language has made in 
the mean time, and show too plainly that 
the most unwearied industry caimot com- 
pensate for a defective plan. (See Ger- 
man Lcmguagt,) Of A.^s other works, 
we would mention his German grammar, 
his Marcain f&r Jit Deuische Spracht^ 
his wont on German style, his AeUtsU 
Geschichit der Deutaehen, his Directori- 
ttm, important for its esqposition of the 
sources of the histoiy of the south of Sax- 
ony, Meissen, 1803, 4to., and his MUhy 



58 



ADELUNG— ADHESION. 



dates^ in which last woiIe he designed to 
store up the fruits of all his investigations, 
but finished only the first volume; for 
the three others^ vre are indebted to the 
lexicographer Vater, of Halle, who em- 
ployed for this purpose, partly the papers 
of the deceasec^ partly tne materials col- 
lected by A. and W. von Humboldt, and 
partly the results of his own inquiries. 
A. was a man of blameless morals and 
amiable temper. He was never married. 
He daily devoted 14 hours to labor. 

Adeluno, Frederic von, since 1835, 
president of the Asiatic academy at St. 
Petersburg, a nephew of the lexicognra- 
]^er, was bom at Stettin, 1768, and nas 
dMnguished himself as a historian and 
linguist Havinff previously made him- 
self intimate at Rome with the treasures 
of die Vatican libraiy, and published 
some interesting disquisitions on the old 
German poems to be found there (Kon- 
igsberg, 1796 and 1799), he went to Pe- 
tersburg, where he took part in the direc- 
tion of the German theatre. In 1808, he 
was appointed tutor of the grand princes 
Nicholas and Michael, and received Ieui 
order of nobility. He then applied him- 
self with ^feat assiduity to the study of 
lansuaffes, m which he was much assist- 
ed uy me collection of Backmeister. the 
librarian. He has written on the Rcqf- 
ports enirtMLctngw SanacriUyd la Lcm-- 
gue Rus9e. At me request of hk pat- 
ron, count Romanzofl( chancellor of the 
empure, he published a desci^ption of the 
remaricable doors of brass belonging to 
the church of St Sophia, in Novgorod, 
which were said to have been cast in 
Magdeburg in the lltfa century, and the 
most exact engravincs of which were 
prep^uied by the order of the count 
This woik, which appealed at Beriin, 
1823, with copper and lithographic plates, 
contains interesting contributions to the 
history of Russian ait, and an essay on 
the SJwedish, or silver door, so caUed, 
then in Novgorod, which was brought to 
Russia, as a trophy, from Sigtuna, the 
ancient royal residence of S^vf^en. A. 
is now preparing a BQdwtheca Oht" 
tkoj an introduction to which has al- 
ready been published, entitled Uehersicht 
cdler hekannUn SprachefL Petersburg, 

Adept. (See M^ketrnf.) 

Aderbbach MonifTAiNS. These ex- 
tend, with some interruptions, from Ad- 
ersbach, a village of Bohemia, to the 
county of Glatz. Numerous clefls of va- 
rious size are fbund among the rocks, 
which rise in strange forms more than 



100 feet high, and consist of a remaikable 
kind of ferruginous sand-stone. Rain 
and snow, fillmg the cavities of the sur- 
&ce during the winter, form collections 
of water, which gradually filters throL^h 
the rocks, and produces these clefb. T%e 
sand-stone itself has, in the coume of 
time, become very brittle, especially on 
the surface. The place is a great resort 
for traveDers. 

AnEs. (8ee Pluto.) 

AnHEUf, or Adelm, was bom in Wilt- 
shire, in the seventh century. He was 
made bishop of Shirebuni, and extraor- 
dinary tales are related of his miraculous 
powers, and his voluntary chastity. He 
was, for the times, an eminent scholar, 
being acquainted with Grecian and Ro- 
man literature, a good writer, a poet of 
some merit, and an excellent musician. 
His woiks, which were numerous, are 
mostly lost. 

Adbesiojt, according to the latest 
]4iraseoIogy of physics, means seneraUy 
the tendency or heterogeneous bodies to 
stick together; but cohesion impUes the 
attraction of homogeneous paiticles of 
bodies. Adhesion may take phice be- 
tween two solids, as two hemispheres of 
glass, or between a solid and a fluid, or be- 
tween two fluids, as oil and water. Thus 
it is said that a fluid adheres to a solid, 
as water to the finser dipped into it But 
there is a great dinerence, in this respect 
in difierent bodies; thus small particles 
of qinckffllver do not adhere to giass, but 
they adhere to gold, silver and lead. Wa- 
fer adheres to me greatest part of bodies, 
unless it is separated fit>m their surfkee 
by oily substances, dust, flour, &c. 
Fluids do not fbrm a sur&ce perfectly 
horizontal in vessels to which they ad- 
here so as to wet them, but rise, on the 
contrary, around the brim of the vessels. 
This is proved by water, beer, ^c^pour- 
ed into glasses, pails, pots, &c. Fluids, 
on the other hand, in vessels' to which 
they do not adhere, sink around the brim, 
and rise in the centre. Thus quicksilver 
in a glass forms a convex surface. This 

Shenomenon of die rimng and sinking of 
uids becomes sdll mora remaricable in 
vessels of a small diameter ; wherefore 
capillaiy tubes, so called, are used for 
performing experiments, and the nn|ralar 
efiects produced aro ascribed to capillary 
attraction. (See CkipiUanf TKibea.) Water 
poured fix>m a vessel to which it adheres 
so as to wet it, runs easily down the ex- 
terior sur&ce, unless a peculiar diraction 
is given to the vesseL Tim is never the 
case with quicksilver pocu«d from a glass ; 



ABHE8ION--ADM1BAL. 



but It b 90 if poured from a Teasel of 

Adiafhoba (Qreekh things indifferent 
in tbeiDBelTes, and of small importance : 
1. obfeets and actions which deserve nei- 
ther pnne nor blame ; 2. in matters of 
churui discipline, customs and rites which 
may be retained or rejected without injur- 
ing belief or troubling conscience, because 
ihe hdlv Scriptures mive neither forbidden 
nor offdained them. This name was ori- 
gimifly applied to those instruments and 
ceremomea of the Catholic church, which 
the Protestants admitted into their fbnns 
of worship, as altars, candlesticks, images, 
nwBs-TeBtments, Latin hymns, Tempers and 
orisons, private mass, &c. On account 
of this admissiDn, Flacius, a theologian 
of Jooa, in connexion with the clergy of 
Lower Saxony, commenced a controver- 
^% known by the name of the adUmho- 
rutk amproverstfj with Melancthon ana the 
divines of Wittenberg, who received the 
name of jldufiAoruto. The same trifles 
became subsequently nuuks, by which 
the strict Lutherans were externally dis- 
tinguialied from the Calvinists, who had 
retained nothing of this kind. The more 
enlightened theologians of the 18th cen- 
tury caused the greater part of these ex- 
ternal disdnctions to be laid aside; but 
new importance has been attached to 
them in our days; and the question has 
again been discussed, "what ceremonies 
bekNBg to the A." 

Adipociae, from ad^s, fat, and cem, 
wax; a substance of a light-brown color, 
formed by the soil parts of animal bodies, 
when kept for some time in water, or 
when preserved from atmospheric air. 
When this substance is subjected to a 
rbemical analysis, a true ammoniacal 
soap is fiist yielded, composed of ammo- 
nia, a concrete oil, and water. The oil 
may be obtained pure, and this is called 
more striedy A. It was discovered on 
remoTing the animal matter from the 
burial gromid of the church dea hmocens* 
91 Paris, in 1787, amongst the masses of 
the bodkfl of the poor there interred to- 
gether. In this place, about 1500 bodies 
were thrown together into the same pit, 
and, being decomposed, were converted 
into this substance. (See NickolwiCa 
Jbiffii4i{,voL4,p.ld5; Pm.TraM.\79A, 
vols. 84, 85; Jowmtd de Fhfsiqvuty tom. 
36, &c) 

ADiJUTAirr ; in the military art, an offi- 
cer whose duty is to aarist the major. 

AAJUTA1IT-GK2IS&AX.; an officer of dis- 
tmetion who assists the general. — ^Among 
the Jesuits, this name was given to a se- 



lect number of fathers, who resided with 
the ^neral of the order, and had eadi a 
provmce or country assigned to him, and 
their office vras to mfbrm the fiither-gen- 
eral of public occurrences in such coun- 
tries. 

Admbtds. (See MctsU.) 

ADMiifisTBAToa (Jjallm)\ the person 
to whom the goods of a man dying intes- 
tate are committed by the proper author- 
ity, for which he is accountable when 
thereunto required. For matters relating 
to this title, see £x8ciitor. 

Admiral ; the commander-in-chjef of a 
squadron or fleet of ships of vtrar, or of 
the entire naval force of a country. Prob- 
ably this word is of Arabic ongin, and 
signifies originally t&e en^, or prince, of 
the toaUrs. In the time of the crusades, 
the office and name were introduced into 
Europe. The first authentic instance 
that occurs of admirals in Europe is 
about 1284, when Philip, king of France, 
created Enguemnd de Coney admiral of 
his fleeL In the reign of Edward I, 
kins of Enffland, we find a title of honor, 
**Mmiind de la met da roy d^Anf^derre^ 
conferred for the first time on W. de Ley- 
bourne ; and about this time the jurisdic- 
tion of die English seas was committed to 
three or four admuals, who held the of- 
fice duTmaU ftane piacUo. From the time 
of Bklward II, a regular succession of ad- 
mirals is to be traced; and in the 34th year 
of Edward III, John de Beauchamp, lord 
warden of the Cinque Ports, was created 
high admiral of England. The office un- 
derwent several changes, and persons of 
high rank, some of whom were entirely 
unacquainted with naval aflTairs, continu- 
ed to fill this office until 1633, when it 
was first put into commission, as it re- 
mained during the protectorate of Crom- 
weU. James, duke of York, afterwards 
James II, exercised the functions of lord 
hiffh admiral for several years of Charles 
I A reign. Many of his regulations are 
observed to the present time, and eviiice 
his zeal for this most important service 
in England. During .the reign of Wil- 
liam and Maiy, the powers of the lord 
high admiral were comrnitted to lords 
commiMioners of (he adnwrdlhf. Prince 
George of Denmark enjoyed this dignity 
during a short period of the reian of 
Anne ; since which time it has flJways 
b^n vested in seven lords coirunission- 
ers, acting under the statute of William 
and Mary, till the year 1827, when the 
first step of Mr. Canning, as premier, was 
to prevail on the duke of Clarence to ac- 
c^ the office of lord high admiral ; but 



/Google 



60 



ADMIRAL-^ADMIRALTY COURTS. 



the duke, Boon after the fotmation of the 
duke of WelliDgton's adminiBtration, gave 
up the office. The income of the first 
iord-commissioner is at present equal to 
£5000 per annum. The surplus revenue 
forms what are called the droits of admi- 
ralty, and is applied at the pleasure of 
government To the lord high admiral, 
or lords commissioners of the admiralty 
of England, belongs the pov^er of decis- 
ion in all maritime cases, both civil and 
cnminal ; a jurisdiction upon or beyond 
the sea in all parts of the world ; upon 
the sea coasts m all ports, havens or har- 
bors, and upon all rivers below the bridge 
nearest to the sea : — according to the 
tenns of the patent, ** To preserve all pub- 
lic streams, ports, rivers, nresh waters and 
creeks whatsoever, within his jurisdic- 
tion, as well for the preservation of the 
ships as of the fishes; to reform too 
straight nets and unlawful en^nes, and 

■ punish offenders ; to arrest ships, mari- 
ners, fHlots, masters, gunners, bombardiers, 
and any other persons whatsoever, able 
and fit for the service of ships, as often 
as occasion shall require, and whereso- 
ever die^r shall be met with ; to appoint 
vice-admirals, judges and other officers 
dkurcmU bene jdadto ; tb remove, suspend^ 
or expel them, and put others in their 
places ; to take cognizance of civil and 
maritime laws, and of death, murder and 
maim." The lord warden of the Cinque 
Ports has, nevertheless, a jurisdiction ex- 
empt fi-om the control of the admiralty 
wimin these ports, and the lord admiral 
seems to have his more proper jurisdic- 
tion confined to the main sea. Between 
high and low water marks, the common 
law and the admiralty have jurisdiction 
by turn. By the regulations of the navy, 
the lord high admiru grants commissions 
to inferior admirals to enforce obedience 
in all the branches of the service ; to all 
courts-martial for the trial of ofifences 
against the articles of war, upon which 
they decide by the majority of votes, a 
deputy judge advocate, who resides at 
Plymouth, presiding over. those of most 
importance. To the ofiice of lord hiffh 
admiral are given, as perquisites, by the 
patent, ** treasure, deodands and relics 
found vrithin his jurisdiction ; all goods 
picked up at sea; all fines, forfeitures, 

* ransoms, ous. : all whales and large fishes ; 
all ships and goods of tlie enemy coming 
into any port, &c. by stress of weather, 
mistdce or ignorance of war; all ships 
seized at sea, salvage &c., together \rith 
his shares of prizes. In ancient times, 
this officer earned a gold whistle set with 



f>recious stones. — ^In France, the admiral 
ViXmiraV^ enjoved, until 1627, very great 
prerogatives ; but Richelieu, deeming the 
mfluenceof the office too great, abolished 
it LouisXIV reestablished it in 1669 with 
less power. In the revolution, this office, of 
course, vanished witli the abolition of the 
monarchy. Napoleon renewed the office, 
and invested his brotlier-in-law Murat 
with it The duke of Angouleme was the 
first admiral after the restoration of the 
Bourbons. The highest officers in tlie 
French navy have only the title vice-ad- 
miral ; after these follow the rear-ad- 
mirals {contre-amirmix). — AnHinAL of 
THE Fleet; the highest naval officer 
under the admiralty of Great Britain, who, 
when he embaric^ is distinguished by the 
hoisting of die union flag at the main-top- 
gallant-mast head. — ^The powers of the 
lord high admiral of Scotland have been 
vested, smce the union, in the admiralty 
of Gr^t Britain, which appoints a judge, or 
vice-admiral, who executes its duties, and 
presides over an admiralty court in Scot- 
land. — ^Admirals, being commanders in 
chief of any fleet or squadron, carry their 
flags at the main-top-gallant-mast head, 
fit>m which they are desi^ated as admi- 
rals of the red, of tlie white, of the blue. 
They rank with field-marshals in the army. 
The vice-admiral carries his flag at the 
fore-top-mast head, and takes rank with 
the lieutenant-generals of the army. The 
rear-admiral carries his flag at the mizzen- 
top-mast head, and ranks with major-ffen- 
erals. — The United States have no aami- 
rals. The board of the navy directs all the 
afi!airs of the navy. — ^The vice-admiral is 
a civil officer, appointed by the lords com- 
missioners of the admiralty, having judges 
and marshals under him. From his de- 
cisions, however, there is a final appeal 
to the court of admiralty. The place of 
vice-admiral of England is now a sine- 
cure. Ireland has four vice-admirals; 
Scotland one ; and the governors of col- 
onies generally hold a commission to 
preside over vice-admiralty courts. A. 
IS also a name given to the most consid- 
erable ship ofa fleet of merchantmen, or 
of the vessels employed in the cod-fish- 
ery of Newfoundland. The ship which 
first arrives is entitled to this appellation, 
and some privileses ; it carries during die 
fishing season a flag on the main-mast. — 
A. in natural history, a vei^ beautifiil 
shell of the vcluta genus. It is sold at a 
veiy high price. 

Admibalty Courts have cognizance 
of civil and criminal causes oi a mari- 
time nature, including captures in war 



ADMIRALTY COURTS-ADONIS. 



6] 



made on the high seas, and' likewise of- 
fenees committed, and many coDtracts 
jrnade thereon. In civU suits, tlie judges 
decide unaided. In criminal cases, the 
iadge in England is associated with three 
or four commissionets ; in the United 
States, he is assisted hy a jury. In the 
latter country, the admiralty jurisdiction 
is Tested in the circuit and district courts 
of the Union. In England, it is divided 
between the instance and the prize courts, 
the fbnner being the ordinary admiralty 
court, the latter being constituted by a 
special commission, in time of war, to 
take cognizance of prizes, though the 
indiYiduals composing the court are the 
same in both cases. 

Admi&altt Islands ; a cluster of isl- 
SLuds to the north of New Britain, in the 
South Pacific ocean, in about 2° IS' S. 
ht. and 146° 44^ E. Ion. There are be- 
tween 20 and 30. The Dutch discovered 
them in 1616. The islanders are black, 
but not of a deep shade ; tall, and ahnost 
in a state of nudity. They evinced muich 
kindness towards La Perouse. A. L is 
likewise an island in George Ill's Ar- 
chipelafiQ, on the north-west coast of 
New Norfolk, in America, between N. 
laL 57^ and 58° 30^, and between W. 
Ion. 134^ and 135^ (See Vancouver's 
Voyage, vol m.) 

AnoLPHUS of Nassau was elected em- 
peror of Germany, May 1, 1292, and 
crowned at Aix la Chapelle, June 25. 
He was of an illustrious family, and of 
approved courage ; but without any pat- 
nmony, except his s\%'ord, and destitute 
of those great qualities, which had raised 
his predecessor, Rodolph of Hapsburg, to 
the throne. A. owed his election, in part, 
to the arrogant conduct of Albert of Aus- 
tria; in part, to his intrigues with the 
electors of Cologne and Mentz, who im- 
posed on liim the hardest conditions, and 
mrced him to resign to them cities and 
territories, which were not his own. But, 
refusing to fulfil, when emperor, what he 
had promised when coimt, he soon saw 
himself hated and deserted by his friends. 
Uiged by want of money, he received 
1 O^OGO pounds sterling from Edward I of 
England, and, in return, engaged to assist 
him against Philip the Fair of France ; 
but he was by no means sorry to see the 
pope forbid his participation in the war. 
In this way he made hi^nself contemptible 
in the eyes of the German princes, and 
became sdll more odious to them by 
taking advantage of tf.e hatred of Alben, 
land^^ve of Tiiuringia, agahist his sons, 
and purchasing this territory from him. 

roL, L 6 



This purchase involved him in a 5 years' 
war, m which he attempted, unsuccess- 
fully, to subjugate the country which he 
had bought iJisgustedatsuchdi^raceful 
conduct, and urged on by Albert of Aus- 
tria, the college of electors, excepting 
those of Trevesu Cologne and tlie Palat- 
inate, cited Adolphus to appear before it 
Failing to wpear, the throne was declar- 
ed vacant, June 23, 1296, and Albert of 
Austria elected. A war already existed 
between the two rivals, in which Adol- 
phus seemed superior, until, deceived by 
the manoeuvres of his foe, he found 
himself surrounded at Gellheim, and fell, 
afler a heroic resistance, by Albert's own 
hand, July 2, 1298. His body was depos- 
ited by Ilenry VII in the imperial vault 
at Spire, at the same time with that of 
Albeit. His faults sprung mostly from 
the inadequateness of his abiUties to his 
situation. One n-istake followed another, 
and when, in the latter part of his career, 
he willed to adqpt a better course, it was 
too late. 

AnoNAi ; one of the many Hebrew 
names for God. The word properly sig- 
nifies nof lords, in the plural number, 
which is called, in the Hebrew grammar, 
pluraUa mcffesuiis. The Jews, who, from 
reUgious reverence, do not pronounce the 
name Jeksvahf read Adonai in all the 

Sies in which the former name occurSb 
8 practice commenced among the 
latter iews afler the Babylonish captivi- 
ty, at feast before the time of Josephus. 
(See Geddts^ Cril. BemwkSy vol i, p. 167, 
and Leigh^s Oit, Sacr, in verb. Kvatog,) 

AnoNic. The Adonic verse consists 
of a dactyle and a spondee or trochee, 
e. g. 

r&r& jQvtetasj 

aind, on account of its animated move- 
ment, is adapted to gay and Uvely poetry. 
Long poemi^ however, would become 
monotonous if written entirel^r in ameas* 
ure so short, and recurring with no vari- 
ety. It is therefore rarely used by itselfl 
Even the ancients always combined it 
with other kinds of verse ; thus the last 
verse of the Sapphic strophe is Adonic. 

Adoms ; sonof Cinyras by his daugh- 
ter Myrrha. The wood-nymphs educa- 
ted him, and be grew up so remarkably 
beautiful, that he oecame the ibvorit^of 
Venus, who accompanied him to 'the 
chase, pointing out the dangers to which 
he was exposed. A., disregarding her 
advice, eagerly pursued the wild beasts 
of the forest, but, happening to &il in an 
attack upon a wild ]tH>8r, he was mortaOy 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ADONIS— ADOPTION. 



wounded by this ferocious unimaL The 
goddess, hearing of his misfortune, hunied 
to his asnstance, and in her haste her foot 
was wounded by a rose-bush, the flowers 
of which, formeriy white, from that time 
took ihe color of blood. When she 
reached the spot, she found him lifoless 
on the grass, and, to alleviate her grief 
and preserve his memory, slie transform- 
ed hun into an anemone. At her request, 
however, Jupiter permitted A. to spend 
6 monttks with her, and the other 6 
with Proserpine. A fiill explanation of 
this fable may be found m Creuzer's 
.WoZil und J^fyUwlogU der VSOur de$ 

Adoftian I ; a religious sect which as- 
serted that Christ, as to his divine nature, 
was properiy the Son of God ; but, as to 
his human nature, only such by adoption, 
by baptism and regeneration, through 
which God's mercy adopts other men 
also as his children ; for thev could not 
comprehend how a human being could 
be called the Son of €hd in a literal 
sense. Flipandus, archbishop of Toledo, 
and Felix, bishop of UnEef, in Spain, 
avowed this doctrine in 783, and made 
proselytes both in Spain and France. 
Charlema^e condemned their heresy at 
the council of Ratisbon, and dismissed 
Felix from his office. This sentence was 
repeated 3 times; at Frankfort, 794, at 
Rome and at Aix la Chapelle in 799, 
because the bishop relapsed twice into 
his former error. He was then placed, 
for the remainder of his lifo, under the 
care of the bishop of Lyons. After the 
death of Flipandus, the whole controver- 
sy ceased. The dispute is worthy of 
notice, both on account of the modera- 
tion of Chariemagne, and because the 
opinion of the Adoptiani has often been 
made use of by those who have exerted 
themselves to adapt the doctrine of the 
divinity of Christ to the comprehension 
of man. (See Socimans.j 

Adoption, the admission of a stran- 
ger by birth to the privileges of a child, 
has come down to us in the Roman law. 
Its purpose was the acouisition of pater- 
nal power, which coula either be ceded 
to the person adopting by the natural 
punent ^option in the strictest sense), or 
he obtamea by the assent of a person no 
longer under tnejMifrtapo<e«ta«, or of his 
guardians. This second sort is called ofro- 
gaUon, According to the ancient civil law, 
the adopted child left the ftinily of its pa- 
rents or guardians, and became a member 
of the nmily of the person adopting it 
The emperor Justinian abolished uiis prin- 



ciple in regard to adoption properly so 
called. A£>ption was intended to sup- 
ply the want of ot&pring in those persons 
who might have been parents. Eunuchs, 
therefore, and persons akeady having 
legitimate issue, were excluded from this 
privilege. The person adopting must 
nave been at least 18 vears older man the 
person to be adopted. Guardians were 
not permitted to adopt their wards, nor a 
poor man a rich child. Females, strictly 
speakinff, were not permitted to adopt, 
but mi^t, with the permission of the 
sovereign, secure to any child the right 
of support and inheritance. In Germany, 
the rules respecting adoption are derived 
fitun the ci^ law, but require the sanc- 
tion either of the sovereign or of the ju- 
diciary. (CM Code ofJu8tria, 1. 179; 
PruMumCode,part2,tit2,§666.] The 
adopted child receives the npme of its 
adopter, but does not share in his rank if 
he be a nobleman, except by the speciiJ 
permission of the sovereign. In Prussia, 
a married couple must have lived many 
years without children, before they are 
allowed to adopt a chUd. The modem 
French law (Code ctotle, a. 343) also ad« 
mits adoption, but only on certain con- 
ditions. The code establishes three 
kinds of adoption — PadopUon ordinmre^ 
la r^mun^idavre^dlaUsUunentoire. Those 
who wish to adopt must have supported 
the person to be adopted for six years, or 
the adopter's lifo must have been saved 
by the person to be adopted. Excepting 
in this last case, the latter must be as much 
as fifteen years younger than the former. 
Adoption (excepting as before) cannot 
take place until the person to be adopted is 
of age, and must be ratified by the dis- 
trict court 88 well as by the court of ap- 
peal. There is nothing corresponding 
with adoption in the law either of Eng- 
land or America. In Asia, adoption is a 
very common practice. The ceremo- 
ny is firecjuentiy performed merely by 
the adopting person exchanging girdles 
with the person adopted. The Tunes de- 
clare adoption often before the cadi, and a 
writing regulariy witnessed is drawn up. 
The law of Mahomet prescribes still an- 
other very curious ceremony of adoption. 
The person adopted is required to pass 
tiirough the shirt of the adopter; and 
hence the phrase to draw anotkar fkrotigk 
one*s shirt is, among them, expressive of 
adoption. An adopted son is caJled aki- 
etogit, that is, (he aofi qf another lift. Sev- 
eral writers have applied this ceremony 
as explanatoiy of many passages both of 
the Old and New Testaments. 



/Google 



ADORATION. 



68 



AooBATioN ; origmaUy, the ezpresBioii 
€f the hij^est respect either to God or 
nmn; now used, more particulariy, for the 
act of religious homajge. The word lit- 
enSfy aigmfies applying the hand to the 
mouth ; mnman ad os admovere^ i. e. to 
kisB the hand. The word hMng is the 
usual idiom of the Hebrew lan|pia^ to 
signify adoration. Herodotus considers 
the custom of kissing the hand in adora- 
tion to have been adopted by the Greeks 
fiom the Persians. It certainly prevailed 
at an early period all over the East The 
Roman ceremony of adoration has been 
thus described : tlie devotee, having his 
head covered, applied his right hand to 
his lips, the fi>re finger resting on his 
thumDy which was erect, and, thus bowing 
his head, turned himself round from left 
to right The loss given was called <mci«- 
lum uxbrahan. Sometimes, however, they 
bifwird the feet or even the knees of their 
gods. The Grecians generally worship- 
ped uncovered. Dunng their prayers, 
their hands were raised wove their heads 
wtth the palms turned towards heaven 
or the statues of their god ; a custom still 
olbn seeuj in Catholic countries, accom- 
panying fervent prayer; but general^ 
the Christians clasp their han£ during 
prayer, which is still the custom in Eu- 
rope, both among Catlioiics and Protes- 
tsniB, The first Christians often turned 
the fece towards the east when they 
prayed. The Mahometans turn the 
feoe towards Mecca. Prostration, ac- 
companied sometimes by kissing the 
ground, is an ancient mode of adoring 
3ie gods, and expressing the highest re- 
spect fer men. -In Russia and Poland, it 
is sdll ^e custom for people of the lower 
dasBes to kneel down and loss the gar- 
ment of the person to whom they wish 
to show respect. . Diocletian offered his 
feot to be kissed by tlie courtiers, and 
even under Charlemagne and his son, the 
noblemen kissed the emperor's foot 
Probably, therefore, the popes took this 
custom from the emperors, to whose 
power they laid claim in succeeding to 
their title of sovereign pontiff. iSiey 
have an embroidered cross on the slipper 
of their right foot, which is kissed by the 
Catholics. When the late king of Spain 
was in Rome, he prostrated himselfbefore 
the pontiftj and Kissed the cross on his 
foot There is no doubt that the Roman 
emperors borrowed this custom from the 
East In the primitive Christian church, 
this honor is said to have been shown to 
every bishop, as it often is still in the 
Greek church. In kissing the bishop's 



foot, the words Ttqoattww «• vrere, and 
still are used. The Jews, being an Asi- 
atic tribe, often prostrated themselves in 
the act of worship. (See Jodbao, Judged, 
1 Chron^ EzekUl, &c) Taking off the 
shoes or sliiqierB during adoration is an 
old custom in Asia. It is also practised 
on common occasions as an act of polite- 
ness. The Oriental takes off his shoes 
before he enters the temple, the mosque, 
or theamartment of a man of respectabil- 
ity. This custom was also adopted by 
the Roman Catholic church in some cases. 
At the adoration of the cross on Good 
Friday, the Roman CathoHcs vralk bare- 
footed ; and the ceremony of humiliatioD, 
when tiie pope and all the cardinals ap- 
proach the crofis bare-footed, in the Co^ 
feUa SisttnOf cannot but make a deep 
impression on every traveller. Kneeling 
was in all ages a common posture of ado- 
ration, and originates firom the feeling 
of humihty in addressing a higher and 
mightier being. Sitting with the thighs 
resting on tiie heels, was an ancient 
Egyptian attitude in the act of worship. 
There are many statues represented m 
this position. Standing with the body 
inclined forward the eyes fixed on the 
ground, the hands probably resting on the 
knees, was an eany eastern attitude of 
adoration. Dancing, screaming, rolling 
on the ground, and many similar acts ac- 
company the worship of different sava^ 
tribes. Mr. Ward, one of the Baptist 
missionaries at Serampore, in a work on 
the history and literature of the Hindoos, 
has given a very curious and minute 
account of the modes of adoration, which 
they call podjtu The obiects of adora- 
tion have been greatiy mvernfied. In 
all ages, worship has been paid to idols, 
but many of the worshippers have re- 
garded the image merely as the repre- 
sentative of the IMvinity. Protestants 
often mistake when they impute to Catho- 
hcs, umversally, the worship of external 
things, as being in themselves objects of 
adoration, while, in fiict, they are reg^- 
ed by the church merely as visible signs 
of the invicdble Deity. The ancients 
placed crowns or garlands on the statues 
of the gods; and the Catholies still offer 
flowers to their saints and the virgin. It 
was common to sleep in the ancient tern- 
l^es, with a view of receiviiUr responses 
from the gods in dreams. The sick, in 
particular, slept for this purpose in the 
temple of .fisculaphis. In the Roman Car 
ibohc church adoration is not offered to 
saints and martyrs, as has been suppoa- 
ed, but their intereeasioniB solicited. The 



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Google 



64 



ADORATION— ADRIAN, 



PhoBDicians (the fint navigators] adored 
the witids, a practice adopted oy many 
other natkms. The PenianB adored the 
aun and fire. 'Hie Greeks and Romans 
adored fire under the name of Veata. 
Pliny mentions the adon^ion of Ikht- 
ning bv gently clapping the hands. The 
Eeyptians adored anonals, plants and 
fishes ; the Arabs, stones ; the Scytliians, 
swcmls; the Chinese, the statues of their 
ancestors. The Hindoos have not only 
an amazing variety of gods, but they 
worship human beings, beasts, birds, 
trees, nvers, fish, books and stones. (See 
Ward's View of (he IRgtcry^ LUeratture 
and Rdtgion of the HindoM, and Bishop 
Hebei^s ^iorative of a Journey through 
the Vnper Provinces of hdia, from CdUmt- 
ta to Bmnbay, 1834—1835, vnih AToUs vp- 
on CetfUm, and an Account ofaJonim^ito 
Madras and 2^ SouJthem ProvinceSy 18^.) 
It must be remembered, that all ad- 
oration originates fit>m two different 
sources, either firom love and thankfiil- 
ness, or fiiom fear. 

Adkagantb, in medicine, gum dragon. 
It distils by incision fixmi the trunk or 
roots of a plant which grows in the Le- 
vant. The gum is of difilerent colors, 
white, red, gray and black, and is usefiil 
in medicine. Skinners use great quanti- 
ties, and prefer the red to the bla<^ It 
is the astnigalus tm^gaeanthus of Linnnus. 

AoaASTEA ; a daughter of Jupiter and 
Necessity, the servant of eternal Justice, 
the punisher of dl injustice, whom no 
mortal escapes. A. is ^nerally a mere 
epithet, given to Nemesis, (q. v.) She is 
represented sometimes with wings, some- 
times with a rudder, and sometimes witli 
a wheel 

Adrastds, king of Ai^os ; son of Tala- 
us and Emynome. In obedience to the 
oracle which commanded him to give one 
of his daughters to a lion and the other 
to a wild b(wr, he gave Argia to' Polynices, 
who came to him in a uon's skin, and 
Deiphylc to Tydeus, who was dressed in 
the skin of a wild boar. He was one bf 
the seven heroes who encamped before 
Thebes, and the only one who survived 
the siege. Ten years after this, he made 
a second expedition against Thebes, ac- 
companied by the sons of his former al- 
lies, and took the city, but lost his son 
in the engagement, and died himself of 
grief (See Thebes,) 

Adkiak, the Afiican, abbot of St Pe- 
ter's, Canterii>ury, in the 7th century, ac- 
companied Theodore, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, to England. A. was the precep- 
tor of Adhelm, and Bede. extols the hap- 



py time when the island enjoyed his tui- 
tion, and Kent ''was the fountain of 
knowledge to the rest of Encland.** 

AnaiAN, or Hadrian, Pubnus iElius, a 
Roman emperor, the successor of Traian, 
was bom at Rome, A. D. 76. His fitther, 
Trajan's cousin, died when A. was ten 
years of age. A. showed very eariy great 
talents, and is said to have spoken the 
Greek kmffuage so perfectly in his 16th 
year, that he was called the young Oreek. 
nifi memory is said to have been so extra- 
ordinary, that he could commit a book to 
memory by once perusing it, and that he 
could call ail his soldiers by name. These 
stories may be exaggerated, but they 
prove the estimation m which his talents 
were held. He was an orator, poet, 
grammarian, mathematician, physician, 
painter, musician and astrologer. The 
greater developement of the sciences in 
modem times does not admit of distinc- 
tion in so many branches. His great 
oualities, however, were stained bv gjreax 
mults, so that he never won the afi^ctions 
of Trajan, who was his guardian. He 
was indebted for his elevation to the 
&rone to the wife of Trajan, Plotino, 
who concealed the death of her husband 
until she had time to ferge a testament 
bearing the name of tlie late emperor, in 
which he was made to adopt A. and de- 
clare him his successor. Her bribes also 
had in the mean time prepared the troops 
to espouse the cause of A. After these 
preparations had been made, A. sent infor- 
mation of the emperor's death from Anti- 
och to Rome, pretended that the imperial 
dignity had been forced upon him, prom- 
ised the senate that he would discharge 
feithfuliy tlie duties of his station, and as- 
sured the pretorian guards that they should 
receive twice the usual present A. D. 1 17, 
he ascended the imperial throne, appeared 
in Rome, and strove at first to win the 
favor of the people by the mildness of 
his administration. It was not long, 
however, before he manifested a cow- 
ardly and suspicious character, togethei 
with too great a devotion to pleasure. 
Amon^ other things, he purchased peace 
from the Sarmatians and Roxolani, who 
had attacked Illyria, by the payment of 
a tribute. From A. D. 120 to 131, he 
made his famous journey on foot, and 
witli his head uncovered, through aill the 
provinces of his empire. In Egypt, he 
lost his favorite Antinous (q. v.), whose 
death he lamented long and bitterly. 
During his stay of two years in Athens, 
he es^lished a colony of Roman sol- 
diers on the site of the ruined Jerusalem ; 



ADRIAN. 



65 



Sjad on the spot where the temple of Solo- 
mon had stood, he erected a temple to 
Jupiter Oapitolmus. Upon this, a dread- 
fulmsarrectbnbiokeout among the Jews, 
whkh lasted two years and a hal£ He 
embelHshed Athens with building and 
finished the temple of the Olympian Ju- 
piter, begun 560 years before. A. died 
at Bajee, 138 A. D. in the 6dd year of 
his age, and the 21st of his reign. He had 
good qualities and great fiiults. He pro- 
moted literature and the arts, did many 
good things on his joumey, established 
me edictvm perpetuum, enacted laws 
against dissipation and the cruelties of 
the slaTe trade, prohibited human sacri- 
fices, forbade the indiscriminate bathing 
of men and women, &c. Antoninus 
Kus succeeded him. It was with much 
difficulty that his successor could obtain 
a decree firom the senate, granting him, 
according to usase, divine honors. A. 
wrote several books ; among others a hm- 
tonr of his own life, under the name of 
Phkgon, one of his fieedmen, which is 
no longer extant He composed, not 
lon^ before he breathed his last, the fol- 
lowmg lines : 

AnuDola, vagula, blandula, 
Hospes, oomeacyie corporis^ 
Ctam none abtbis in loca 
Pallidala, rigida. nudala t 
Nee, at soles, daois jocos. 

Pope has imitated them. ' 

AnaiAN. There have been six popes 
of this name. The first, a Roman, nued 
fiom 772 to 795, was a cotemporary and 
friend of Charlemagne, who, on account 
of A.'s able defence of his claims to the 
crown of France, protected him with his 
army, 774, against Desiderius, king of the 
Lombanls, confirmed the donation of 
Pepin to die territory of the church, and 
made further grants himself. The pope 
was not allowed, however, to enjoy m 
peace the gifb of Charlemagne till 787, 
after the termination of the frequent 
campaigns of this king asainst the Ital- 
ian princes, who claimed the territory. 
By confirming the decrees of the council 
or Nice, 786, in fiivor of the worship of 
images, A. gave ofience to Charlemagne, 
who was opposed to the practice, and 
procured a repeal of the aecree at the 
council of Frankfort. The repeal was 
rensted by A.; but he so carefully 
and skilfully avoided ofiendinff the 
kinff, tliat he remained his niend, 
and honored him after his death, 
T95, with an inscription, yet preserved 
in the Vatican. Though W no means 
a proibund theologian, A. obtained 
0* 



great influence by the correctneaB of his 
conduct, and his decision of character. 
By a imident use of this influence, he 
greatly increased his power.— Adrian II, 
a Roman, was elected pope in 867, at the 
af^ of 75 years. He was esteemed fbr 
his virtues, and ftmous on account of his 
bold opposition to the divorce of Lothaire, 
king ofjLotharingia, fit>m his wife Thiet- 
berjia. By interfering in the dispute, 
which arose after the death of Lothaire, 
between Charles the Bald and the empe- 
ror Louis, rejecting the right of succes- 
sion, he made the former his enemy. 
He had another dispute in France, where 
bishop Hincihar of^Laon had been dis- 
missed against his will; he likewise 
excommunicated the patriarch Photius 
of Constantinople, on account of his 
spiritual jurisdiction over Bulnuia, which 
(uminished the authority of the pope, 
since the Greek church maintained its 
independence against him, and made 
Bulgaria dependent on itself. He died 
872, in the midst of his conflicts with this 
church. — ^Adrian III, a Rpman, elected 
884, was pope fbr 1 year and 4 months 
only. He was opposed to the influence 
of the emperors on the election of the 
pope, and determined, if Charies the Fat 
should die without heir, to jive Italy a 
new king. — ^Adriah IV, an Englishman, 
CHiginally named ^iehoUu Breakgpear, 
rose, by his great talents, fix>m the situa- 
tion of a poor monk to the rank of cardi- 
nal, and legate in the north, where he 
established at Drontheim the first Nor- 
wegian archbishopric, and a second at 
UpsIbI. He was elected pope in 1154, 
and waged an unsuccessful war against 
William, king of Sicily, who, at the peace 
of 1156, claimed the privilege, still exist- 
ing in the numardda iStctZto;, so called, that, 
in matters relatiiu^ to the church, nothing 
should be done by the pope without the 
consent of the king. The emperor 
Frederic I, who, ben>re, had held his 
stirrup, and had been crowned by him at 
Rome, June 18, 1155, was opposed to 
this peace with William, his enemy. ' A. 
increased his resentment by the haughty 
language of his letters, and insti^pUed the 
Lombiuds against him. Fredenc, on the 
other hand, acted in ecclesiastical matters 
as if there had been no pope. Before 
these difficulties came to a close, A. died, 
Sept 1, 1 159, at Anagni. The nermission 
which he gave to Henry II, king of 
England, to invade Ireland, on the con- 
dition that eveiy fiunily of that island 
should pay annually a penny to die papal 
chair, because all udands belong to the 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



e6 



ADRIAN— ADRIATIC SEA. 



pope, is wortby of remaik. On tluB 
grant the subeequent popes fi>unded their 
clmms on Ireland.— Adrian V, previous- 
ly called OUobard da Fiesco, of Genoa, 
settled, as legate of the pope, the dispute 
between king Henry III or England and 
his noUes, in ftvor of the former ; but 
died soon after his election to the papal 
chair, 1S76.— Adrian VI, son of a me- 
chanic of Utrecht, and professor in Lou- 
yain, was, in 1507. appointed tutor of the 
emperor Charles V. When ambassador 
of the emperor Maximilian, in 1515, he 
persuaded Ferdinand the Catholic to 
nominate young Charles his successor to 
the Spanish throne ; after which he be- 
came, in 1516, bishop of Tortosa and 
reffent of Spain, and, in 1517, cardinal. 
The Spaniards were not pleased with his 
severe and often partial govermnent, and 
expressed great joy when, at the sug- 
gestion of Charles V, he was elected to 
3ie papal chair^ in 1523. He was not less 
hated at Rome, on account of bis antip- 
athy to classical literature, and his honest 
endeavors to reform the papal court, to 
aboUsh the prevailing luxury, bribery, 
and other abuses; but his eftbrts were 
frustrated by the cardinals, and, if they 
had been successftil, could not have pre- 
vented the progress of the reformation 
already begun in Germany. A. opposed 
the z^ of Luther with reproaches and 
threats, and even attempted to excite 
Erasmus and Zuinglius against him ; but 
his abilities were not equal to the existing 
emergency. His measures against France 
also were unsaccessfiiL Notwithstanding 
his honest efforts and upright character, 
he died unlamented, in 1525, after a reign 
of one year and a half. His reiffn was, 
according to his own confession, the most 
unhappy period of his life. On his tomb, 
in the church of St. Peter, is the follow- 
ing epitaph : 

Adrianus Papa VI hie situs est, 
Qui nihil sibi infelicius 

In vita, 

Quam quod impeFaret, 

Duxii. 

AnaiANOPLE (in Turkish, fe^ene), the 
second capital and residence of the Otto- 
man rulers, is situated in ancient Thrace 
(now Rumelia), on the banks of the navi- 
gable river Hebrus (now Maritza). On 
this spot a small town formerly stood, 
inhabited by the Bessi, a Thracian tribe. 
The emperor Adrian founded this city 
on the left bank of the Hebnis, called it 
after his own name, and made it the cap- 
ital of the province of mt. H«mus. From 
the range of hills on which it is situated, 



it commands a beautiful prospect over a 
large and fertile plain, divided by two 
ranges of hills, between which the river 
runs. It was fortified, and resisted^ in the 
4th century, the violent attack of the vic- 
torious Goths, who were, however, igno- 
rant of the mode of conducting a regular 
siege. To give it the appearance of a 
Greek origin, the writers of Byzanti- 
um called it Onstea or Orestiae, Ac- 
cording to their accounts, it is five da}'s' 
journey distant fipom Constantinople. In 
1960, it was taken by Amunith, the 
Turkish sultan; and fi^m tliat time it 
continued to be the residence of the 
Turkish emperors for nearly a century, 
until the conquest of Constantinople. 
The number of the houses is 16,000, and 
that of the inhabitants 100,000, among 
whom there are 30,000 Greeks, under an 
archbishop. It contains also an impe- 
rial palace, 40 mosques, of which that of 
Selim II and of Amurath II are the most 
magnificent, 22 bathing establishments, 
with beautiful aqueducts, important 
manu&ctures, and exports, among othei 
articles, oil of roses, which is made in its 
vicinity, of tlie best kind. 

Adrian^s Wall ; a celebrated Roman 
work in the north of England. This 
work, though called by the Roman his 
torions muniSf which signifies a wall of 
stone, was only composed of earth cov- 
ered with green turf It was carried 
from the Solway fiith, in as direct a line 
as possible, to the river Tyne, on the 
east, at the place where the town of New- 
castle now stands ; so that it must have 
been above 60 English and nearly 70 Ro- 
man miles in lengtn. It consisted of fou r 
parts : 1, the ])rincipal agger, mound of 
earth or rampart, on the brink of the 
ditch ; 2, the ditch, on the north side of 
the rampart ; 3, another rampart on the 
south side of the principal one, about five 
paces distant fit>in it ; 4, a larjj^ rampart 
on the north side of the ditcli. For 
many ages, this work has been in so ruin- 
ous a condition, that it is impossible to 
discover its original dimensions with cer- 
taint}\ But from their appearance, it 
seems probable that the princioal ram- 
part was at least ten or twelve ieet high, 
and the south one not much less; Die 
northern one was considerably lower. 
The ditch, taken as it passes through a 
lime-stone quarry near Hariow hill, ap- 
pears to have been 9 feet deep and 11 
feet Mr-ide at the top. The north rampart 
was about twenty feet distant fiom the 
ditch. 

Adriatic Sea {mare Adriaticum, jidri 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ADRIATIC SEA-^ABULTERT. 



»fl7 



«iiiim)»^ now more commonly caUed gv^ 
0^ FoMce, thou|di in ItaUen, Qerman and 
French the old name continues, is an 
arm of the Mediterranean included bv 
the coasts of Italy, lUyria, Dahnatia, Al- 
bania and EpiniB, about 200 leagues long 
and 50 broad, extending from south-east 
lo north-west, lat 40° to 50^ 55^ north. It 
contains about 90,000 sq. iniles of sur- 
&ce. Different derivations of the name 
are given. On the Austrian coast it has a 
number of small islands, and fi>rms many 
bays, the most remarkable of which are 
diose of Trieste, Quamaro and Cattaro. 
It is called the gvj^o/* Vtmct from the city 
of this name, which formerly clauned 
exclusive dominion over ^his sea, and in 
those times annually wedded it on As- 
cension Day. The ceremony was per- 
formed by the doge of Venice throwing 
a ring into the sea with great pomp. 
The entrance of the gulf is commanded 
by Corfii, one of the Ionian islands un- 
der the British government The coast 
of the A. sea is, in many places, veiy 
dangerous. The most important ports 
on me gulf are Venice (since 1899 a free 
port), 'nieste, Ancona, Otranto, &c. 

Apulk; Adulian Marble. Adule, a 
city in Ethiopia, mentioned by ancient 
anthon as the most important conmier- 
cial place of the Troglodytes and Ethio- 
pians, in later times the emporium of 
Axnm, seems to be the same with the 
modem Arkiko. This city, now the res- 
idence of the Naib of Massuah, is fre- 
quently mentioned on account of an in- 
scription, first copied in the Topofprc^ 
pfda ChruHanOf a work piartly theological, 
partly geographical, written by Cosmas 
Indicopleustes, in the 6th centuiy, under 
the reign of the emperor Justin. The in- 
scription, engraved on marble, is contain- 
ed in part on a throne, the remainder on 
a stone separated from it, and there are 
many inconsistencies in the several fhig- 
nients, which have induced some scholais 
to declare the inscription spurious. Be- 
sides the ipenealogy of Ptolemy Eueige- 
tea, it contams on a second part, which Salt 
supposes to be of Axumitic, that is, of 
EttuofMc or Abyssinian origin, the cata- 
logue of nations whom some king boasts 
to have subdued. Buttmann (in Wotf^s 
Mtutum der Merthumskundt, vol. 2, p. 
105] has removed the difficulties arising 
from the date on the marble, which is the 
27th year of the reign of a king, whose 
name is unknown, probably not Ptolemy 
Euergetes. Several things, however, re- 
main to be explained, and require a more 
accurate knowledge than we have at pres- 



ent of the oountiy where the inscription 
was fotmd. 

AD0LTERT. Mankind, in almost all 
ages, and in all civilized countries, have 
regarded the violation of the marriage-bed 
wnh abhorrence. It has been punished 
in various ways and with difterent de- 
grees of severity, according to the general 
manners and morale of the country; 
sometimes with extreme and even cruel 
rigor ; in other instances, with capricious 
and ridiculous penalties. By the Jewish 
law, it was punished with death. Strabo 
says the same was the Qsae in Arabia 
Felix. Among the ancient Egyptians, it 
was not common, but virhen it did occur, 
a thousand lashes were inflicted on the 
man, and the woman was deprived of her 
nose. In Greece, the laws against it were 
severe. The rich were sometimes aUow- 
ed to redeem themselves by paying a 
fine ; in which case, the woman's fa&er 
returned the dower which he had receiv- 
ed from the husband. Some suppose it 
was reminded by die adulterer. A fre- 

auent punishment there, was putting out 
le eyes. According to Homer, adulter- 
ers were stoned to death. By the laws 
of Draco and ^ Solon, adulterers, when 
cau^t in the act, were at the mercy of 
the injured party. Adulteresses were pro- 
hibited, in Greece, from appearing in fine 
garments and entering the temples. Some 
suppose that this offence was made capi- 
tal oy a law of Romulus, and again hy 
the twelve taUes ; others, that it was first 
made capital by Augustus ; and others, not 
till the reign of Constantine. The fact is, 
that the punishment was left to the dis- 
cretion or the husband and parents of the 
adulteress. The most usual mode of ta- 
king reveni^ was by mutilating, castra- 
ting, or cutting off the ears or nose. The 
punishment assigned by the lex Julia de 
advUeriSj instituted by Augustus, was 
banishment or a heavy fine. It was de- 
creed by Antoninus, that, to sustain a 
charge of adultery agEunst a wife, the 
huslMLnd who brought it must be inno- 
cent himself. Under Macrinus, adulter- 
ers were burned at a stake. Under Con- 
stantius and Constans, they were burned 
or sewed in sacks and thrown into the 
sea. But the punishment was mitigated 
under Leo and Marcian to perpetual 
banishment, or cutting off the nose ; and 
under Justinian the wife was only to be 
scourged, lose her dower, and be shut up 
in a monasteiT ; at the expiration of two 
^ears, the husband might take her again ; 
if he refused, she was shaven, and made 
a nun for life. Theodosius instituted the 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ADULTERY— BILL OF ADVENTURE. 



shocking practice of public constupration, 
which, however, he soon abolished. In 
Crete, adulterers were covered with wool, 
as an emblem of their effeminacy, fmd 
carried in that dress to the magistrate's 
house, where a fine was imposed on 
them, and they were deprived of all their 
privileges and their share in public busi- 
ness. The punishment in use among the 
Mingrelians is the forfeiture of a nog, 
which is usually eaten very amicably by 
the woman, the pliant and the cuckold. 
In some parts oflndia, it is said, that anv 
woman mav prostitute herself for an el- 
ephant, and it is reputed no small gloiy 
to have been rated so high. Adultery is 
stated to be extremely fi«quent at Ceylon, 
although punishable with death. Among 
the Japanese and some other nations, 
adultery is punishable only in the wo- 
man. Among the Abyssinians, the crime 
of the husband is punished on the inno- 
cent wife. On the contrary, in the Ma- 
rian islands, the woman is not punishable, 
but the man is, and the wife and her re- 
lations waste his lands, bum him out of 
the house, &c. Among the Chinese, 
adulteiy is not capital ; fond parents will 
even make a contract with the future 
husbands of their daughters, to allow 
them the indulgence of a gallant. In 
Portugal, an adulteress is condenmed to 
the flunes, but the punishment is seldom 
executed. By the ancient laws of France, 
this crime was punishable with death. In 
Spain, the crime was punished by the 
deprivation of the instrument. In Poland, 
previously to the establishment of Chris- 
tianity, the criminal was carried to the 
market-place, and there festened by the 
testicles with a nail; a razor was laid 
within his reach, and he had the option 
to execute justice on himself or remain 
where he was and die. The Saxons con- 
signed the adulteress to the flames, and 
over her ashes erected a gibbet, on which 
her paramour was han^d. King Ed- 
mund the Saxon ordered adultery to be 
punished in the same manner as homi- 
cide, and Canute the Dane ordered that 
the offender should be banished, and the 
woman have her eara and nose cut off. 
In the time of Henry I, it was punished 
with the loss of the eyes and the genitals. 
Adulteiy is, in England, considered a spir- 
itual ofience, cognizable by the spiritual 
courts, where it is punished by fme and 
penance. The coQimon law allows the 
party aggrieved only an action and dam- 
ages. T^e Mahommedan code pronoun- 
ces adultery a capital oflfence. It is one 
of the three crimes which the prophet 



directs to be expiated by the blood of a 
MusBuhnan. In France, before the rev- 
olution, an adulteress was usually con- 
demned to a convent, where the husband 
could vifflt her during two years, and take 
her back if he saw fit. If he did not 
choose to receive her again by tlie expi- 
ration of this time, her nair was shaven, 
she took the habit of the convent, and re- 
mained there for life. Where the parties 
were poor, the wife might be shut up in 
a hospital instead of a convent The Code 
Niapolion does not allow the husband to 
proceed against his wife for adultery, in 
case he has been condemned for the same 
ofibnce. The wife can bring an action 
against the husband only in case be has 
introduced Iiis paramour into the house 
where she resides. An adulteress can be 
imprisoned firom three months to two 
years. The husband can prevent the ex- 
ecution of the sentence, if he sees fit to 
take her back. Her partner m guilt is 
liable to ^e same punishment. In the 
United States, the punishment of adultery 
has varied materially at different times. 
In the state of Massachusetts, an adulter- 
er or adulteress may be set on the gaUows 
for one hour, be publicly whipped, be 
imprisoned or fined. All or any of these 
punishments may be inflicted, according 
to the degree <n the offence. Corporal 
punishment and exposure, however, are in 
that state always commuted into impris- 
onment and labor. Moreover, adultery is 
veiy seldom punished criminally in the 
United States. 

Advent (finom the Latin adotnJtu8, i. e. 
adnentms JUdcm^pUms) signifies the coming 
of our Samor, The name is applied to 
the holy season which occupies the 4 or 
6 weeks preceding Christmas. The Ro- 
man Catnolics spend this season in fest- 
ing, humiliation and {Mayer, as if prepar- 
ing for the reception of the Savior of^the 
worid. This holy season is first men- 
tioned by Maximus Laurinensis, a divine, 
in one of his homilies, written in the mid- 
dle of the 5th oentuiy, but is supposed 
to have been instituted by St. Peter. No 
nuptials could be celebrated in Advent, 
since the council held at Lerida, in the 
6th century, in order that Christians 
might more frequently partake in the 
Lord's supper. 

Adventure, bill of; in commerce, a 
writing signed by a merchant, to testify 
that the g(M>ds shipped on board a certain 
vessel belong to another person, who is 
to take the hazard, the subscriber signing 
only to obliee himself to accoimt to him 
for the produce. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ADVENTURE ISLAND— ADVOCATE. 



09 



AsvEirrnRS Isla-ivd ; a small island in 
the S. Pacific ocean ; Ion. 144^ 18' W. ; lat 
17'' 5' S. There is also an .^flivefitere Boy, 
tm the S. E. coast of New Holland; Ion. 
14r'29'E.;lat43°2rS. 

Adventukers, the society of; an an- 
cient company of merchants, erected for 
the discovery of unknown re^ons, <^n- 
ing new channels of trade, &c. It origi- 
n^d in Burgundy.and was establist^ 
hy John, duke of Brabant, in 1248, lor 
die encouragement of English and other 
merchants at Antwerp. It was afterwards 
confirmed in Enffland by Edward III 
and IV, Richan) III, Henry IV, V, VI 
and VII; and by patent of the lak-men- 
tioned monarcli, m 1505, they received 
the title merelumt adventurers. The in- 
fluence of the Finglish merchant adven- 
turers at Antwerp was, in 1550, so great, 
that they were able to resist successfhlly 
the establishment of the inquisition in 
that city. 

Advocate of the Crown ; Sta-k Ad- 
vocate. The institution of crown advo- 
cates or public attorneys {minUthrt public), 
which is found in almost all modem sys- 
tems of government, Jias been no where so 
well regulated as in France. The separa^ 
tion of Uie office of judse from every other 
baa been there compteted, which is not 
only indispensable on principles of ceneral 
constitutional law, but also desiralMe, that 
the people may see in the judiciary judg- 
es onty, and not men who, by virtue of 
their office, are obliged to tidte care of the 
interests of the state and the government, 
and who, when ^ese interests a^e in 
question, must be necessarily, at the same 
time, both party and judge. It is not suf- 
ficient that the jud|pe be personally con- 
scious of impartiality ; he should be so 
situated^ that no particular eflfort should 
be requuned to attain it. Those who i^ 
pear before the judffe should have no oc- 
casion to doubt it. It must be considered 
as a particular defect in criminal proceed- 
ings, if the judge is obliged, by his office, 
to occupy the place of accuser, as he 
must necessarily appear to be the adversa- 
ry of the accused persons. To avoid these 
inconveniences, the office of public advo- 
cate was established in France in early 
times, and constituted an essential part of 
the e9Ud>lisbment for the administration of 
justice. It has given to the whole class 
of advocates higher honor and considera- 
tiotL This institution originated in those 
times when the modem constitution of 
the courts began to develope itseli^ by 
means of permanent sessions of tlie par- 
liaments, and through tlie agency of per- 



manent members of these bodies^ who 
were versed in the law. This period waa 
about the beginnin|^ of the i4tn century; 
lor, although the kukga of the Merovin- 
gian and CSriovingian dynasties had their 
advocates (pwc u rn to res or adortg rcgif), 
these were onlv officers appointed for the 
collection of the revenue ; and the office 
of the crown advocate did not acquire 
greater authori^ until the highest court 
of law of the hereditary po o s oo Bi<MiB of the 
line «f Ciqiet (the parnament of Paris) 
had attained a netmanent sesaion in ihat 
ci^itaL As earty as 1356, the procurtvr 
ginML appears making a coinplaint 
against the city of Toumay, idiich had 
maintained an asvlum for me protectioD 
of notorious murderers, and propooed the 
abcdition of a usage so contrary lo the 
principles of justice. Every thing miiich 
related to public order, the lights of the 
crown, and the general welftra, was pla- 
ced under the cognizance of these officers, 
who, as the premknt H«uion de Pansey 
says {De VautefiU judkian en IVvfice, 
ch. 12, p. 185), have rendered incalculable 
services to the crown and to the people. 
In every supreme court of the reann (the 
parliaments), and in the cotov wuMrrmieff, 
which were substantially equal to them, 
and in the chamhres de$ eemptee^ the 
court des aides, Ace a j w w t n e w gMrai 
was i^ijpoiiitad, who was the soul of the 
institution, the r ep rese n tative of the king 
and state in the court. In his name 
were made all motions in the court; al 
though the first ovocol ginML took pre 
cedence of him in tank, and though, is 
some casM, he was bound by the major 
ity of voices, and the omMts gMranoi 
who stood next to him had the exclusive 
privilege of aiguing orally at the sessions 
of the court, wherein they were entirely 
independent of the /iracttreur gMreL In 
the same rank with the proeureur ghUrd 
stood one or more anoeais gMraux, and 
under them were certain subetitutes. 
The bunness was not apportioned among 
them every where in the same maimer, 
but was arranged in each tribunal by pe> 
culiar regulations ; but, as a common rale, 
the same distinction existed between 
them which generally prevailed in France 
between the orders of avoeats and pro^ 
eureurs, assigning to the latter that part in 
the management of a cause which was 
perfonned in writing, and to the former, 
the oral argument Under the crown 
advocates belonging to the highest courts 
were the procurears du rot, and there 
was no court in France, in which such 
an officer was not appointed, excepttng 



70 



ADVOCATE. 



only the eoiueiZ da roi, and the comraer- 
oial cotiitB. Even in the feudal cotuta, 
the lord had a similar officer under die 
name ofjroewrturfiactiL The q>here of 
action of the state advocates, as is evi- 
dent fix>Ri the nature of the institutioii, 
was verv extensive and important 1. It 
comprehended every diing tliat related to 
the royal domains and the public proper- 
ty ; and this part of their duties, which 
gave origin to the whole institution, fiir- 
niiriies now, in other cpuntries, almost the 
only business of these advocates. The 
fi»cid^ in most of the Gennan Mates, has 
been confined almost entirely to the rep- 
re8entati<m and defence of the public 
property and the state treasury m the 
courts; of the other branch of the official 
duties of the French crown advocate, 
vizk the prosecution of crnnes, only such 
portion has been assigned to the GJerman 
fiscal as consists in the support and de- 
fence of the lesal prerofjative and fiscal 
fi^tB, and in tae collection of the fiscal 
fines. 2. The crown advocate in France, 
in all criminal proceedings, occupied the 
station of public prosecutor, and appeared 
9B a party asainst the accused. To him 
was assigned die duty of instimting the 
poceedings in criminal cases, of procur- 
mg evidence, of replying to die defence, 
and finally of introducing the motions for 
punishment By this means, the office 
of judge was, in most respects, established 
on correct princn^es, and relieved finom 
the double and onen inconsistent duty of 
taking care as well of the accusation as 
of the defence. In France, the judges 
have onlv to decide oorrecdy on the mo- 
tions of the parties, a In the old consti- 
tution of France, as well as in Germany, 
the departments of the police and the ju- 
didar^ were in the same hands. In the 
exercise of power by the courts, as heads 
of the police, the crown advocates bore 
an important part No police ordinance 
could be issued before the procwnur gi- 
nind had been heard thereupon ; in feet, 
they were usually proposed ny him. 4. 
The ordinances of ttie kin^, both those of 
a public and those of a private character, 
including pardons, promotions, &c., were 
published and carried into efl^t by entry 
on the records of the courts. Such entries, 
which, it is well known, often met with 
opposition, could be made only on the 
motion of the crown advocate. 5. It was 
the duty of this officer to watch over the 
execution of the laws, particularly in the 
courts themselves. Wherever the state 
advocate observed any violation or neg- 
lect of legal rules, he took measurecr for 



the correction of the alHise. 6. It was 
his duty, moreover, to preserve good or- 
der in die court to wliich he was attach- 
ed. He had no authority, indeed, to cor- 
rect irregularities himself, but could make 
a motion to the court for this purpose, 
who were bound to deliberate thereupon. 
He could also make report of the feet to 
the hiffher authorities. To cany into ef- 
fect this part of his duty, it was provided 
that, every half year, on the first Wednes- 
day after the vacation of the courts, a 
sesidon should be held with closed doors 
(originally on the first Wednesday of ev- 
ery month), at which the procureur ^6- 
nirdl should report all the delinquencies 
which he had observed in the publtc and 
private conduct of the judges, advocates 
and inferior proeureurs. These reports, 
as they were made on Wednesday, were 
called JIfercuruib, and, to gite them more 
weight, they were sent to the chancellor 
of France. The aoocat ghUrcd was also 
accustomed, at the first session of the court 
after the vacation, to deliver a discourae 
on some important point of the official 
duties of the judge or advocate, by which 
many of them, e. g. D'Aguesseau, have 
ffready distinguished themselves. 7. To 
die duties of the rtate advocates also be- 
longed the support of the authority of the 
court to which they were attached ; and, 
8. The representation of all corporations 
and persons or things placed under the 
eapecial guardianship or the state, viz. the 
church, charitable institutions, ecclesias- 
tical societies, congregations, minors, in- 
sane, persons, notorious spendthrifts and 
absent persons. Whenever the interest 
of such persons or corporations came in 
question, it was necesMuy that the state 
advocate should be consulted and heard. 
Officers with such powers could not be 
treated as subordinate to the courts. In 
point of feet, the proctareur gifUrtd stood 
m the same rank with the president of 
the courts ; and as his office, uke the oth- 
ers conne<^ed with the administration of 
justice, was venal, extrevaAont sums were 
sometimes paid for it The celebrated 
minister of finance under Louis XIV, 
Nicholas Fouquet, sold bis office of first 
cBooeat gMral in the parliament of Paria, 
fi>r 1,100,000 livres. The proctareurs 
g:iniraux and ctoocats geniraux had also 
the same official dresses as the prendents ; 
these were long, black, and, on solemn 
occasions, scarlet robes, square cape, &.c. 
The revolution has made many changes in 
this institution. Its circle of official duties 
has been narrowed, but, on the other 
band, it has gained in unity, connexion 



..gitized by Google 



ADVOCATE- 



n 



and aolidhy. These offioera were at fint 
caDed eomnuMtriw i^fht kkig, afterwuds. 
of the govemmenL Under the imperial 
goTemment, paiticulariv by the decrees of 
April 90 and July 6, 1810, the institution 
was ^lat neariy on itB old footing, and has 
remamed so ever since. Attached to ev- 
ery court of ^ypeal (cour royaU) is a jnv* 
nmmrgMral; underhimisanasoea^gtf- 
fUnd ibr the civil department of the court, 
uid also one for that branch of the couit 
which has impelhute jurisdiction of cases 
tried before thepolioe correcfumnette, which 
has cognizance of all minor offences, sim- 
ple thefts, trespasses, and, lately, ounces 
of the press. There are likewise two sub- 
rtitotes or deputies to supply the plaoe of 
theae officers. All these stand immediate- 
ly under the minister of justice, receive* 
commands from him, and give regular 
ialbrmation of the administration of jus- 
tice within their precincts. It is incum- 
bent on them to send to the minister of 
justice, semi-annually, a list of processes, 
eapmtSty of dtkyed eauaeg^ that is, such 
•e have been waiting for oral discussion 
longer than three months. Under them 
are the proeureura erimmda in the courts 
of assize, and the frocureun duroimihe 
conns of the first mstance (the provincial 
or district courts), and all the officers of 
the judicial police, so called, viz. the com- 
misrioners of police, the mayors of cities, 
jostiees of tho peace, officers of the spen- 
dmterUj field and forest rangers and uieir 
deputies. The sale of offices is sbolish- 
ed ; all the crown advocates are appointed 
by the king, but not for life, like the 
jodgee ; on the contrary, they are remov- 
able at pleasure. Their former official 
duties are lessened only in so far as the 
province of the courts has become more 
confined. The state advocates still take 
care that the laws are correctiy adminis- 
tered, and act as representatives of the 
public interests. They are the organs of 
the executive department of government 
in the couits, and are required to attend to 
the execution of judgments in which the 
stale is interested. As a part of their gen- 
ertl duty of enforcing the strict obmrv- 
ance of the laws in the courts, it is also 
incumbent on them to oppose those judg- 
ments in which the parties acquiesce, but 
which contain any contravention or erro- 
neous exposition of the laws, lest the 
pidrfic should be thereby injured. These 
decisions, indeed, are binding on the par- 
ties, but a more strict adherence to the 
laws is enjoined cm the courts for the fo- 
tuie. One of the most important duties 
of the state advocates is, me institution 



of the trials for oflfonces before the police 
courts and the courts of assize, which they 
are bound to attend to in their capacity 
of public prosecutors. All reports of 
crimes conunitted are to be maae to the 
proemrtur crimiind, and by him to that 
member of the district court, who is ap- 
pointed to conduct the preliminaiy exam- 
mations, the jvge (Ttfutrudum. The pro- 
eureur erimmd searches out the evidence, 
summons the wimesses, and, when the 
preliminary examination is concluded, 
makes the necessary motions in court, 
either for the acquittal of the accused, or 
for the institution of further proceedings, 
varjrinff, of course, according to the na- 
ture of the offisnce, which may be a mat- 
ter cognizable by the ordinary police 
magistrates, or folung within the jurisdic- 
tion of the police correctUnmeiUy or belonf;- 
ing to ^e courts of assize as a crime m 
the strict sense of the word. In all these 
cases, an oral discussion takes place, but 
only criminal causes, technically so call- 
ed, before the courts of assize, are tried 
by a jury, llie jurisdiction of the police 
correciumnidle is limited to offences, the 
punishment of which does not exceed 5 
years' imprisonment At the opening of 
criminal causes, the procureur ghUral is 
required to ask of the court, in the first 
instance, a formal bill of complaint (tnise 
en accusation)^ which formerly was found 
by the jury (PaccuMxtion (corresponding to 
the English grand juryj^ but now origi- 
nates m>m a brandi or the court of ap- 
peals, and is very similar to the report of 
a special inquisition in the German courts. 
After this, the jwvcurcw ghUral draws lip 
the indictment, which serves as a basis 
for the subsequent proceedings, summons 
the wimesses, and assists in empannelling 
the jury, as he has, like the accused, a 
right of challeng^g. He sees that the 
proceedings are rightiy conducted, and is 
allowed to propose questions to the wit- 
nesses. After the examination of the 
witnesses is concluded, be makes the 
motions for condemnation (concjtinofu), 
grounded on tiie evidence produced in 
the course of the trial, and subsequendy 
the accused is heard in his own defence. 
The court may decree a severer punish- 
ment than is moved for by the officers of 
government ; and, on the other hand, the 
state advocate has the richt to appeal 
from too mild a sentence \appd a nttm- 
ma\ though he is bound to acquiesce in 
an acquittal by the jury. Finally, the 
crown advocates attend also to the exe- 
cution of the sentence, and thus every 
thing is committed to them which may 



72 



ADVOCATE. 



bt! conmdered as flowing ftom the exec- 
utive department of govenunent In re- 
gard to the oreat excellence of this whole 
insdtution, £ere prevails but one voice 
among the French lawyers and statesmen. 
It allows the judges to lay aside all con- 
siderations except those of strict justice, 
as it relieves them from the duty of taking 
care of the interests of the government 
By means of the subordination in which 
the suAe jfrocwreun in the courts of the 
districts (arrondissementa) and the procu- 
reurs crimmds stand to the office of state 
advocate in th^ courts of appeals, and the 
frocurturs ghUrma in the raiBt to the min- 
ister of justice, that unity of influence is 
maintained, which the government should 
exercise over the courts and the adminis- 
tration of justice. When everv thinff goes 
on pn^peny, this influence will not be al- 
lowed to overstep its natural and benefi- 
cial Hmits, and to interrupt or disturb the 
right of the judges to decide according to 
law. It cannot, indeed, be denied, that 
the great power confided to the state ad- 
vocates is liable to abuse. This is not 
the place to pronounce judgment on the 
complaints which have been brought 
against the procureura ginhnmx^ e. ff. on 
the occasion of the criminal trial of the 
merchant Fonk at Colore ; but the ex- 
istence of these complamts proves what 
it is in the power of a state advocate to 
do, if he chooses to misuse his power for 
purposes of oppreaaion and the gratifica- 
tion of sehish passions. In France, of 
late, the state advocates are charged with 
being influenced too much by political 
difierences of opinion. Some of them, in 
particular, have drawn upon themselves 
thereby very severe animadversions. It 
is said that, in the trials of general Berton, 
of Caron and Roffer, at Colmar, and oth- 
ers, on account of potitical ofiences, they 
sought to imphcate persons against whom 
nothing could be proved but a justifiable 
opposiuon to the ministiy, in accordance 
with tbe charter and Uie nature of a 
representative government. It is well 
known how severely Benjamin Constant 
expressed himself on this point, with re- 
giutl to the procureur g^rUral of Saumur. 
Certainly the dependence of the crown 
advocates on the government has a ten- 
dency to give a certain bias to tlieir official 
conduct But this bias is not very perni- 
cious, because it is a notorious and natu- 
ral conscMjuence of their official situation, 
and the judge is required, as well as em- 
powered, to resist it — England has also 
her Buoerior state advocates, the attorney 
general and solicitor general ; but, in con- 



fbrmi^ with the English judiciary sys- 
tena, their sphere of action is much more 
limited, ana is not to be compared with 
that of the French mimtUrt pubUc. In 
criminal causes, the prosecuuon is con- 
ducted, indeed, in the name and by tlie 
advocates of the crown ; but a great deal 
dqiends on the injured party, and the |)o- 
lice magistrBSes, that is, the justices of the 
peace. The former have it in their pow- 
er, by avoiding to appear at the trial (al- 
though liable to punishment for so doing), 
to defeat the whole proceeding ; and, in 
every session of the courts, a large num- 
ber of accused persons aie set fiee, be- 
cause, after a puoUc summons or procla- 
mation in court, no person appears against 
them. In Scotland, the king's advocate, 
or lord advocate, is an officer of great 
power and dignity, and is empower^ to 
commence proeecutionB. vritnout com* 
plaint presented b^ an iryuxed party. — 
So, m other countries, there exist officers 
under the names of jSkiiI, adnoetAiu&acU 
adooeatM patriae i^ But these have 
not the authority which is indispensable 
to render their offices as efficient as that 
of the French advocate. — ^Frederic II of 
Prussia had the office of the French 
advodate in mind when be conferred 
greater powers on the office of fiscal, and 
appointed a superior fiscal in each of the 
superior courts, to whom the provincial 
fiscals in the inferior courts were subor- 
dinate; at the head of these stood the fis- 
cal general at Berlin. But the institution 
was deficient in strength. It has not ac- 
quired the efficiency of the French mt- 
mathe publicj and appears to have fiiUcii 
almost entirely into disuse^ — ^But, even in 
France, it is capable of an important, and, 
we may well say, a necessary extension 
of authority, if the constitutional respon- 
sibility of the higher offices of state is 
ever to be seriously insisted oil It is 
necessary, and this remark may be appH- 
ed to all representative ffovemments, tnat 
the state advocate shoukl be required to 
watch over the execution of the laws in 
the highest offices of government ; and 
therefore a superior state advocate should 
be amrainted, to whom (as to the Prussian 
fiscu-seneral) tbe ministers should be re- 
quired to render an account of their ad- 
ministration, and who, when any viola- 
tion of the law came to his knowledge, 
should be bound to make a report there- 
of to the representatives of the people. 
There should be a still fiirther extension 
of the institution, by placing in subordi- 
nation to the crown advocate, who re- 
ceives the orders of the ministry, a stato 



ADVOCATE. 



73 



or notional advocate {in a narrow senfle)^ 
who should be considered as the officer 
of the people, and should be obliged 
to come forward whenever the interest 
of the treasury came into collision with 
that of wards, absentees, and the like. 
Then this institution would answer the 
high purposes for which it was designed. 
(See Das hstUut der SUudsamoaUsckc^ 
by Mfiller, counsellor of state, Leipsic, 
1825.)— In the United States, the attorney 
general is an officer under the federal 
constitution, corresponduig substantial^ 
to the fingfish law officer of that name. 
His diity, as defined by the law of con- 
gress, is, to "^iroeecute and conduct all 
suits in the supreme court of the union, 
in which the United States shall be con- 
cerned, and to give his advice and opin- 
ion upon questions of law, when reqwred 
b^ the preiaident of the United States, or 
when requested by the officers at the bead 
of any of the departments, touching any 
matters that may concern their depart- 
mentB. He is also required to examine 
all tetters patent lor useful mventions, and 
to cerdlQr to the secretary of state whether 
therf are conformable to the law on that 
collect, previouslyto the public seal being 
affixed to them. The attorney general of 
the United States is also 9 member of the 
president^ cabinet council. In addition 
to this law officer, the government of the 
United Slates has in each of the states 
(which, in judicial proceedings, are styled 
tSsirieU) a dUtrid attonuyy as he is called, 
whose duty it i8> witlim his particular 
state, to prostcute, on behalf of the United 
States, all delinauents for crimes and of- 
fences oognizabie under the authority of 
ihe United States' laws, and all civil actions 
in which the United States shall be con- 
cern^ except those which c<)me before 
the supreme court, in the district in which 
that court shall be holden. Besides these 
law officers of the general sovemment of 
the United States, each of the states of 
tlie union has its attorney general and sub- 
ordinate public prosecutors, or attorneys, 
for its territorial subdiviaona or districts ; 
tod their duties are, to prosecute and de- 
fend in all causes, crimmal and civil, aris- 
ing under the local laws of their respect- 
ive states, and in wliich their own state 
ii ooncenied. 

Advocates. This profession has play- 
ed ft conspicuous part in almost eveiy 
ovifized country. Among the Romans, 
the greatest statesmen and orators belong- 
ed to Mb class, devoting themselves es- 
pecially to the defence of criminal causes 
ofiniportance. Those ofkss consequence 

vol- 1. 7 



and of a civil character were committed 
to proeuraton. The advocates of Eng- 
land and France are oflen men of hi«i 
rank, enjoying an ample income and tne 
I^rospect of attaining to the highest digni- 
ties of the state. Men of the best taU 
ents, therefore, are found in their ranks. 
In Germany and some of the other coun- 
tries of Europe, the advocates occupy a 
comparatively subordinate station in the 
courts. The profession is there consid- 
ered only as a preparatoij step to public 
employments, and these frequently of au 
humble description. This is the cause 
of the inferiority of die German lawyers 
in general to those of England and 
France; and the whole administration 
of justice there suffers fiom the same 
cause. There are exceptions, however, 
in some of the German states, particular- 
ly in Prussia. In the French revolution, 
the lawyers acted the most important 
part in public affiurs. AdvocaHecdenanmy 
superintendents of the property of the 
church, divided, according to their several 
offices, into defenaoreSy causidiciy adores^ 
padona Icdci, &c., were first appointed 
under the consulship of Stilico. The 
pope, at the same tune, issued orders, 
that the bishops, abbots and churches 
should have good advocates. These offi- 
ces were firat intrusted to canons, but 
afterwards were held even by monarchs; 
e. g. the German emperor, the king of 
France, &c. became advocati of the Ro- 
man church. The advocates set over 
single churches administered justice in 
secular affiurs in the name of the bishops 
and the abbots, and had Jurisdiction over 
their whole dioceses. Li case of neces- 
sity, they defended the property of the 
clergy by force of arms. In the courts 
of justice, they pleaded the causes of the 
chiut^hes with which they were connect- 
ed. They superintended the collection 
of the tithes and the other revenues of 
the church, and enjoyed, on the part of 
the convents, many benefices and consid- 
erable revenues. After a time, these ad- 
vocates and their assistants becoming a 
burden to the clergy and the people 
under their char^, who beean to suffer 
severely from their avarice, me churches 
attempt^ to set rid of them. Urban III 
labored to deBver the church from these 
oppressors, but was astonished to find, A. 
D. 1186, the German prelates, in c<m- 
nexion with the emperor Frederic I, op- 
nosed to it Under the emperor Frederic 
II, most of the German churches sue* 
ceeded, however, in aboltahing these offi- 
ces by the grant of large sniiia of money 

.,„,_., ^oogle 



74 



ADVOCATES— iEDILES. 



and of variouB immunities. — ^In the U. 
Stabefl, the profeseion of tlie law poaseaKs 
an extensive influence upon soeieQr. It 
embraces, as it does in England, various 
classes of lawyers, such as prodors^ eon- 
veyasuctn^ aoUdtors^ attome^^ and lastly, 
and above all, counaeOon^ or ad^ocaia. 
In the U. States, the differem braoches of 
the profession are often carried on by the 
same person, though this practice is not 
universal, especially in large citiea The 
higher ranks of lawyers in the U. States 
enjoy great public and private confldenoe. 
Many of them are selected forthe first pub- 
lic employments in the state, e. g. for the 
presidency, for the ofiice of senators and 
rejnesentatives in the national and state 
leffislatures, for goveraors, for secretaries 
or the great departments, and for foreign 
embassies. From this class of men are 
also taken, ahnost as a matter of course, 
the judges of the various courts in the 
union. The constitutions and laws of the 
several states entitle every person, in civU 
as well as criminal cases, to the assistance 
of counsel, and generally two are admitted 
on each side. All trials are public, and 
forensic ekKjuence is ea^rly heard. The 
profession of the law is very numerous 
m the U. States, on accoimt both of its 
emoluments, and its fiee access to public 
&vor and patronage. There is no diffi- 
culty in gaining aomission to the courts, 
as an advocate, after three or four years 
of preparatory studies ; and, after admis- 
sion, success IS generally in proportion to 
talents and inaustrv, and devotion to 
juridical studies. Of the seven presidents 
of tlie U. States, six were bred to the law. 
AnvocATE's LiBRAHT. In 1660, the 
faculty of advocates in Edinburgh found- 
ed a kbraiy upon an extensive plan, sug- 
gested by sir George M'Kenzie, of Roee- 
haugh, advocate to Charles II and James 
II, who enriched it with many valuable 
books. It has been daily increasinff since 
that time. It contains, besides law-books, 
works on all subjects, many original man- 
uscripts, and a great variety of^coins and 
medals. 

AnvowsoN (from athfoco]i in English 
law, a right of presentation to a vacant 
benefice, or, in other words, a right of 
uominatinff a person to officiate in a va- 
cant church. The name is derived finom 
odBoeaiioj because the right was first ob- 
tained by such as were founders, bene- 
fiustors, or strenuous defenders (advocates) 
of the church. Those who have this 
riffht are styled patrons, Advowsons are 
of three kinds— ^eteniattoe, coUaHoe and 
dtmaUve; pruenttOwe^ when the patrm 



presents his cleriL to the bishop of the 
diocese to be instituted; otUoftve, when 
the bishop is the patron, and institutes or 
eottqte$ his clerk by a single act; dona- 
Uott when a church is founded by the 
kiag , and assigned to the patron without 
being subject to the ordinary, so that the 
patran oonfeis the benefice on his clerk 
vnithout presentation, institution or induc- 
tion. 

Adt; the palm-tree of the island of St 
Thomas. Its juice supplies the place of 
wine 9mon^ihe Indians. The firih, call- 
ed aka$iga, is of the shape and size of a 
lemon, and is eaten roasted. An oil* 
prepared fi^om this fruit, answers the pur- 
pose of butter. 

AnrruM (from «, not, and ^t'<r., to en- 
ter) ; the most retired and sacred place in 
the ancient temples, into which priests 
only were allowed to enter. It corre- 
sponded to the Jewish holy of holies 
(sanctum sandorum). 

JRacvs ; son of Jupiter and the nymph 
^gina. daughter of the river god Aso- 
pus. He acquired the government of the 
island called afier his mother, and be- 
came, by his uprii^tnesB, a favorite with 
theffods. In compliance with his pr&yera, 
his rather peopled anew the island, which 
had been depopulated by the plague. 
The new inhabitants sprung from ants, 
and were termed, on that account, Mbfr- 
nMms. Greece, too, was delivered, at 
his entrea^, fix>m a great drought and 
fomine. The name ofliis wifo was E2n- 
deis, and Peleus and Telamon were his 
children. JEy on account of his love of 
justice, was joined with Minos and Rhad- 
amantfaus in the office of judging the 
dead. His particular duty was the dis- 
tribution of rewanis and punishments. 
He is represented as seated upon a tribu- 
nal, bearing a crown and sceptre ; as a 
distinguishing mark, he carries the key 
of the infomal world, given to him by 
Pluto. 

jf^DiLBs ; Roman magistrates of sec- 
ondary rank, who had tlie supervision of 
public spectacles and public edifices, and 
decided questions relating to the erection 
of buildings, and to the police of the 
market At first, tliere were but two, 
chosen &om the common people [adUes 
pkbeui At the end of the 4th century 
firom the foundation of Rome, two more 
were added finom among the patrician^ 
to whom an ivoiy chair (seiia cwidis) was 
allowed, and who were thence called 
mdiks cwndes. Julius C«sar added the 
third class {mdUes CereaUs), to whose care 
the public granaries were intrusted. 



iEGOfiON— iCGINETAN STYLE. 



75 



JSojBDif ; in ancient mythology^ ft hoife 
giut, tbe SOB of Titan and Terra, who 
WM ftUed to ha;re had 100 hands, witH 
which he threw 100 rwikB at oace at Ju- 
piter, who, when he had ovttcome hon, 
tMNBid him with 100 chahiB. 

^esAif 8ba ; the ancient name of the 
modem Aichipelago (q. v. ; aee abo JE- 
getul 

Me^us ; king of Athens and fiither of 
, hj iEthra, dai^ter of Pitthetia^ 

J of Troezene. He caused him to be 
aecredy educated at Tnje8ene,to deceive 
the sons of Pallaa (PaHantidea), who ex- 
peeled to Bucoeed him, on the suppon- 
tion that he w» chiMleflS. In order that 
lie might recognise his son, he cenceeled 
ft swold, and some other articles, under a 
siane, oo hiis defiarture ftom Troezene, 
and left orders that Theseus ^ould bring 
them to Athens when he had reached a 
eertam age. As sotei as this young hem 
became acquainted with hiBbirth,M has- 
uned to Athens^ when he was at first 
vepnleed, and in danger of his life; but 
his ftther finaBy acknowledged him, and 
dedaied him successor to his throiie. 
Chider the emneons idea that Theseus 
had been devowed by the Minotaur, M. 
lounged into the seft,flMin which ciieum* 
aotnee the Arcbipebgo, between Greece 
and Am, as ftr as the Hellespont, re- 
eemd the name of the JEgean $uu (See 
ne$eui,) 

JRmfiJL,n€fw fiireiA, or Eoina ; a Gre- 
cian iriand in the Saroiire gul( about 30 
mUes in drcumference. In ancienttimes, 
it eonstitnfeed an indep^ident stale, and 
was rich and flourishing by reason of its 
eommeree. The Greeks had a common 
lenmle in it, dedkated to Jupiter. The 
'-' of diis island was called also 



ftfiBTAir Sytlb and Monumxnts 
er AftT. An association of English and 
Gemui artists and lovers of the arts was 
fbimed in 1611, chiefly with a view of 
obtaining an architectural survey of the 
temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, at -^gi-* 
na, ip^ich is one of the most beautmil 
remains of the Doric architecture. A 
sketch of tiiis temj^e may be flrand in 
the Engliflh Joumal of Science, and in 
his^ a periodical edited by Oken, in Ger- 
manv. This undertaking was amply ra- 
waraed by a fine collection of valuable 
sculpture, ^^ich once adorned the east- 
ern and western finonts of that noMe edi- 
fice. It was purchased by the king of 
Bavaria in 18151, and the defident pans 
restored by TliorwaMson. Every mem- 
ber of the association received a cast of 



k carefidly executed in plaster of Paris. 
These wooks are valuable as fidthfiil imi- 
tations of nature, and for the liffht whidi 
thi^ shed over one of the danest peri- 
ods in the history of art They &ow 
that the iEginetan style of art was inde- 
pendent of the Attic. Pausanias calls 
SmUia the Dndalua of JBgina, assures us 
that he waa the contemporary of Onda- 
luB, and ascribes therefiire to the iEgine- 
tan style equal antiqu^ and indeprad- 
ence with the Attia llie language and 
manners of iEgina were Doric ; and its 
sculpture has a Doric character, as dis- 
tinct firom the Attic (which was original- 
ly lonic^ as Doric poetry and architect- 
ure. Tne characteristic pecultari]^ and 
aim of the JSginetan style is the raithfiil 
and exact imitation of nature, carried even 
to deception. Attic art was a daughter of 
the.£{|^ptian,and a striving afterthe ideal 
is perceptible in beifa. To gain a clear 
idea of primitive art, we must distinauish 
between the J^iyptian, ancient Attic, 
iEginetan and Etrurian styles. Rude- 
ness, stiffiiess and meagemess bek»i(r to 
tile firat attranpts in every art In otner 
respects^ they difler from one another, al- 
though, at a later period, they exendse a 
mutual influence. The perfection of art 
in Phidias has hitherto appeared almost a 
miracle ; but we now tMMnprehend how 
the .^Eiginetan school, imitating nature 
with almost perfect exactness, pomted out 
tiie way to the ancient Attic, teaching it 
to rnie from the abstract to the living, 
fit>m the conventional to the natural 
Thus We find the long-desired link of 
connexiott between the ancient severe 
and beautiful styles. Since the creations 
of Phidias^ tiie traces of the proper iGgi- 
netan style- have disappeared. There 
was subsequendy, therefore, only one 
perfect s^e of wt. which spread over 
all Greece; and ,Sgmetan became the 
name for primitive sculpture. Smilis 
was the father and fiMmder of the .^Bgi- 
netan style of art ; next to him came Cal- 
lon, who Hved between the 60th and 70th 
Olympiads (540^^500 B. C.) About tiie 
time of Phidias, there lived the foDowing 
masters, femous in this style: Anaxago- 
ras^ who made the Jupiter which was 
pteced in dympia at the common ex- 
pense of ail the Greeks, who fe«ight victo- 
riously at Platsea, B. C. 379; Simon, the 
maker of the consecrated offisring of a 
certain Phormis at Oiympia; and Glau- 
cias and Onatas, who flouririied in the 
78th Olympiad. The iEginetan figures 
now exhibited at Munich are 17. They 
may be divided into 4 dasses: 1. upright, 



digitized by 



Goo^.^ 



76 



JQ6INETAN STYLE— iEGISTHUS. 



clothed, and female; 2. advandng or 
fighting combatants; 3. kneeling, or 
archers; 4. lying, or wounded. The 
largest of these figures is Minerva* She 
is a little above the humpB size ; all the 
othen are rather below this measure. 
If we consider the style of these worics, 
there prsvails in every jpart of the bodies, 
the head excepted, a mmute imitation of 
nature, without the least traces of the 
ideal. Still the imitation is neither poor 
nor ofiennve to the rules of art, but a 
good copv of beautiful nature, with the 
most perfect knowledge of the bones and 
muscles. With respect to proportion, 
these figures are slender, rather small at 
the hijps, and the legs remarkably long. 
There is much life in the attitudes, thou^ 
they are not altogether &ee fit>m a certam 
stimiefls, such as may be observed in the 
paintinjzs of Giotto, Masaccio, Perugino, 
&c. The heads seem to belong to an 
earlier epoch of art; the eyes project, 
and are lengthened somewhat in the Chi? 
nese fiishion ; the mouth has prominent . 
lips, with well marked edges ; Uie comers 
in some are turned up; the nose is 
rather small ; the ears mushed with the 
greatest care; the chin is fiill, and gen- 
erally too large. They all look alike, and 
exhibit not the lightest expresuon of 
passion; between conquerors and con- 
quered, gods and men, there is not the 
least difi^nce. The appearance of the 
hair is not natural, but aim and conven- 
tionaL The arms are rather short; the 
hands naturml to deception ; not a wrinkle 
of the skin is fbi^tten. The legs are 
well shaped ; the knees masterly ; the feet 
elegant ; and the toes, which are rather 
too long, run out parallel. The drapery 
is close to the body, ^th folds artificially 
arranged. Thoush the style is hard, the 
execution is tasteml and elaborate. They 
were apparently made at the same time, 
but not by the same artist. No one of 
them has any support, and ihej are 
equalW finished on all sides. The num- 
ber of'^ figures originally amounted to 90 
at least. They were symmetrically ar- 
ranged on both fironu of the temple. The 
Minerva stood in the middle, the g^An^iing 
warriors next, then the archers, and the 
lying figures last. The temple was not 
intentionally destroyed, but was probably 
thrown dov^n by an earthquake. Since 
iEacus erected this temi^e to Jupiter 
Panhellenius, it is probable that the 
figures represent the battles of the iEa- 
aide, under the protection of Minerva. 
The two contests in which the JEa/adm 
distinguished themselves most glorioualy 



were the Trojan war and the naval battle 
of Salamis : in the latter, the images of 
the iEacids of Homer, Aiax and Tela- 
mon, were displayed, and regarded m 
supematuial protectors. According to 
another opinion, die group of the eastern 
fit>nt represented the contest around the 
body ofLaomedon, king of Troy ; and the 
one on the western, that around the body 
of Patroclus. The figures should prol>- 
abiy be assigned to a period between the 
60th and 80th 01ympiad& Kndar calb 
iEgina the ^well-fortified seat of the 
iGadd®^" probably referring to these 
images, for no one of the sons of i£aeu8 
then remained in the eountry. The 
marble of which they are wroasfat is 
Parian, of the kind usually cailecl Grt- 
chdto* The colors perceptible here and 
there on the figures are venmlion and 
azure. All the decorations and foliage 
of the temple, which are generally carv^ 
virere painted. Tbe niches of the finonts 
in which these figures stood were azure, 
the partitions red, the fbliase green and 
yellow, and even the marble tiles were 
painted with a kind of flower. Wecarmot 
call this system of painting barbarous ; we 
find it even on toe PartherKm. Winc- 
kelmarm was the first who conjectured the 
existence of an ancient school of art ia 
.^Bgina, finm the accounts of Pausanias. 

BOdufefiU harauagegAmf ttnd mU kuntt- 
gesekiddHdiaiu JSnmeriunigeH btgieikt 
von SckeOing, 1817: Wagner^M BepSrt m 
theJEgmdanRBTMmsofAii^SLc.) Sub* 
sequently, K. Otfi*. Miilier, in his learned 
and acute work, JEginaHconan Liber^ 
Leipsic, 1890, attempted to determjne 
their relation to the other moiiumeBts 
still extant; and Thmsch to investiipte 
their mythological signification. Agamat 
the idea of a peculiar JBginetan stvle of 
art, deduced nt>m these marbles, Henry 
Meyer wrote in G6the% Kvnti und Mer^ 
tikum, 3 Bd. 1. H^^ and opposed the 
derivation of Grecian sculpture fit>m the 
Egyptian as strenuously as Wmckehnann 
a^ocatedit 
iCUHNHARn. (See Eannkard) 
iEeis; the shield of Jupiter^ who i» 
called by Homer the JEgts-hearer. It 
derives its name fit>m the me-goat ^gis, 
which suckled the god in Crete, and with 
the skin of which the shield was covered. 
Also the ^ield of Pallas or Minerva, m 
the middle of which was the head of 
Medusa. Sometimes the cuirass of Me- 
dusa is thus called. In a figurative sense, 
M. denotes protection. 
iEoisTHua. (See .^i^amemnon.) 



..gitized by Google 



uELFRIC— ENIGMA. 



77 



Mltkic; fljrchbishop of Cantertmry 
in the 10th centunr. He compoeed a 
Latin Saxon vocaoulaiy, which was 
printed by Somner, under the tide of a 
Giasaary^ Oxon. 1659. M. translated 
also most of the historical books of the 
Old Testament, and canons for the regu- 
lation of the clergy, which are inserted in 
Bpelman's Counctls. He frequently as- 
sisted htf country in a spirited renstance 
of the Danish invaders, and died hjgfaly 
venerated, Nov. 1005. 

i£i.iAin7s Claudius; a Greek author 
who lived at Pnoneste, about A. D. 
291. He was a learned sophist, and has 
left two woiics, compiled in a pretty good 
style — a collection of stories and anec- 
dotes, and a natural history of animals. 
Of the first work, one of the best critical 
editions was published by Gronovius, at 
Leyden, 1731, 2 vols. 4to. Later editions 
have been published by Kfihn, Leipsic, 
1780, andOoray, Paris^ 1805. 

iEvii<ivs,Paulus, sumamed Maeedoni- 
€U8 ; a, noble Roman of the ancient fiunily 
of the ^milii. He conquered Perseus, 
king of Maeedon, and on this occasion 
obtained a triumph, A. U. C. 586 ; B. C. 
168. During the triumph, two of his 
sons died. He bore tlie loss like a 
hero, and thanked the gods that they had 
chosen them lor victims, to avert bad for- 
tune fit>m the Roman people. He was 
lather of the renowned Scipio Africanus 
the younger. His father, a brave general 
in the sec<md Punic war, comman&d and 
was slain at tiie battle of Cannie, B. C. 
2I6l 

^N£AS ; son of Anchises and Venus, 
next to Hector the bravest among the 
heroes of Troy. He is the hero of the 
JBneid,in which his life is thus described: 
In the niffht of the capture of Troy by the 
Greeks, Hector warned him in a dream 
to fly with the images of his gods. M. 
rushed, notwithstairaing this warning, to 
the fight, but fought in vain. After Pri- 
am was slain, he returned, at the com- 
mand of his mother, to his home, and 
carried off his &ther, his child and his 
household cods ; but lost his wife, Creusa, 
in the oonftunon of his flight. With 20 
vessels, he sailed for Thrace, where he 
becan to build the city iEnos, but, terri- 
fied by a miracle, abandoned the attempt 
From thence he went to Delos to consult 
tlie oracle. Misunderstanding its reply, 
he went to Crete, fit>m which he was 
driven by a pestilence. Thence he di- 
rected his course to the promontoiy of 
Aetium, where he celebrated games in 
honor of Apollo. In Epims he found 
7* 



Helenus and Andromache. Thence he 
sailed by Italy, passed the straits of Mes- 
sina, and circumnavigated Sicily to cape 
Drepanum on the western coast, when; 
Ancniaes died. A tempest drove him oti 
the shore of Afiica, where Dido received 
hinl kindly in Carthage, and desired to 
detain and many him. Jupiter, however, 
mindful of the fotes, sent Mercury to JE. 
and commanded him to sail for Italy. 
Whilst the deserted Dido ended her life 
on the funeral pile, iEneas set sail witii 
his companions, and was cast bv a storm 
on the shore of Sicily, in the dominions 
of his Trojan fiiend Acestes, where he 
celebrated funeral jrames in honor of his 
deceased father. The wives of his com- 
panicMis, wearv of a seaforing life, and 
mstigated by Juno, set firs to the ships, 
on which he resolved to depart, leaving 
behind the women and the sick. In this 
resolution he was confirmed by Anchises, 
who admonished him in a dream to de- 
scend, by the aid of the sibyl, into the 
infernal regions, after his arrival in Italy. 
He built the ci^ Acesta, and then sailed 
for Italy, where he found the sibyl, near 
CumsB, who foretold his destiny, and aid- 
ed his descent into the lower world. On 
his return, he embariied again, and 
reached the eastern shore of the river 
Tiber, in the country of the Laurentian 
kin{^ Latinus. His daughter, Lavinia, was 
destined by an oracle to a stranger, but 
promised by her mother, Amata, to Tur- 
nus,kingoftheRutuli. This occasioned a 
war, after the termination of which, JE. 
married Lavinia. Thus Virgil reltites the 
history of .£neas in his^^Sneid, deviating 
in many particulars fit>m historical truth. 
His son by Lavinia, iEneas Sylvius, was 
the ancestor of the kings of Albalonga, 
and of Romulus and Remus, the founders 
of the city of Rome. By his first wife, 
he had a son, Ascanius, who built Alba- 
longa, from whose son, lulus, the Romans 
derived the Julian family. For the dif- 
ferent traditions respectmg iEneas, and 
the probability of their late introduction 
among the Romans, see Niebnhr's Roman 
Histoiy, chapter entitled Mneoi and the 
Trmcauin Latiunu 

iUHEiD. (See VirgiL) 

iGNESiDEMUs ; a sceptical philosoi^er, 
bom at Gnoesus, who flourished a litde 
later than Cicero, and taught scepticism, 
in Alexandria, to a greater extent than 
had been done before. He placed truth 
in the general agreement of men as to 
the impressions produced by external 
objeda. 

MtdQUA; a propositionput in ob- 

.yu^ouoyGToogle 



78 



iENIGMA— iERA. 



ecure, ambiguous, and generally contra- 
dictoiy terms, to puzzle or exercise the 
wit in finding out its meaning ; or an ob- 
scure discourse covering some common 
and well known thine under remote and 
uncommon terms. Many distinguished 
poets have written cenigmas ui verse. In 
the East, they Jiave been in vogue, both 
in ancient and modem times. Every na- 
tion has shown a fondness for them in 
the infancy of its cultivation. A ^at 
mn of the Egyptian learning is said to 
have been comprised in senigmas. In 
these, too, the ancient oracles often 
ispoke. But the symbols of the ancient 
rehgions should not, as is often the case, 
be confounded with tenigmas. (See 
HUroghfphics.) They were in vogue 
among the Jews. 

iEoLiAN Harp, or i£oLus' Harp, was 
inti^uced into England about the middle 
of the last century. It is generally a simple 
box of thin, fibrous wo^ (oflcn of deal], 
to which are attached a number of fme 
catgut strings, sometimes as many as 15, 
of equal size and length, and consequent- 
ly unisons, stretched on low bridges at 
each end. Its length is made to corre- 
spond with the size of the window or 
other aperture in which it is intended to 
be placed ; its widtli is about five or six 
inches, its depth two or three. It must 
be placed with the strings uppermost, 
under which is a circular opcnmg in tlie 
centre as in the belly of the giiitar. When 
the wind blows athwart the strings, it 
produces the effect of a choir of music 
in the air, sweetly mingling all the har- 
monic notes, and swelling or diminishing 
the sounds according to tlie strength or 
weakness of the blast. A more recent 
^ohan harp, invented by Mr. Cross- 
thwaite, has no sounding-board, but con- 
sists merely of a number of strings ex- 
tended between two deal boanls. The 
invention of the iEolian harp has been 
eeneraliy ascribed to fajher Kircher, but 
tlie fact is, that it was known and used at 
a much earUer date in the East, as Mr. 
Richardson has proved (Dissertation on 
the Manners and Customs of the East). 

i£oLiAN8 ; a Greek tribie in Thessaly, 
who took their name from i£olus, son of 
Hellen,and grandson of Deucalion, spread 
themselves there, and estabhshed several 
small 8tate& A portion of them went to 
Asia Minor, and possessed themselves of 
the ancient Troas, ^ving the territory the 
name of JEoUs. Wmle united in a confed- 
eracy, which held its yeariy meetings, with 
much solemnly, at Cuma, they long con- 
tinued firee ; afterwards, they came under 



the dominion of the Lrdians, then of the 
Persians. After they had thrown off the 
Persian yoke, with the help of Athens, they 
were again subdued by Darius Hystaspes, 
and, as the Greeks had afforded them re- 
peated aid, the famous Persian war arose, 
B.C.500. They regamed their liberty, but 
once more came under the Persian do- 
minion, and so remained till the time of 
Alexander ; and at length, after they had 
been freed by the Ronums firom the voke 
of the Syrian kings, successors of Alex- 
ander in this portion of his vast em 
pire, they were totally subdued by Sylla, 
because they had assisted Mitbridates. 
Their language, the iEohan dialect, was ' 
one of the three principal dialects of the 
Greek; their country was one of the most 
fertile in the world ; agriculture and the 
raising of cattle were Uieir chief occupa- 
tions. 

i£oi.iPiLE ; a spherical vessel of metal, 
with a pipe of small aperture, tlirouffh 
which the vq>or of heated water in the 
ball passes out with considerable noise. 
The ancient philosophers thought to ex- 
plain by this experiment the origin of the 
winds. In Italy, it is said that the aeoli- 
pile is used to remedy snK>ky chimney& 

iEoLUS ; in Homer, the son of Hippo- 
tas, and kins of the island Lipara, to the 
nortli of Sicuy. He is described as pious 
and just, hospitable to strangers, and the 
inventor of sails; having, moreover, fore- 
told tlie course of the wmds, with the ut- 
most exactness, from his own observa- 
tion, he was said to have the power of 
directing tlieir course. His history was 
aftenvanis still more embellished with 
fiction ; the poets made him a son of Ju- 
piter or Neptune, and god of the winds. 
He is represented as an oki man, with a 
lon^ beard, holding a sceptre in his hand, 
sitting on a rock, or smiting the rock with 
his sceptre, at which signal the winds 
rush out He is represented, also, stand- 
ing in a grotto with a muscle in his 
mouth, and a pair of bellows under his 
feet. 

JEka is used synonymously with 
epoch, or epochoy for a fixed point of time, 
from which any computation of it is 
made. Mra is more correctly the range 
or circuit of years within certain points 
of time, and an epoch is one of those 
points itself. The word fxra has been 
supposed to be derived from the abridge- 
ment, or initial letters, of Annas EratM- 
^itfK, A.ER.A., a mode of computing 
time in Spain fix>m the year of the con- 
quest of that countiy by the Romans; 
and VosaiuB &vor8 this opinion. Varioua 



iERA— AERONAUTICS. 



79 



mns bayc been given by chronologists 
as aids in historical research ; and it was 
a long time before all the Christian world 
agreed to compute time by the Christian 
aera. Mariana says that the Spanish aera 
ceased in the year of Christ 1^83, under 
John I9 idng of Castile. It continued to be 
used somewhat longer in Poitugal. We 
must subtract 38 from the number of a 
Tear of the Spanish eera to get that of the 
Christian. The Mahometan sera begins 
with the flight of the prophet, 16th July, 
G22. This is called the Hegira (q. v.) 
The ancient Roman sera began with the 
building of the city, 750 before Christ. 
The Jewish aera begins with the creation. 

AuiAL Pebspective ; that branch of 
the science of perspective, which treats 
of the relative duninution of the colors of 
bodies in proportion to tlieir distance from 
the eye. 

AeaiAffs ; the followers of Afirius, an 
Arian monk and schismatic, who was 
exiled from Sebaste, in Armenia, because 
be denied the difference between the of- 
ficial power of a bishop and a presbyter, 
pnmounced prayers and offerings in be- 
half of the dead to be ineffectual and in- 
jurious, rejected the ordinance of fast- 
ing, and declared the practice prevailing 
am<»g Christians, of sacrificing a lamb on 
the passover, to be contrary to the spirit 
of their religion. Though guilty, in fact, 
only of opposing the abuses of the hie- 
rarchy, and the corruptions of supersti- 
tion, the Adrians were condemned as 
heretics, and soon disappeared. The 
Protestants were accused of ACrianism 
by the Catholics, because they maintained 
propositions of a similar character. 

Aerodt:camics ; a branch of aCrologj', 
or the higher mechanics, which treats of 
the powers and motion of elastic fluids. 
Aerodynamics arc oflen explained in con- 
nexion tiith hydrodynamics, a branch of 
hydrology. (See Jmchardcs.) 

Aerolites ; stones or masses that de- 
scend fi*oni the air. (See Meteoric Stones.) 

Aeronautics ; the art of sailing in or 
navigating the air. The idea of inventing 
a machine, which should enable us to rise 
into the air, appears to have occupied the 
human mind even in ancient tunes, but 
was never realized till the last century. 
Henn^ Cavendish, having discovered, 
about 1766, the creat levity of inflam- 
mable air or hydrogen gas. Dr. Black, 
of Edinburgh, was led to the idea that a 
thin bladder, filled with this gas, must 
ascend into the air. Cavallo mode the 
requisite experiments in 1782, and found 
th^ a bladder was too heavy, and paper 



not air tight. Soap bubbles, on tlic con- 
trarj', which he filled with inflommahK^ 
air, rose to the ceiling of the room, when? 
they bursL — ^In the same year, the broth- 
ers Stephen and Joseph Montgolfier con- 
structed a machine wnich ascended bv its 
own power. In Nov. 1782, the elder 
Montgolfier succeeded, at Avignon, in 
causing a large bag of fine silk, in tho 
shape of a parallelopiped, and containing 
40 cubic feet, to mount rapidly upwardi^ 
to the ceiling of a chamber, ana after- 
wards, m a gwlen. to the height of 3G feet, 
by heating it in tne inside with bumir.g 
paper. The two brothers soon after- 
wards repeated the experiment at Amiu- 
nay, where the parallelopiped ascended 
in the ojHin air 70 feet. A larger nia- 
cliine, containing 650 cubic feet, rose 
with equal success. — They now resolved 
to make the experiment on a large scale, 
and prepared a machine of linen, hned 
with paper, which was 117 feet in circum- 
ference, weighed 430 pounds, and car- 
ried more than 400 pounds of ballast. 
This they sent up, June 5, 1783, at Annu- 
nay. It rose in ten minutes to a height 
of 6000 feet, and fell 7668 feet firom the 
place of ascension. The method used to 
cause it to ascend was, to kindle a straw 
fire under the aperture of the machine, 
in which they threw, fix)m time to time, 
chopped wool. But, though the desired 
effect was produced, they had no clear 
nor correct idea of the cause. They did 
not attribute the ascension of the vessel 
to the rai-e&ction of the air enclosed in 
it by the operation of the heat, but to a 
peculiar gas, which they supposed to 1m; 
developed by the burning of the straw 
and wool. The error of this opinion 
was not discovered till a later period. — 
These experiments roused tlie attention 
of all the philosophers of Paris. It oc- 
curred to some of them, that the same 
effect might be produced by inflammable 
air. M. Charles, professor of natural 
philosophy, filled a ball of lutestring, 12 
feet hi diameter, and coated with a varnish 
of gum-elastic, with such gas. It weighed 
25 pounds, rose 3123 feet m two minutes, 
disappeared in the clouds, and descended 
to the earth, after three quartere of an 
hour, at the village of Gonesse, about 15 
miles from Paris. — ^Thus' we see two 
original kinds of balloons; those filled 
with heated air, and those filled with m- 
flammable air. — ^Meantime, Montgolfier 
had ^ne to Paris, and found an assistant 
ui Pdatre de Rozier, the superintendent 
of the royal museum. They completed, 
together, in Oct. 1783, a new nuichine, 



80 



AERONAUTICS. 



74 feet !n height and 48 iu breadth, in 
which Rozier ventured for the fint time 
to ascend, though only 50 feet. The bal- 
loon was fix)m caution festened by cords, 
and soon drawn down. Eventually, the 
machine, being suffered to move rreely, 
took an oblique course, and at length 
simk down gradually about 100 feet from 
its Btartinff place. — By this the world was 
convinced that a balloon might, with prop- 
er management, carry a man througn the 
air; and the first aerial expedition was 
determined on. Nov. 21, 1783, Pilatre 
dc Rozier and the marauis d' Ariandes 
ascended from the castle la Muette, in the 
presence of an innumerable multitude, 
yvith a machine containing 6000 cubic 
feet. The balloon, after having attained 
a considerable heLrht, came down, in 25 
minutes, about 9000 yards from la Muette. 
But the darinff aeronauts had been ex- 
posed to considerable danger. The bal- 
loon was affitated very violently several 
times ; the fire had burnt holes in it ; the 
place on which they stood was injured, 
and some cords broken. They perceived 
that it was necessary to descend vrithout 
delay ; but when they were on the sur- 
fiuse of the earth, new difficulties pre- 
sented themselves. The weak coal fire 
no longer supported the linen balloon, 
the whole of which fell into the flame. 
Rozier, who had not yet succeeded in 
descending, just escaped being burnt. — ^M. 
diaries, "mko had joined witli M. Robert, 
soon after informed the pubhc that they 
would ascend in a balloon filled with in- 
fianmmble air. To definy the neces- 
sary expense of 10,000 livrcs, he opened 
a subscription. The balloon was ^heri- 
cal, 26 feet in diameter, and consisted of 
silk coated with a varnish of gum-elastic. 
The car for the aeronauts was attached to 
several cords, which were fastened to a 
net, drawn over the upper part of the 
iMilloon. A valve was constructed above, 
which could be opened fit>m the car, by 
means of cords, and shut by a spring. 
This served to aftbrd an outlet to the in- 
flammable air, if they wished to descend, 
or ^und it necessary to diminish it. The 
filling lasted several days ; and, Dec. 1, 
the voyage was conunenced firom the 
gardens of the Tuileries. The balloon 

2uickly rose to a height of 1800 feet, and 
isappeared firom the eves of the specta- 
tors. The aeronauts diligently observed 
the barometer, which never stood at less 
than 26^, threw out gradually the baUast 
they had taken in to keep the balloon 
steady, and descended safely at Nesle. 
But as soon as Robert stepp^ out, and it 



was thus lightened of 190 pounds, it rose 
again with great rapidity about 9000 feet. 
It expanded itself with such force, that it 
must have been torn to pieces, had not 
Charles, with much presence of mind, 
opened the valve to accommodate the 
quantity of gas to the rarity of the sur- 
rounding atmosphere. After the lapee 
of half an hour, the balloon sunk down 
on a plain, about three miles fit)m the 
place of its second ascent — ^These suc- 
cessful aerial voyages were soon followed 
by others. Blaucnard had already as- 
cended several times, when he deter- 
mined to cross the channel between Eng- 
land and France, which is about 23 miles 
wide, in a balloon filled with inflammable 
air. He succeeded in this bold attempt, 
Jan. 7, 1785, accompanied by an Ameri- 
can gentleman. Dr. Jeffries. About one 
o^clock, they left the English coast, and 
at half past two, were on the French. 
Pilatre de Rozier, mentioned befbre as 
the first aeronaut, attempted, June 14, 
1785, in company with Mr. Romain, to 
pass fi*om the French to the English side ; 
but the attempt was unsuccessful, and the 
advenmrers lost their lives. M. de Ro- 
zier had on this occasion united the two 
kinds of balloons ; under one, filled witJi 
inflammable air, which did not alone 
possess sufficient elevadnff power, was a 
second, filled by means of a coal fire un- 
der it Rozier had chosen this combina- 
tion, hoping to unite the advantages of 
both kinds. By means of the lower bal- 
loon, he intended to rise and sink at 
Csure, which is not possible with in- 
mable air; for a balloon filled with 
tliis, when once sunk to the eartli, cannot 
rise again with the same wei^t, without 
being filled anew ; while, on the contiar}', 
by increasing or diminishing the fire under 
a balloon filled with heated air, it can be 
made to rise and fidl alternately. But this 
experiment caused the death of the projec- 
tors. Probably the coals, which were only 
in a glowing state near the surface of tlie 
eround, were suddenly kindled to a light 
flame as the balloon rose, and set it on 
fire. The whole machine was soon in 
flames, and the two aeronauts were pre- 
cipitated from on high. The condition 
or their mangled bodies confirms the con- 
jecture that they were killed by the ex- 
Slosion of the gas. — ^This unhappy acci- 
ent did not deter others ; on the contm- 
ry, the experiments were by degrees 
repeated in other countries. — ^However 
important this invention may be, it has 
as yet led to no considerable results. Its 
096 has hitherto been confined to obser- 



AERONAUTICS-iESCHYLUS. 



81 



▼atkms in the upper regions of the atmoe- 
pbere. But should we ever learn to 
fuide the balloon at will, it might, per- 
bapB, be employed for purposes of which 
we BOW have hardly an idea; possibly 
the plan of professor Robertson might be 
aooomjpiiahed by the construction of a 
giguinc balloon, which would enable us 
to perlbnii an aerial circumnavigation of 
the earth. During the French revolution, 
an a€ro6Catic institution was founded at 
Meudon, not fiir from Paris, for the edu- 
cation of a corps of aeronauts, vrith the 
view of introducing balloons into armies 
as a means of reconnoitring the encm^. 
But this use of balloons was soon laid 
aside, for, like eveiy other, it must be at- 
tended with great uncertainty, as lonff 
aa the machine has to obey the win<L 
Among the French, Bbnchard and Gar- 
nerin have undertaken the greatest num- 
ber of aerial voyages ; among the Ger- 
1080% professor Jungius, in Berlin, in 
1605 and 1806, made the first. Since 
thtf time, professor Reichard and his 
wife hove become known by their aeri- 
al excmaiona. Even in Constantinople, 
such a voyage was performed, at the wish 
and expense of the sultan, by two £ng- 
Kahmftn^ BaHly and Devij^e. Blanchanl 
has rendered an essentialservice to aero- 
nauts by the invention of the parachute, 
which diey can use, in case of necesnty, 
to let themselves do¥m without danger. 
Many att e m pt s have been made to regu- 
late die course of balloons, by means of 
oaiB, wings, &C., but hitherto with little 



AniosTATioir, or Aerostatics, is the 
science of wei^iing air, eithefr by itself 
or with other substances. Skice the in- 
vention of the balloon, this term has been 
aometiines applied to the art of managing 
balloona, which is more property called 
aeremauHeSf (q. v.j 

iEscHiiTES ; a ramous oratCMr of Athens ; 
bom ^3, died 333, B. C. Bemf; the son 
of poor parents, he passed his youtli 
among the lower classes, witli whom he 
wandered about, partaking in their amuse- 
ments, particulam in the festivals in hon- 
or of Bacchus. £ncouniged by their ap- 
plaose, he became an actor, acquired the 
right of citizenship, encaged in pohtics, 
attended the lectures of Plato and Isocra^ 
tes, and soon became the rival of Demos- 
thenes, whom, however, he did not equal 
in power and energy, although he was 
distinguislied by a happy choice of words, 
and by richness and perspicuity of ideas. 
He gradually lost the fiivor of the people, 
and fled to Rhodes and Samos, where he 



gave instruction in rhetoric tiU his death. 
Three orations and twelve letters of hid 
are extant. They are to be found in the 
collections of Aldus, Stephanus and 
Reiske, (3d and 4th vols.) 

iEscHiNEs, the philosopher, a native 
of Athens, who, b}r wav of distinction 
fit>m the preceding, is cafied the SocraHCf 
was a poor discij^e of Socrates. We 
possess under his name three dialogues, 
"On Vutue," "On Riches," and "On 
Death," which, however, are not allowed 
by strict critics to be genuine. The best 
edition is that of L F. Fischer, Leipsic, 
178a 

iEscHTLUs ; the &ther of ancient Greek 
tragedy ; bom in the 3d or 4th year of the 
63d Olympiad (525 B. C), at Eleusis, in 
Attica, of a noble fiunily. Of the circum- 
stances of his life we have but deficient 
and uncertain accounts. He fought in 
the battles of Marathon and Salamis, wit- 
nessed the destniction of the power of 
Darius and Xerxes, and wrote his trage- 
dies under the proud feeling of a success- 
ful struffgle for liberty. In these he first 
raised the tragical art firom the rude be- 
ginnings of Thespis to a dignified char- 
acter, so that he may be considered as 
its real creator. Tragedy sprang finom 
his head in fixll armor (says A. W. 
Schlegel), like Pallas fix)m the head of 
Jupiter. He clothed it with becoming 
dipiity, and gave it an appropriate place 
of exhibition ; he invented scenic pomp, 
and not onlv instructed the chorus m 
sniffing and dancing, but appeared him- 
self in the character of a player. He first 
perfected the dialogue, and reduced the 
lyrical part of the tragedy, which still, 
however, occupies too much qiace in lus 
plays. His characters are sketched with 
a few bold and strong features ; his plots 
are extremely simple, but grand. His art 
knew nothing of mtrigues and develope- 
ments. All his poetiy reveals a lofty and 
ardent mind. Not ue softer emotions, 
but terror is his rulinff characterisdc He 
. holds up the head orMedusa to the over- 
awed spectators. His manner of treating 
fiite is terrible in the extreme ; in all its 
doomy majesty it hovers over mortals. 
The Cothurnus of iEschylus is of an iron 
weight ; none but giant figures stride in 
it. It appears to have required an effort 
in him to represent mere men. He deals 
commonly with gods, especially the Ti- 
tans, those elder deities, the symbols of 
the dark primitive poweiB of nature, long 
since cast down to Tartarus. In accord- 
ance with the grandeur of his figures, he 
endeavors to make their language giganticL 



d9 



iESCHYLUS-iteSOP. 



Tbence arise hanh expfeaalons, overioad* 
ed with epithets, ana fiequently, in his 
chorus, intricate constructions and great 
ohseurity. I|i the daring grandeur of his 
images and expressionS|he resemUee 
Dante and Shakspeare. We have only 
7 of his tragedies remaining : their wiiofe 
number is stated to have been 70 ; accord- 
ing to some, 90 ; but amonff these, ac- 
cording to the teslimonj of the ancients, 
we have some of his principal works. 
They are, ''The Prometheus Vinctus," 
"The Seven before Thebes,'' "The Per- 
aians," "Agamemnon," "The ChoCphone," 
"The £umenides,''and"The Suppliants." 
Disgusted at seeing inferior pieces pre- 
ferred to his own, and narticulariy at the 
victory of the young dophocles, or, ac- 
cordinff to the more probable account, 
compelled by an accusation of atheism, 
.^sehyhis* left his native countiy, and 
went to Sidly, where b4 was received 
with peat honors by king Hiero, and 
died 456 B. C, at the age of 70 years. 
The best editions of his works are, Lon- 
don, 1663 and 1664, folio, by Stanley ; 
Haffue, in 1745, 2 vols, ^arto, by Paw ; 
and Halle, 1809 to 1821, 5 vols. SdeditioQ 
by Schfttz. Smcle plays have been pub- 
lished by Brunck, Hermiann, Blomneld, 
and othera. 

JBsctnuAPius ; the god of medicine. 
Some writers call him a son of Apollo and 
Areinoe, daughter of Leucippus; others, of 
AboIIo and Ck>ronis, daughter of Phlecyas. 
There are also different accounts of the 
wonders which befell his inftncy. Accord- 
ing to some, he was exposed by his mother, 
suckled by a goat, fbund by shepherds, and 
his divine nature recognised by a glittering 
halo round his head : according to oth- 
ers, Coronis having admitted the em- 
braces of Ischys as well as those of 
Apollo, the latter, in a fit of anger (or 
Diana in his stead), killed Coronis, but 
saved the child firom her womb. The 
last opinion was the most common, and 
was confirmed by the Pythian oracle. 
Apollo afterwards brought his son to Chi- 
ron, who instructed him in medicine and 
hunting. In the former he acquired a 
\u^ degree of skill, so as to surpass even 
the feme of his teacher. He not only 
prevented the death of the living, but 
even recalled the dead to life. Jupiter, 
however, induced by the complaints of 
his brother Pluto, slew M, wiUi a thun- 
derbolt Afler his death, he received di- 
vine honors. In particular, he was wor- 
^pped at Epidaurus in Peloponnesus, 
(see Argolit)^ where a temple with a 
grove was dedicated to him. From the 



aeeurate register here kept of the most 
remaikable diseases and their remedies, 
the greatest physicians ffatfaered experi- 
ence and knowledge. Thence his wor- 
ship spread over aU Greece, and finally 
to Bome. After the plaj|ue had raged 
there Ibr three years, ambaasadors were 
sent to iEscukmius at Epidaurus by the 
advice of the Delphian Apoflo. They 
had hardly appeared before the god, 
when a serpent crept fiiom beneath his 
image, and nastenea directiy to the Ro- 
man ship. This serpent, which wsiS 
thought to be iEsculapius himself^ was 
carried with mat solemnity to Rome, 
upon which the plague (Abased. JBscu> 
l^ius had two sons, Machaon and Poda- 
linus, who were called AadqfMa^ and 
during the Trojan war made themselves 
famous as heroes and physicians. Hks 
daughters were Hygeia, laso, Panacea 
and iEgle, the first of whom was wor- 
shipped as the goddess of health. Mkm - 
lapius is represented with a larce beard, 
holding a knotty stafiT, round which was 
entwined a seipent, the symbol of con- 
valescence. Near him stands the cock, 
the symbol of watchfhlness. He is some- 
times crowned with the laurel of Apollo. 
Sometimes his littie son Telesphonis is 
represented beside bun, with a cap upon 
his head, wrapped up in a cloak. Some- 
times iEsculapius is represented under 
the image of a serpent only. 

M»oif ; the oMest Greek febulist. He 
is said to have been a native of Phiysia, 
and a slave, tiU he was set fiee by nis 
last owner. He hved about the middle 
of the 6th century B. C. He inculcated 
rules of practical morality, drawn ftotn 
the habits of the inferior creation, and 
thus spread his fiune throu^ Greece and 
aU the neis^boring coontries. Croesus, 
king of Lyoua, invited iEsop to his court, 
and kept him always about his person. 
Indeed, he was never absent, except dur- 
ing his journeys to Greece, Peisia and 
Egypt Crcesus once sent him to Delphi 
to Otter a sacrifice to Apollo ; while en- 
gaged in this embassy, he wrote his fable 
of the Floating Log, which appeared tenri- 
ble at a distance, mit lost its terrors when 
approached. The priests of Delphi, a]>- 
plyinff the fable to themselves, resolved 
to take vengeance on the autiior, and 
plunged him from a precipice. Planu- 
des, who wrote a miserable romance, of 
which he makes iEsop the hero, describes 
him as excessively deformed and disa- 
greeable in his appearance, and given to 
stuttering ; but this account does not agree 
with what his contemporaries say of hiin. 



jESOP— jETNA. 



8B 



The fllorie0 related of iEsop, even bgr the 
■Dcieiita^ are not entitled to csedit A 
coUecdon of ftble^ made by Pbnndea, 
wfaicb are still esctant under die name of 
the Grecian fibuliBt, are ascribed to him 
with little finrndation ; their origin is lost 
in the daikness of antiquity. Of the 
caify editicMiS) the most ▼aluaoie are those 
by Heniy Stephens, Paris, 1546, 4to. ; and 
(^ Hudson, Oxford, 17ia More lately, 
they have been published from the man- 
useripc, in a veiv different form, by De 
Furia, 2 Tote^ Fkunence, 1809, and JLeip- 
ac, 1810; Coray, Paris, 1810; and 
Schneidtf, Breslau, 1811. These ftbles 
have bad numberless imitators. 

iEsoFVs, Clodius, a celebrated acton 
who flouiished about the 670tb year of 
Eome. He vas a contemporary oi Ros- 
ciuBL His folly in ependjng money on 
expemiTe dishes made him as conspicu- 
008 as his dramatic talents. He is said, 
at one entertainment, to have bad a dish 
filled with flinang and speaking birds, 
which cost £800. When acting, he en- 
tered into his part to such a d^;ree as 
mmetiiiies to ne seized with a per&ct 
ecstasy. Plutarch mentions it as report- 
ed of liim, that, whilst he was represent- , 
ii^ Atreiis, deliberating how he should ' 
revenge himself on Thyestes, he was so 
tniM^ifted beyond himself that he smote 
with his truncheon one of the servants 
who was croBBing the stage, and killed 
hjra on die spot 

AcsTHsncs (fiom the Greek alia&tiaif, 
^penepdon) ; the science which treats of 
the beautinil, and of the various applicar 
tions of its princii)les. Baumgarten, apro- 
feaeor in tne universiQr at Frankfort on 
the Oder, first used this name, and in- 
tended to designate by it a branch of phi- 
losophy, whi(» should establish correct 
pfiociples of criticism in relation to the 
beantubL Since the time of Baumgarten, 
this wold has been used in Germany, 
Fnmce, and Italy, and lias lately been 
cn^yed by some Kngliah writers. For 
the character of the science, and the atten- 
tion which it has received, see PhSosophy. 

JRraxA ; an extremely fine, subtile and 
dastic fluid, which philosopherB have BOfh- 
posed to be diffiised throiufaout the uni- 
vene, and fay means of which they have 
ezpUned many of the great phenomena of 
natnie. It is mentioned Inr Aristotle. Its 
mnarm cannot be proved. Newton be- 
heved in it, and explains by it the C(mnexion 
«f the parts of a body, and the laws of 
mvigr. Euksrasserts that ether is afanost 
aa/XXMXX) times thuiner, and 1,278 times 
more elastic, than atmoapherie ahr. 



Mtuek ; in chemistry. (See Ether.) 

^Ethiopia. (&e^ EUmofia.) 

iETHRA. (See Tkemu,) 

i£Tiu8 ; one of the most zealous de- 
fenders of Arianism, bom in Syria, flour- 
ished about 336, and his followers were 
caXM JEtkuu, 

Mtwa. (in Italian, monU G^beUo); the 
fiutnous volcanic mountain on the eastern 
coast of Sicily, not &r fi:om Catania. 
This mountain rises more than 10,000 
feet above the surfece Of the sea; Buf- 
fon thinks, 2000 fathoms ; Saussure eives 
10,963 feet, Spallanzani 11^, and sir 
G. Shuckbui^h 10,954. Its drcumference 
at the base is 180 miles. On its sidesare 
77 cities, towns and villages, containing 
about 115,000 inhabitants. From Cata- 
nia to the summit the distance is 30 
miles, and the traveller must pass through 
three distinct climates — the hoL the tem- 
perate and the firigid. Accordingly, the 
whole mountain is divided into three dis- 
tinct r^ons, called the fertile region (re- 
gione cuUa)f the woody region (regime 
$ehoaa\ and the barren re{pon. (r^fKme 
de8€rtai The lowest renon extends 
throu^n an ascent 9f fix>m 13 to 18 miles. 
The city of Catania and several villaf^es 
are situated in the first zone, which 
abounds in pastures, orchards, and vari- 
ous kinds of fiuit-trees. Its great fertility 
is ascribed chiefly to the decomposition 
of lava; it isperiiaps owing, in part, to 
ctiltivation. llie figs and firuits in gen- 
eral, in this region, are reckoned the miest 
in Sicily. The lava here flovFs from a 
number of small motmtains, which are 
dispersed over the immense decUvity of 
^ma. The woody region, or temperate 
zone, extends firom 8 to 10 miles in a di- 
rect line towards the top of the moun- 
tain ; it comprehends a surfece of about 
40 or 45 square leagues, and forms a zone 
of the bri(^teet green all round the 
mountain, exhibiting a i^easiiiff contrast 
to its white and hoary head. U is called 
la tegiome sdvoaa^ because it abounds in 
oaks, beeches and firs. The soil is simi- 
hur to that of the lower region. The air 
here is cool and refireshing, and every 
breeze is loaded vrith a Aousand per- 
fumes, the whole ground being covered 
with die richest aromatic plants. Many 
parts of this region are the most detif^ht- 
fiil spots upon earth, and have mspired 
ancient and modem poets with imaffes of 
beauty and loveliness. The arumal king- 
dom of these tvro regions ia not equal m 
point of richness to the vegetable. The 
upper or barren region is marked oat by a 
circle of SDOW and ioe. Itssurfeceis,for 



84 



iETNA— AFFINITY. 



the mo8t part^ flat, and t)ie approacti to it 
is indicated by the decline of vegetation, by 
uncovered rocks of lava and heaps of sand, 
by near views of an expanse of snow and 
ice, and of torrents of smoke issuing fit>m 
the crater of tlie mountain, also by the 
difficulty and danger of advancing amidst 
streams of melted snow, sheets of ice, and 
gusts of chiUing winds. The curious 
traveller, however, thinks himself amply 
rewarded, upon gaining the sununit, for 
the peril which he has encountered. The 
number of stars se^ns increased, and 
their light appears brighter than usual; 
the lustre of the milky way is like a pure 
flame that shoots across the heavens ; and 
with the naked eye we may observe clus- 
ters of stars totally invisible in the lower 
repopB. The scoriee, of which the moun- 
tarn is composed, have the same kind of 
base, containing scliori and feldspar. The 
first eruption of which we have any au- 
thentic account, is mentioned by Diodorus 
Siculus. The last eruption took place in 
1819. It appears veiy probable that mount 
iEtna is exnausting its volcanic powers, 
as the eruptions of modem times are by 
no means so fipequent as in fonner ages, 
nor are they so tremendous in their ex- 
tent and enects. Before the Christian 
sra, there were 9 eruptions, of which 
those m 477 and 121 B. C. are the most 
important: after Christ, the most impor- 
tant are those in 1160, 1109, 1339, 1536, 
1537, 1669, 1698, 1763, 1787, 1793, 1803, 
1809, 1811, 1819. Mount iEtna supplies 
Sicily and a large part of Italy, and even 
Malta, with the luxury of snow and ice. 
The trade in these articles belongs to the 
bishop of Catania, who, as it is stated, 
makes flx)m 3000 to 4000 dollars per an- 
num by it. The vegetation of the woody 
region is exceedingly luxuriant. There 
is one chestnut tree, under which 100 
horses may be sheltered against the sun ; 
it therefore is called dei cento cawdlu (See 
DenmCs Voyage oiUoresque en SicQe^ vol. 
4., and t^BexmuKr von HumboUWs Per- 
wncd ^anraOve.) Since 1834, Catania 
has had the Oioenian Academy (so called 
in honor of the chevalier Giuseppe Gioeni, 
author of a LUohg^ Veaumana), the ob- 
ject of which is to investigate the topogra- 
phy and natural history of i£tna. 

.^TOLiA ; a country in Greece, on the 
northern coast of the Corinthian gulf; so 
called from iEtohis, the brother of Epeus, 
kinff of Elm, who, escaping fit>m Eha, 
mane himself master of this ru^on. An- 
cient iEtolia was separated m>m Acar- 
nania* by the river Acheldus, and extend- 
ed thenee to Calydon, or to the river 



Evenus. On the south lav the gulf of 
Corinth, and Thessaly on the north. Its 
extent Irom north to soutii was about 4^ 
miles, and from cost to west above 30. 
It was subsequently enlarged by success- 
ful wars. The additions were compre- 
hended under the name of JEUdia JSpic- 
teios. The borders of iEtolia on the 
north were now mount (Eta and the Atha- 
manes in Epirus. Thermopylae, Hera- 
clea, and a ^reat part of Thessaly also 
belonged to it On the east. Dons and 
the coast as far as Naupactus and Eupa- 
lion were added to it The coimtzy was 
rough and unfruitful, but strong by rea- 
son of its mountains. According to Ile- 
rodotas and Aristotle, lions infesteid JE. in 
the most ancient times. The original 
ancestors of the iEtolians were Hellenes. 
Divided into small tribes, they had no 
principal city ; they were occupied in 
huntinff and robbeir, and made them- 
selves &ared both on utnd and sea. In their 
state of independence, they preserved for 
a long time their ancient rudeness of 
manners. They very early formed the 
great iEtolian confederacy, which aasem- 
Bled once a year at Therma, but first 
became remarkable in the time of the 
Achaean league. To oppose this confed- 
eracy they united with the Romans ; and 
afterwards deserted them, on perceiving 
that their fi^eedom was in danger fiom 
their allies. They then went over to the 
side of the Macedonians, with whom they 
were oblifed at hist to submit to the Ro- 
man yoke. The covemment of M, was 
republican, controlled by the PanoUoUumf 
a ^neral council, held as occasion re- 
qmred. XJvy says that their cavalry was 
at one period esteemed superior to that 
of any other of the Grecian states. 

Affa ; a weight on the Gold Coast of 
Guinea, equal to one ounce. 

Affinitt; in chemistiy. Wlien two 
bodies are brought in contact with each 
other, they will oflen, without the sensible 
operation of any extraneous influences, 
combine W a spontaneous and reciprocal 
action, and form new bodies with differ- 
ent properties ; a single body, modified 
by the action of the natural agents, ca- 
loric, electricity, &c sometimes produces 
the same results; finally, a body not ap- 
parently acted upon by other bodies, nor 
by the natural agents, sometimes acouires 
new properties, and assumes new KMrmsi 
These changes in the chemical charaeter 
of bodies are {Moduoed by a forces to 
which we give the name of {0imiy 
Some of the laws or modes of action of 
this force are, that it is exerted only at 



AFFINITY— AFFRY. 



85 



diBtaneea, which disdnguiahes 
H ftwn rramiation (me Jltbradwn)^ and 
between heterogeneous particles, in which 
it difiere fiom ciiytn(m{c{, v.) The jnroper- 
ties of the rasuhing compound differ es- 
sentnlly fiom its component partB, as a 
aah is fbrmed by an acid and an alkali. 
The forms of the elements are often 
changed, and the change is attended with 
remarkable phenomena, as the explosion 
of gunpowder by its conversion into 
gases, the sdidification of water in slak- 
ing lime, &c. One of the most important 
kwB of affinity is, that one body has not 
the same force of affinity towards all 
otheiB, but attracts them very unequally, 
and some of them not at all. The knowl- 
edge of the affinities of diffisrent bodies 
is of great use to the chemist in effecting 
deoompoations. Bernnann, who first, in 
1775, developed the meory of affinities, 
distrnguiBlies three cases in the reciprocal 
actioa of two bodie»— when the^ are both 
fiee, which he calls timpU qffindu; when 
one of them is already in connbination, 
ekdnt ; and when both are combined in 
different compounds, complex, BerthoUet 
has much improved the theory of affini- 
ties. (See BertholUi^s StaHque chimique, 
and BerzeHus^ Theory of chemical Propor- 
tions.) 

Affiihtt, in law, is that degree of 
connexion, which subsists between one 
of two married persons and the blood re- 
lations of the other. It is no real kindred. 
A peraon cannot, by legal succession, re- 
c^e an inheritance from a relation by 
affinity; neither does it extend to the 
nearest reladous of husband and wife, so 
as to create a mutual relation between 
th^n. ' •The degrees of affinity are com- 
puted in the same way as those of con- 
sanguinity, or blood. By the Jewish law, 
marriage was prohibited within certain 
degrees. Nearly the same limitations are 
adopted into the laws of Europe and 
America. All legal impediments, arising 
from affinity, cease upon the death of the 
husband or wife, excepting, of course, 
those which relate to the marriage of the 
aorviror. The table of forbiddeji degrees 
of affinity is, by tlie ecclesiastical law of 
England, commanded to be hung up ui 
all churches. Tlie Roman church speaks 
of spirihud tffirdbfj which is contracted 
by uie sacraments of baptism and con- 
fiimalion ; according to which a - god- 
latlicr may not marry his god-dau^ter 
witliOQt a dispensation. 

AmRMATioif si^ifies^ in one sense, 
the sotemn declarations of Quakers, and 
members of some otlier sects, in coiifir- 

▼<IL. 1. 8 



mation of their testimony in courts of law, 
or of their statements on other occasions, 
on which the sanetion of an oath is re- 
quired of other persons. The Englisii 
laws did not permit affirmations instead 
of oaths, m crin^al cases, until 1828. 
No distmction has been made, in any of 
the United States, between testimonies in 
civil and criminal cases in this respect, it 
having been permitted to Quakers gener- 
ally, and, for the most part, to other per- 
sons scrupulous about swearuigt to give 
testimony upon mere solemn affirmation. 
Even the president of the U. S. is allowed 
to affirm instead of taking the usual oath, 
when inducted into office, if he has con* 
scientious scruples about swearing. Tlie 
privilege of affirmation is allowed in Prus- 
sia only to sects recognised by govern- 
ment, and whose principles do not permit 
them to make oath. False affirmation is 
subjected to the same penalties as perjury 
in England and elsewhere. 

Apfrv, Lewis Augustinus Phihp, count 
of^ first magistrate of Switzerland after 
Napoleon had proclaimed himself the 
protector of the Helvetic confederacy, 
was l)om at Freyburg, 1743. He was 
earhr destined to a muitary life, accom- 
panied his father on an embassy to the 
Hague, soon became adjutant in the Swiss 
guards, and was finally elevated to the 
rank of Ueutenaut-general. At the com- 
mencement of the revolution, he com 
manded the army on the Upper Rhine, 
till Aug. 10, 1792, when, the Swiss troops 
having been disbanded, he returned to 
his country, and became a member of the 
secret council at Freyburg. Switzerland 
being menaced, in 1796, with a French 
invaaicm and a revolution, he resumed the 
conunand of the troops. He acknowl- 
edged the uselessness of resistance, con- 
ducted himself with undeviating |)ru- 
dence, and averted as much as possible 
fix)m his country the evils of war and 
rebellion. When Freybui^ was taken by 
the French, he became a member of the 
provisional government. He had no share 
m the insurrections of 1801 and 1802, but 
accepted with pleasure the appointment 
of deputy to Paris, when the first consul 
invited tlie Swiss to send delegates tliith- 
er, and offered them his mediation. Na- 
poleon disdnguished him above the other 
deputies, and intrusted to him the forma- 
tion of an administration, which was to 
ensure the peace and happiness of the 
ancient allies of France. Feb. 19, 1803, 
A. received fit>m the first consul the act 
of mediation, was appointed first magis- 
trate for this year, and invested with ex- 



..gitized by Google 



AFFRY— AFRANGESAOOe. 



^nuudinaiy powei% until' the conyocatioii 
of a diet. He souglit to praraote the 
▼iewB of the first consul, and acted, in 
every thing, with tlie ability, the intelli- 
genoe and the experience of a thorough 
stateaman. He died June 16, 1810. 

Afobanistah, or AFOHAumsTAUN, die 
country of the Afghans, or CabuUstB, also 
called the Idsigdom of the MdaOdanSy con- 
taioB 350,000 square miles, is boutided on 
the north, towards .Budukahan, by mount 
Hindoo-Koh and Paropamisus ; on the 
east, towards Hindo8tan,by the Indus and 
mount Solomon ; on the south, by the 
vale of Bolahn and the mountains near 
Sislan ; on the west, towards Iran, fay the 
great desert. The Kindoo-Koh is a con- 
tinuation of the Himalaya ; many ranges 
ran in all dlrec^ons from the Paropamisus 
and mount Solomon, The Indus is the 
principal river. The atmosphere is diy 
and healthy, and some of the valleys are 
very fertile. The untilled portipnff serve 
as pastures for cattle. It abounds in sil- 
ver, lead, iron, sulphur, lapis lazuli, cotton, 
horses, asses, dromedanes, camels, oxen, 
sheep with fit tails, goats, ^., and con- 
tahis, also, several species of carnivorous 
animals. Of the 14,000,000 of inhabit- 
ants, 4,300,000 are Afghans, and 5^700^ 
are Hindoos ; the remaining part consists 
of Tadshicks /descendants of the ancient 
Persians), with Tartars and Belooches. 
Th^ religion is that of Mahomet Be- 
sides the capita], Cabul, which contains 
80,000 inhabitanta, there are other impor- 
tant cities; as Candahar, a fortress and 
commercial plac^, of 100,000 inhabitanta ; 
Peshawur, or Peshour, of 100,000 inhabit- 
ants, Slc; Bulkh, or Balk (the ancient 
Bactria, now inhabited by Usbecka), and 
Cashmere. These are almost independ- 
ent cities on the Jrontiers. Thekmgis 
of the house of Saddosei ; the throne is 
hereditary, but limited by the power of 
the chiefs of the tribes. The British 
couriers and travellers, who are going to 
Bagdad, generally prefer the way by Ca- 
bul. In consequence of the influence of 
the English over the people of A., the 
Persian court at Tehraun is subjected to 
an unwilling dependence on Uie East 
India company, which acts as protector 
of Persia and of A., and has contributed 
much to the preservation of peace be- 
tween the two nations, as far as the aris- 
tocratic character of the government of 
A. admits. Private quarrels, however, 
frequently happen between the Persian 
governors and the chiefi of A. The great 
influence of the English in the East, over 
tlie nations of the Lower Indus (seiks), Is 



continually exerted to prevent these pow 
erfiil nations from weaseninff one another 
by wars, with a view of advancing the 
commercial interests of the English com- 
pany, and of providinga bulwuk against 
the pronesB of the Russian conquests 
beyond ttie Caucasus, in Lower Persia, in 
Annenia, and on the Caspian sea. Ehit, 
in spite of these precautions, the rajah of 
Lahore, Rungeet Singh, has usurped the 
throne of CumiI, in A., and, to brave the 
British, has taken many Rusoans into his 
service. The Russians trade with the 
Afffhfttis by way of Bucharia. 

AFOHAns, or Afghauns, signi^ing 
mowUaineerg; is the name of a powerfiu na- 
tion, called also Patang^ in the eastern part 
of Persia, in the kingdom of Cabulistan. 
They originally lived in the mountains 
between Persia, Hindostan and Bactria, 
and are of Median descent Tlie A.'s are 
even now wandering tribes; b6th those 
of the west, who are robbers, and live in 
tents, and those of the east, who hfire 
more regular setdements. During the 
revolution in Pensa, which took place in 
1747, ajfter the death of Nadir Shah, Amed 
AbdaUah, chief of the A.*s in the Persian 
army, took possession of the provinces of 
Candahar and Chorasan, made himself 
independent of Persia, and founded the 
kingdom of A^hanistan. 

Afore {ewanij French) ; all that part of 
a ship which lies forward; or near the 
stem. 

AFRAifcxBADOs. Tfajs title is used to 
denote those Spaniards who took the oath 
of fidelity and allegiance to the constitu- 
tion of Bayonne and king Joseph, ex- 
pecting, from the new order of thmgs in- 
trodu<^ by the French into Spain, a 
regeneration of their country. They were 
aiSo termed Josefinosj because they were 
taken into the Spanish service by Joseph. 
Ailer the overthrow of the usuiper(«rfru- 
so)f his principal partisans fled to France, 
to avoid the hatred of their countrymen. 
When king Ferdinand VII recovered his 
throne in 1814, he persecuted, with equal 
cruelty, the libercdesj or adherents of the 
cortes, who had wrought the down&ll of 
the French system, and the Josdmos. A 
ffazette of Madrid, the Makya (Sentinel), 
demanded their desdruction m the follow- 
ing terms : ^ Is it possible, sire, that the 
UberaUs and Jog^nos still exist aihong us ? 
Why have not a hundred scafl[blaa, & 
hundred pyres, been erected in every city 
and in eveiy vUIage of Spain, to do justice 
on the wretches r* May 90, 1814, a de- 
cree was issued, prohimting the return 
of aB emigrant afrancesados, more e^pe- 



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AFRANCESAD08-.AFR1CA. 



97 



cnl^ Uioae who had reoctveiji, fiom the 
invaoiiig govenimeiit, any ratificatkni of 
their fonnor offieesi or any new appoint- 
meoty title, lank, order, &c. In the same 
decree ware included all eaijienlB and 
officers who had fim^t under the ban- 
nen of Napoleon or Joaeph, and all fe- 
raalea who had accompanied their hna- 
faaada in their emigration. The nundier 
of emigrant ISberaUs who Uved in France 
was esdmaled at 16,000 ; amcwg whom 
were many diatinguiabed fiteraxjr charac- 
ten, and excellent civil and militaiy offi- 
cen. They puhhahed^ in London, a jour- 
nal (£2 Etp€m4d eonatdueitmal), in which 
they labored to convince their countiy- 
men, that the onfy remedy fi>r the miafor- 
tunea of Spain was the adoption of a lib- 
end constitution. All othen were allowed 
to remtn, but were compelled to Hve 50 
miles finmn the capital, under the auper- 
viMK^thepdlice. llie decree of am- 
nesty, pubhahed Sept 29, 1816 (suspend- 
ed n^am in 1817), was so consuructed, 
that It did not anK^orate the condition of 
the baniflhed Jo9^moB. Even the soldiers 
and offioers, returning home aAer Napo- 
leon^ ftU, fiom their capdvit^ in France, 
were remanded to the fixmtier, dirough 
ibar that they might have imbibed liberal 
or revolutionaiy prindples in France. 
The contimial attempts at rebellion in 
Spain were, at the same time, the conse- 
quence and the cause of the continuanoe 
of these severe regidations. When Fer- 
dinand VII accepted the consdtution of 
the cortes, he proclaimed a general am- 
nesty, Mareh ^ 18d0, and a&rwaids al- 
lowed all /o«d&MW to reeddd in any part 
of Spain, Madrid excepted. The cortes, 
Sept 31, 18d0, determmed that they 
should be restored to the enjoyment of 
their rights and poasession of their prop- 
erty, but not to uiefar dignities, offices and 
pensions. They proceeded on th^ prin- 
ciple, that most of them had been br(Hi||^t 
by accidental cireumstances under the 
power of the *< usurper^ (tn^niso), but had, 
nevertheless, with hcmest intentions, pre- 
pared, in Bayonne, refoims beneficial to 
their country, and had exerted themselves 
with opbit to promote its welfare; and 
that afterwards, becoming involved in in- 
extricable difficulties, they had remained 
fiuthiid to their oath, king Joseph, and 
die constitation. The afiimceeados have 
ahrays shown great moderation, and are, 
for diis reason, even now, hated by die 
cAsoLvHsls. (See Mtxieo.) 

Afhashus, Lucius, a Roman comic 
poet, flourished in the iSrst half of the dd 
centuvy B. C. He was preeminently the 



creator of the Romaa national drama, oi 
iStuiJaindaUigata; and his delineations of 
the life and manners of his countrymen 
com pr ehended even the lowest classes, 
whence arose theyoMafflt^ernarta. Frooi 
the Greeks he bonowed only the outward 
form of their comedy, and adapted it to 
the Roman manners, vdiich gave rise to 
the saying, that the toga of A. perfecdy 
fitted Meminder. His coarse eiq^resiions 
and lioentiouaness have been censured by 
some critks, but his vnt and vivacity are 
acknowledge byalL He wrote much, 
but of his many pieces only a few fing- 
ments remain. 

Africa, one of the five divisions of the 
globe, mendoned in history diousands of 
years ago, is still to us what it was to the 
ancients--the land of mystery. Only s 
small extent of sea separates Afinca m>m 
Europe ; its coasts he insight of the most 
dvilized countries ; and yet we know 
nothing more than its ouffines : into the 
interior the fi)ot of a Eiutypean has lately, 
for die fint time, penetnUed. Whether 
the Afiricans are descended fit>m a Negro 
Adam, or whether a descendant of Noah 
conducted thither firom Asia its first in- 
habitants, who received their black com- 
plexion fiom the fierce heat of the Afncan 
sun, is a problem which can never be 
solved* Under the same name which it 
now bears, the vallev of the Nile vnis, in 
the earfiest ages of histoiy, the cradle of 
commerce, me arts and sciences. But 
even in the period of Eigypt^ greatest 
prosperity, deep night seems to have en- 
veloped me surrounding countries, which 
vrerecaMedJV^^gTolfliul SubseqQ^^,the 
Greeks (see the very mmute accounts of 
Herodotus) and Romans became better 
acquamted with the MediterrBnean coast 
of Afiica, and penetras^d hito the mterior 
perhaps as 6r as die river Joliba; but 
their Knowledge never reached beyond 
the confines of Numidia, and they were 
totalty ignorant of the southern part of A. 
How vague was the conception which 
Ptolemy himself fbrmed of diis portion 
of the earth, though it appeared to him a 
large peninsula! Its ouuines were not 
determined till the 15th centuiy. Heniy, 
the Navigator, sailed roimd die formida- 
ble Cflfie Non (non/tiut tiftra), Diaz and 
Vasco de Gama discovered the cape of 
Good Hope, and bodi the western and 
eastern coasts were examined by Euro- 
pean navigators^ — Afiricaisa vast penin- 
sula, ibnning a triangle, with its vertex 
towards the south, containing 12,256,000 
(according to Gniberg, 11,031,400) square 
miles ; situated between W W. and 51^ 



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86 



AFRICA. 



E. lon^ and fit)m 34*^8. to ST 3(y N. lat; 
bounded on the north by the Mediterra- 
nean, on tlie east by Aeoa, the Red sea 
and Indian ocean, and on tlie south and 
west by the Soudiem and Atlantio oceans. 
It has a great breadth from east to west. 
The nortlieiti portion is much larger than 
the southern ; the greatest breadth, fiom 
west to east, from cape Negro to cape 
Guardafui, is 69^. Under the equator, the 
breadth is 4500 geographical miles. The 
internal structure of Africa is marked by 
many pecidiarities. It possesses immense 
chains of mountains, extending, perhaps, 
from the cape of Good Hope to the Medi- 
terranean, in many parallel ranges. Such 
are the Atlas mountains, the mountains 
of the Moon, of Kong and Lupata ; those 
of the Cape, 5000 feet high, and covered 
^mth contmual snows ; but, on the whole, 
it is more level than any other quarter of 
the fflobe. In none other do we find 
such Doundless deserts ; and the Cobi, in 
the centre of Asia, is not to be compared 
with the Sahara. These deserts appear 
like oceans of sand, by no means destitute 
of ferBle islands. These islands are the 
Oates, peculiar to Afiica. (See Oases,) 
Amonf the mighty streams of A. we can 
now mllow the jGgyptian Nile to its 
sources. The courses of the other great 
rivers have not yet been satisfactorily ex- 
plored. We Imow, indeed, Where the 
Conffo or Ziure, Coanza, and Cuama or 
Zanibese terminate, but not where they 
rise. The Joliba (the Niger of Herodo- 
tus), Mungo Park has informed us, flows 
from west to east The Senegal, the 
Gambia and the Oran^ are also impor- 
tant rivers. A. contams several large 
lakes, such as the Dembea, Wangara, 
Maravi, Tschad and Aquilunda. The 
climate is various, but in general extreme- 
ly hot In the lifeless atmosphere of the 
tropics, which have but two seasons, the 
wet and the dir, the heat of the sun is 
terrible ; and Adanson tells of eggs being 
roasted in the sands of Guinea, and the 
naked feet of the Negroes blistered. On 
the coasts, the heat is mitigated by the 
breezes from the sea and the mountains, 
and by incessant rains; but tlie atmos- 
phere is not so healthy and pure as in 
the interior, which has a higher elevation. 
The whole tract of Barbary is warmer 
than the more southeriy regions, and all 
A*, compared with Europe, is a hot coun- 
try. Of its winds, the dry, parching har- 
mattan is peculiar to A. ; it has the si- 
moom in common with Asia, and the 
sirocco with Europe.— -To the naturalist, 
this wonderful country seems the first fa- 



vorite of nature, as &r a» it respects the 
riches of the organic world, and the num- 
ber of giant forms of aniinals and plants. 
It can enumerate five times as many 
^cies of quadrupeds as Asia, and three 
tunes as muiy as all America. It ex- 
cels Asia in the size of its colossal river- 

laige antelopes and apes. That giant of 
birds, the ostrich, is exclusively indige- 
nous to Africa. But the most beneficent 
S'ft of nature to the African is the camel, 
e constitution of which is in every re- 
spect adapted to the country and climate. 
Among the other animab are the ele- 

{>hant and rhinoceros, the hon, panther, 
eopard, ounce, jackal, hyaena, wolf, fox^ 
dog, cat, mongus, bat, rat, marmot (cavia 
capeiuis), hare, rabint, jerboa, poreupiiTe, 
hedgehog, mole, civet-cat, ichneumon, 
bear, horse, ass, zebra, sheep (some 
with hair and large, fat tails), argalis (co- 
pra ammon\, goat, innumerable varieties 
of the gazelle, the bufialo, fidlow-deer. In 
Guinea are found the roe, swine, emga- 
los, babyroussa, and other quadnip^to, 
whose namral history has been as yet by 
no means sufficiently investigated ; even 
the problematical unicorn is still said to 
exist in the interior. The varieties of 
birdfi are equally numerous ; among which 
is the crown-bird, the most beautiful of 
the feathered trilies ; the flaminco, king- 
fisher, pelican, and many kinds of parrots ; 
the peacock, partridge, pheasant, widow 
and cardinal-bird ; the cuckoo, the cucu- 
lus indicator, turtle-doves, pigeons, ducks, 
geese, &c. The class or reptiles com- 
prises the crocodile and boa constrictor, 
with many other serpents, some innox- 
ious, some highly poisonoua The bays 
and rivers abound in fish, but the variety 
of the species is not so S^eat as in the 
northern seas, and many of the most use- 
ful are entirely wanting. The shrubs and 
earth swarm with termites, ants, scolo- 
pendras, spidere and caterpillars, while 
passing armies of locusts obscure the sun 
like clouds. The most beauti^ insectti 
abound. Still more extraordinary is the 
force of vegetation. The earth renders 
back the seed to the cultivator increased 
a hundred fold, and produces those im- 
mense trees, among which tlie baobab, 
or monkey bread-tree, whose crown of 
brandies sometimes forms a cirole 130 
feet in diameter, holds the first rank ; the 
splendid white trunk of the ceiba grows 
almost perpendiculariy fipom the root to ' 
the branches, GO feet, and, with its fine 
round crown, rises to a height of 120 feet 
In Africa, as in America, tlie torrid zone 

.y,u...oy Google 



AFRICA. 



89 



produeeB pkntB and finiilB, at the aaone 
lime the most nutritiora, the most re- 
fiedbing and meet wholesome. The aA« 
tiseptieal quality appertains to the fituts 
of tne palm, banuia, orange, riiaddock, 
pine-qf^^e, tamarind, and to the juice and 
teaves of the haobab. The hest Gutter 
(likewise an excellent medicine) may be 
procured from the shih or butter-tsee, in 
the interior of the west of Afiica, and the 
fioimd-nuts of Whidah riprai within six 
weeks irem the time of sowing. The 
vegetable producti<Mi8, used for suste- 
nance, are principally wheat, barley, mil- 
let, poa abysnmeoj rice, the corwolvuiui 
ftolflfat, L^ yams, lotus berries, sum Sen- 
egal, dates, figs, the various Kinds of 
HMcea, and especially sugar-cane ; fbr 
luink, cofiee is used, palm wine, from the 
female pahn-tree,the milk of cocoa-nuts, 
and Gape wine ; for clothing, cotton, 
hemp, and even flax. Here thrive the 
papaw, the pomemnate^ five kinds of 
pepper, the best indigo, the draaerM draeoy 
nom which is procui>sd dra£on*s bloody 
the tallow-tree, the best wood fbr dyeing 
and cabinet work, innumerable spices, 
&c Madagascar is rich in the most 
valuable pr^uctions. Our information 
req>ectin^ the mineral kingdom is the 
moflt limited. Of ^bld, Afiica has more 
than any other portion of the fflobe ; and 
inm is &und in most parts of this conti- 
nent ; but it wants the other metals. Of 
ether minerals, it has only saltpetre, sal 
ammoniae, some fiiHer's earth, and emeiy 
m abundance ; ambergris is found on the 
coasts. The want of salt, except in a few 
regions, is most severely felt — ^The Afri- 
can noes of men offer many points of 
interest to the inquirer. The majority of 
them are disdnffuished from the rest of 
tte human &inily,not only by their black 
compJexion and curiy hair, but also by 
peculiarities in the construction of the 
bones of the head and even of the nerves. 
This seems to imply that the Negro is 
originally a distinct nice. It is thought 
that traces of this primitive race may still 
be detected here and there ; e. g. of the 
original E^cyptians in the Copts, and of 
the Guanches (the original inhabitants of 
the Canaries) in the natives of BartMiy. 
The population is probabty between 100 
and no millions. The mterior of the 
country must be very populous, sinc«, 
within two centuries and a hal^ it has 
contributed 40 miUions of vi^rous men to 
the slave trade, and, notwithstandmg, is 
any tlung but depopulated. Even the 
countries along tne coast are thickly 
peopled. Jackson computed the popu- 
8^ 



lation of Morocco alone at 17 millions ; 
and the Barbary states, vrith Egypt, which 
constitute but an eighth part of^the con- 
tment, contain 20 millions. The torrid 
Chnnea has, on the whole, a numerous 
population; and large cities are rituated 
on the Joliba, of which we hardly know 
the names. The inhabitants belong to 
two branches of the human family ; to 
the black, or Ethiopian race, which ex- 
tends from the Johba to the southern 
extremity, comprismg, notwithstanding 
their tawny complexions, the Hottentots ; 
and to the Caucacnan race, which includes 
the natives of Baibary, Copts, the Arabs 
or Moors, the Agaziones or Abyssinians, 
and the nations of Nubia. The Arabs are 
not to be regarded as aborigines of Africa, 
but they have scattered meinselves, and 
become occupants of the greater part of 
the north and west On the islands and 
some points of the sea-board, we find 
Portuguese, Spaniards, French, Dutoh, 
British, and even Jews in particular 
spots ; but the Falaschas in T^re, though 
they profess the religion of Moses, seem 
not to be of Hebrew descent.— The Ara- 
bic is the leading language throuffhout 
all the north, and as mr as the ^liba, 
where it .is understood, in some degree 
at least, by those nations who revere the 
Koran, l^e Berber and Shelluhtonguos 
are spoken in the Barfoary states, and 
along the Atlas mountains. The Man- 
dingo language is used from the Senegal 
to the Jcniba. On the western coast, a 
corrupt Portuguese is heard ; in the re- 
gions of Abyssinia, the Tigre and Amhara 
tongues prevail. The languages of the 
blacks are as multifarious as the nations. 
In Sahara, alone, 43 dialects are said to be 
spoken. But of all the 150 languages 
(this conjectural number was adopted oy 
Seetzen) of the African nations, we arc 
hardly acquainted with 70. Ek}uaLlly man- 
ifold ere the modes of worship. Mo- 
hammedanism has diffused itself^over the 
north to the Joliba, and most of the east- 
em coast ; the Christian religion is pro- 
fessed by the inhabitants of Tigre and 
Amliara, by the Copts, the Nubians, and 
European 'strangers, though with great 
diversity of forms. The most disgusting 
Fetichism prevails among most of the 
Negro nations, demanding, from many of 
its votaries, human sacrifices. — ^We must 
not look to A. fbr the triumphs of sci- 
ence, not even to the country which was 
its cradle in the infimcy of man. AH that 
the Pharaohs and Ptolemies had ever ef- 
fected, was swept away by the storms 
which broke upon this unhappy region 



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m 



AFRICA. 



in the middle ages. Schoote, however, 
are still maiutaiiied by the Mohamme- 
dans in the cities of Barbary, by the Ma- 
raboots, in the countries where they have 
settled, and, here and there, by the Copts 
and Monophysites in Tigre and Amhara. 
The arts are exercised only on the north- 
ern coasts, where the Moors manu&cture 
much silk, cotton, leather and linen ; an 
*)Ctive commerce is carried on by them 
^ith the maritime nations of Europe, and^ 
by means of caravans, a tiaffic, full as im<^ 
portant, with the interior, to which they 
convey their own products and those of 
Europe. Some of the most important 
routes pursued by the caravans are the fol- 
lowing :-^l. From Mourzouk, the capital 
of Fezzan, to Cairo, 30 days' journey, by 
way of the market-places and encamp- 
ments Siwah, Augila and Temissa. 2. 
From Mourzouk to Bomou, 50 days' 
journey, by way of the deserts of. Bilma 
and Tibesti ; the market-places and en- 
campments are Temissa, Domboo and 
Kanem. 3. From Mourzouk to Cashna 
or Caseina, 60 days' journey, by way of 
Hiatts, Ganatt and Agadez. 4. From Fez 
to Timbuctoo, 54 days' ; but a halt of some 
time is made at the encampments ; e. g. 
at Akka or Tatta, the general rendezvous, 
at Tegaza and Aroan, 65 days ; so that 
tliis caravan is 119 days in reaching its 
place of destination. 5. Another route 
along the sea coast leads tliroughWadey, 
cape Bojador and Gualata. 6 and 7. The 
caravans from Sennaar and Darfur to 
Egypt do not travel regularly every year, 
but once every 2 or 3 years ; such a car- 
avan comprises from 500 to 2000 camels. 
It goes aoout three miles an hour, and 
rarely travels more tiien 7 or 8 hours a 
day. — ^The blacks stand on the verge of 
absolute barbarism, even where tiiey are 
united into states. Their wants are ex- 
ceedingly simple, and every article used 
by them is prepared by themselves ; the 
cloth which surrounds their loins, tlie hut 
which protects them from the weather, 
the bow and arrow necessary for the 
hunt and self-defence, as well as all their 
household furniture, are manufactured by 
themselves ; the gold, which they collect 
from the surface of the earth, is wrought 
by them into ornaments, and iron into 
arms. Commerce, however, with Euro- 
peans has taught them many wants, and 
mcreased their list of necessaries ; among 
which may now be reckoned fire-arms, 
powder, brandy, tobacco, different kinds 
of cloth, ghias beads, coral, &c ; for 
which they barter slaves, ivory, gold and 
gums, the staples of Africa. The slave 



trade is yet of such imfNortance, that, 
although most of the European aiid 
American nations have agreed to prohibit 
it, neariy 50,000 Negroes are yearly torn 
fit>mthe interior by the Mussulman, Portu- 
foeae, French, American, and even Brit- 
ish iealers. Fonneriy, 105)000 slaves 
were annually introduced into the West 
Indies, besides those who were transport- 
ed into Asia by the Kermanians, and by 
the North Americans into the southern 
states of the Union. The exports of ivo- 
ry, gold dust and gums are also impor- 
tant ; those of ostrich feathers, tiger skins, 
hides, and other natural productions, are 
of less consequence. Of all the states of 
Africa, Barbary alone uses coin ; in the 
rest, not frequented by Europeans, money 
rarely serves as the medium of exchange ; 
in some, on the western coast, cowries 
are made to answer the punposes of coin ; 
in others, pieces of salt — ^The tropic of 
Cancer and the equator divide Africa into 
three (Hrincipal parts : — 1, Northern Africa, 
comprising Egypt, the piratical states of 
Tripoti (includmg the coast of Barca), Tu- 
nis and Algiers, the empire of Morocco, 
Fezzan, and the northern part of Soodan or 
the Sahara, >vith the Azones, Canary and 
Made£ha islands. 2. Central Africa, com- 
prising, on the eastern coast. Nubia, Tigre, 
Amhara, Efat, Adel, Ajan, the southern 
part of Soodan, with Darfur and the 
countries of the Gallas ; and, on the west- 
em coasts, Benin, Owhere, Senegambia 
and Guinea, besides the cape Verd isl- 
ands, those near Guinea, the 16 Bissao 
islands, Socotora, &c 3. Southern Af- 
rica, with aH the south-east and south- 
western coasts and interior, the cape of 
Good Hope and the island of Maaagas- 
car, the Comoro islandb, with tliose of 
Mascarenhas, Amirante, Tristan d'Acuii- 
ha, St. Helena and Ascension. — ^In a his- 
torical view, also, Africa is deserving of 
the minutest investisation, as one of the 
richest archives of former times and the 
ancient world. It guards, couched in 
mysterious characters, innumerable an- 
nals of the history of man's progress from 
the earliest times down to die overthrow 
of the Roman empire in the East. In A. 
the enterprising European is discovering 
new sources of industry and commerce. 
Great Britain has already frourishing col- 
onies established on its coasts ; on which 
the Portuguese colonies, planted four cen- 
turies since, laid the foundation of tlie 
colonial system of Europe. It is with 
reason, therefore, that Africa has, in oar 
days, engaged the attention of geogra- 
phers, as in tlie period of Herodotus, and 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



AFRICA. 



^» 



400 jeuB flmce, in the time of Henry the 
Navigator. The French expedition to 
Egjrpt (q. ▼•) first opened this country to 
modem investigation, and roused even 
the Turks fi:om their sluggish apathy. 
British perseverance has created for the 
nations of the Cape new sources of pros- 
perity, and estabushed a colony there, to 
receive the superfluity of Bntish pop- 
uhktion; while the colony previously 
established (1798) at Siena Leone has 
been laboring, not without success, for 
the civilization of the Negroes. At the 
iame time, adventurous travellers, Brit^ 
iah, German, French, Italian and Ameri- 
can, have penetrated into A. firom all 
aides. But we must regard as erroneous 
the idea that the eastern coasts of A. 
were visited, in the remotest antiquity, by 
the Jewish and Tyrian merchants, who, 
aecording to Hebrew accounts, sailed to 
Tarshish and Ophir, said to be situated 
on those coasts, and carried thence great 
riches to kings David and Solomon. For 
a history of the voyages of discovery in 
Afirica, since the time when the Phoeni- 
cians, under Nechos, king of Elff^t, sail- 
ed from the Red sea, round Airica, and 
beck through the pillars of Hercules (600 
years before the Christian era), down to 
the enterprises of the latest times, we re- 
fer the reader to the comfjiete bistoiy of 
voyages and discoveries in Afiica, from 
the most distant times down to the pres- 
ent, by Dr. Leyden and Mr. Hugh Mur- 
ray, £dinbuigh, 1817 ; translated from the 
Englisii into French, with additions, 
P^ 1821, 4 vols. ; and the JV*. Geogr. 
EphnUjlSSiL Among the most important 
travels of our own time are the mission 
of Bowdich, an Englishman, to Ashan- 
tee, in 1818, which has made us acquaint- 
ed with a powerful and warlike nation 
near the western coast; and the jour- 
neys undertaken by Burckhardt to Nubia, 
which have made known to us the active 
commerce of the Nubian nations. It is 
principally by means of these, that the 
** African Association," incorporated in 
1787, in London, as well as the British 
consiilale (e. g. Salt, in Egypt), and the 
British Bible and Missionary societies, 
have been enabled to raise the veil which 
hung over this continent The bold 
Mungo Park, Homemann and R6ntgen, 
of Neuwied, had previously penetrated 
into the interior. The last was murdered 
on the load to llmbuctoo, not fiu- fit>m 
Mogadore. Besides those mentioned 
above, we ought to cite Leod's Voyage 
to Africa, London, 1821, because it gives 
a more minute description of the people 



of Dahomy (a. v.), who inhabit the most 
fertile part or Guinea, with which we 
were only superficially acquainted fixMU 
the accounts of Norris, and Capt Icon's 
Narrative of Travels, 1818—20, in North- 
em Afirica, London, 1821, who, starting 
fifom Tripoli, visited the caves of the 
tribes of mt Garean, and penetrated, by 
way of Mourzouk, to Tegerhy, (24*» 4^ N. 
lat), the most southern city of the king- 
dom of Fezzan, in company with hiii 
fiiend Ritchie, who died, however, in 
Mourzouk, Nov. 20, 1819. In September, 
1821, three Englishmen, doctor Oudney, 
major Denham and captain Clapperton, 
proceeded on a similar expedition to 
Tripoli,^ in order to travel to Bomou, 
by way of Mourzouk, and explore the 
course of the Niger. Oudney died at 
Murmur, Jan. 12, 1824, in consequence 
of catching a cold when the fiost was so 
violent on a plain, between hills of sand, 
that water froze in the leather bags. His 
fellow-traveller, Clapperton, pursued his 
journey to Cano, the present capital of 
Houssa, and reached Soccatoo, the resi- 
dence of the governor of Soodan. They 
discovered the firesh-water lake Tschad, 
into which two large rivers einpty, the 
Shary from the south, the Yaou m>m the 
west. (See Marathe of Travels and Dis- 
coveries in J^orOuam and Central Afrvm^ by 
McQ, Denham^ Cqpt. Clapperton and thi 
laU Dr. OudnM, «n Ute years 1821^23, 24, 
London, 1826.) In 1824, major Gordon 
Laing undertook to travel fit>m Tripoli to 
Timbuctoo. Clapperton cormnenced, in 
18S^, a new expeoition into the interior 
from Benin, by way of Soccatoo, to tiie 
Tschad, in oraer to penetrate into Abys- 
sinia through Timbuctoo, whence Laing 
was to start for Benin. He was accom- 
panied by doctor Dickson, the naturalist, 
capt. Robert Pearce and doctor Morrison. 
Clapperton died of a dysentery at Socca- 
too, April 13, 1827, fmd Laing is now 
known to have been kiUed near Timbuc- 
too m the latter part of the year 1826. C]ap- 
perton's journal of his second expedition 
has been published at London, 1829, to- 
gether with the journal of Richard Lan- 
der, from Cano to the sea-coast Among 
the German and French adventurers, who 
have explored the interior of Africa, start- 
ing from Egypt, are MinutolHq. v.), Cai!- 
laud, and, since the year 1822, Ed. Rup- 
peL Ruppel explored, in 1825, tb .* great 
Oasis in the west of Nubia, and the un- 
known country of Kordofim, and under- 
took, in 1826, a journey to the Red sea. 
He has imparted to tiie public much that 
is new re^>ecting Egypt and Ethiopia^ 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



AFRICA—AFRICAN COMPANY. 



and the antiquities of the East, in von 
Zach's CmreBp. Agtnn* The French 
Gasp. Mollien, who published a Voya^ 
dans PhUrieur de PMrieme aux Sources 
du Shiigal et dt la Gambia, Paris, 1820, 
2 vols., set out fix>m St. Louis, and reach- 
ed the sources of the Senegal, the Gam- 
bia and the Rio Grande, at no great dis- 
tance fix)m each other. Ion. 7° l^ W., 
and lat 1(P SCX N., in . the neighborhood 
of Teemboo. But he was unable to 
reach the sources of the Niger, and also 
wanted instruments to give accuracy to 
his observations. In the connexion of 
those two streams by the Nerico, he has 
shown the route on which the caravans 
from the kin^oms of Oubi and Foutadi- 
alion, in the mterior, might proceed along 
the Senegal to fort St. Dduis.* Much li^ht 
has been shed over the south of Afnca 
by Burchel, an Englishman, who travelled 
five years in the interior, setting out from 
the Cape. Before him, the Cape itself had 
been explored, by Barrow, in 1797, and 
by John Campbell, agent of the London 
Missionaiy Society, as 6r as Latakoo, a 
settlement of the Bushwana tribe, 900 
miles north of Cape Town. In 1818, 
Campbell undertook a second journey, in 
the same direction, arrived at Latakoo in 
1819, and reached, in April, 1820, Old La- 
takoo, containing 8000 inhabitants. He 
here ibund, in a northerly direction, sev- 
eral populous cities, situated in a fertile 
and cultivated country, where he discov- 
ered the tribe of the red Caffipes, and 
reached Kureechanee (almost 24° S. lat), 
a city of the Marootzees, near the eastern 
coast, said to contain 16,000 inhabitants. 
Auguste Caille, a French traveller, has at 
length reached Timbuctoo. (q. v.) He 
set out from Kakondy April 19, 1827, and 
arrived at Timbuctoo April 19, 1828. 
The committee of the geographi<^ soci- 
ety at Paris, appointed to examine him, 
report that his journey is connected, in a 
way very advantageous for science, with 
those of Paric, I^ng and others, who 
have explored A. (See CaUk.) Thus the 
courage of EuropeiBin discoverers has pen- 
etrated Africa from four sides, the Cape, 
Senegal, Tripoti and Egypt North Afri- 
ca has now been intersected and scientif- 
ically explored, by five or six important 
expeditions. But there are ^et wanting 
communication and connexion between 
the 20 or 25 principal Unes, which mark 
the routes of the discoverers. The space 
abeady explored by them in Afiica is 
estimated at 225,000 square miles. We 
have, therefore, accoimts more or less 
authentic respecting the 50th part of this 



vast ccmtinent (See JomanL, Ar U$ 
DecaaoerUs dans rhUritur dt Tjf^Hfse, 
Rn. Enc^ 1824, Dec) Ukert has com- 
piled the latest geography of the nortibem 
half of Afiica (Weimar, 1824, the 21st 
voL of the VcUst. Handb. d/or neuestm Erd- 
hes^retb.) A new and veiy ccMuplete 
lithograpnic map of Afiica was pub- 
lished in 1828, by Cotta. at Munich, con- 
tuning all the late additions to African 
geo^phy, price six guilders. For infor- 
mation respecting the American colony Li- 
beria, and the other important settlements 
on this continent, see the separate articles. 

African Associatiov ; a society of ^ 
members, who held their first meeting 
June 9, 1788, in London. Its object is to 
explore the interior ojf Afiica, to proniote 
the civilization of the blacks, and the 
commercial interests of Great Britain^ 
The soul of this association was tiie fii- 
mous shr Joseph Banks. (See Banks.) 
Ledyard, the American traveller, and Lu- 
cas, were the first persons sent out to ex- 
plore the interior of Afiica, at the expense 
of this association, which subeequentiv 
despatched, at difierent times and on dif- 
ferent routes, major Houghton, Mango 
Park, and two Germans, Homeniann and 
Burckhardt (q. v.) See the results of 
these ent^prises in the Proceedings of the 
Association fyrpromotmg the Discovery qf 
Afirica, 1790. The principal point setded 
was the eastern course of the Niger, 
agreeing with the account of Herodotus, 
and the country was explored as fkr as 
Darfiu*. (q. v.) 

African CoHPAinr ; a socie^ of mer- 
chants established by Charles 11, for the 
purpose of trading to Africa. Sunilar 
companies had been formed during the 
reigns of Elizabeth, of James I, and of 
Charies I, but did not continue long. 
Another was incorporated in 1662, with 
a charter fix>m Charles II, securing to 
the English a monopoly of all commerce 
from cape Blanco to the cape of Good 
Hope. The last incorporation of this 
kind was formed in 1672, and conducted 
for some time a flourishing trade. At the 
time of the English revolution, the trade 
to Afiica was £rown open. AH private 
traders, however, were obliged to pay 10 
per cent towards maintaining the forts 
and &ctories already erected* In 1750; 
the original company being conq^etely 
bankrupt, its foits and various establish- 
ments on the Afiican coast were vested, 
by 23 Geo. II, in the present company 
of merchants trading to Afiica. This 
company cannot trade as a corporate 
body, nor possess transferable stock. Its 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



AFRICAN COMPANY— AGAPE. 



93 



diitieBaie to maintain the forts and gairi- 
soDS in good order; end an^ Brhiah sub- 
ject may be admitted into it on the pay- 
ment of 40 shillings. 

ApaiCAif iHSTTTUTtoN ; a society in 
England, the first meeting of which was 
held ADiil 14^ 1807. Its principal object 
is the abolition of die slave trade, and the 
pr omotion of civilization among the Afii- 
can naticms. With this view, it labors to 
collect the most complete accounts of the 
agricultuial and commercial relations of 
the country, and of the physical, intel- 
lectual and political condition of its inhab- 
itants; to form connexions with them; 
to introduce valuable plants ; to found 
bcImm^ ; to make the natives acquainted 
with the useful arts of Europe, &c. The 
institntion is governed by a president, 
vice-president and 96 directors. • But its 
iiuids have not been sufficient to accom- 
iriisfa much. It has, hovrever, siqiported 
teachem in Siena Leone, and exerted it- 
self vrich zeal for the abolition of the 
slave trade, as may be seen firom its ex- 
cdlent aimaal reports. 

Apt; a sea tenn, signifying near the 
stem of the ship. 

AfiA ; among the Tuiks, the command- 
er of a body of inftntiy ; likewise a title 
of politeness. The A. of the janizaries, 
their commander-in-chief^ had nearly as 
much authority as the mnd vizier, and 
was the only person aflowed to appear 
before the grand seignior^ vrithout his 
amis crossed on his breast, in the attitude 
of a slave. The word o^ is often used, 
as a eompfimentaiy tide m Turkey, much 
in the same way as eopfom is in some 
parts of die United ^tee. The chief 
officers under the khan of Tartaiy are 
also called A, The A. of Algiers is the 
president of the divan, or senate. 

AoAnes (Audago$i of Ediissi); a 
flourishing town of Central Africa. It ap- 
peals to he the centre of the trade of the 
eastern part of the interior of Afinca. It 
is 47 days' joumev fiom Mourzouk, and 
many of the merchants hom that quarter 
Aop at A. to change their commodities 
for those of Soudan, and the countries to 
!he south of the Niger. Homemann re- 
ports it to be the ciqiital of an indepen- 
dem kingdom called wMfn. 

AoAJLH ATOLiTX ; a soft mineral sub- 
stance, capable of being cut with the 
knife, of a dull neenish, reddish or yel- 
lowish-white color, and connsting of 
ailex and alumine, with a little potash. 
It is chiefly found in China, where it is 
wrought into figures and various orna- 
ments. It has lately been recommended 



as a substitute for the brides made of 
Cornish porcelain clay, to measure high 
heats in the pyrometer of Wedgewood ; it 
being capable of standinj^ a great heat, 
and of contracting its dimensions very 
connderably and equably. 

AGAHXHifON ; king of Mycene and Ar- 
gos, son of Plisthenes, nephew of Atreus, 
and brother of Menelaus and Anaxibia. 
His mother is said by some to have been 
Eriphyle, by others, Aftrope. Common 
opinion, and the anthoiity of Homer, make 
him the son of Atreus. At least, the two 
brothers are denominated Strides fay Ho- 
mer. From Tantalus, the founder of the 
race, down to Agamemnon and his chil- 
dren, the members of this fiimilv of 
heroes were constant persecuted by 
&te. (See Tanialiu, Pdap9, Mreut and 
Thfesies.) The chiMren of A. and Cly- 
temneslra were Iphigenia, Electm, Chry- 
sothemis and Orestes. When the Tro- 
vrar broke <Nit, A. was appointed 
of the united aimy of Greeks, 
and manned alone 100 ships. The ar- 
my assembled in the bay of Aulis in 
Bmotia. Here they were long detained 
Ygy a calm, occasioned by the anger of 
IHana (see J^higema\ but finally arrived 
befi>re Troy. CSoing the protracted sieec 
of the city, A. appears superior to the 
odier chiefi in battle and in councils, 
and maintains, under all circumstances, 
the diffnitv of a commander. His quarrel 
vrith Achdles is described under JiekUUs. 
Returning home, after a 10 years' sie^ 
he was treacherouslv assassinated, ^gis- 
thus, whom, at his departure, be had par- 
doned fi>r the murder of Atreus, and in- 
trusted with the care of his wife and chil- 
dren, joined with Cljrtemnestra, and slew 
him at a banquet, tosether with Cassan- 
dra, the daughter of Priam (who had 
fallen to his mare in the division of the 
Cfl|itives), and their children. Thus says 
Homer; others say that Clytemnestra 
murdered him in the bcuh, having entan^ 
gled him in a tunic. The cause of his 
murder is alleged by some to have been 
her adulterous connexion with iEeisthus ; 
by others, her jealou^ of Cassandra. 

AoAfic Pi.AirT8. (See Crv^gamicJ) 

AoAHiFPE, likewise called luq^pocrene ; 
a fountain n^luch, according to the Gre- 
cian poets, sprung out of the summit of 
Helicon, the seat of the muses, when 
struck by the hoof of Pegasus. This 
fountain had the property of inspiring 
with poetic fire whoever drank of it. 
Sofinus distinguishes A. fix>m Hippocrene 
as a different fountain. 

Aqape, in ecclesiastical history (firom 



M 



AGAPE— AGATHO. 



oyoTTif, Or. love); the love-fesflt, or feast 
of charityt in use among the primitive 
Christians, ^en a liberal contribution 
was made by the rich to feed the poor. 
St Chiysoetom gives the following ac- 
count of this feast, which he derives from 
the apoatoMcal practice. He says, ^The 
first Christians had all things in common, 
as we read in the Acts of the Apostles ; but 
when diat equality of possession ceased, 
as it did even in the apostles' time, the 
agape or love-fbast was substituted in the 
room of it Upon certain days, afler par- 
taking of the Lord's supper, they met at 
a common feast, the rich bringing provis- 
ions, and the poor, who had nothinf^ being 
invited." These love-feasts, during the 
three first centuries, were held in the 
cborehes without scandal, but in after 
times the heathen began to tax them with 
impurity. This gave occasion to a ref« 
onnation. The loss of charity, with 
which the ceremony used to end, was no 
longer given between different s^ces, and 
it was expressly fi>rt>idden to have aqy 
beds or couches for the convenience of 
those who wished to eat at their ease. 
The abuses, however, became so noto- 
fiotts, that the holding of the A., in 
churches at least, vras solemnly condemn- 
ed at the council of Carthage, in the year 
397. Some modem sects, as the Wes- 
leyana, Sandemanians, Moravians, &o. 
have attempted to revive this feast 
Aga& ; Abraham's concubine. (See Hor 

AoAE, Jean Antoine Michel, count of 
Mosbourg, bom in the dqiartment du 
Lot, was an advocate and professor at Ca- 
hors. He accompanied Murat to Tusca- 
ny, which he oiganized befbre it was 
given in> to the king of Etruria, and was 
engaged in the proceedings of the con* 
n£a at Lyons and Milan. Murat made 
him his prime minister in the grand 
duchy of Berg, where he gained univer- 
sal respect On the occasion of his mar- 
riage with one of the nieces of Murat, he 
received from bun the county of Mos- 
bourg. The Prussian govemment at first 
sequestrated it, but restored it in 1816l 
I>unng Murat's government in Nwles, 
. he was his minister of finance, and orew 
up the constitution ratified by him, which 
was proclaimed the very day that Murat 
was forced to fly firom Naples. 

AoARic, AoARicDM, AoAJiicus ; the 
mushroom, a genus of the order offitneif 
belonging to the clasB of ermdogcanuXj 
LinniBus. The generic character is apiZetu, 
or cap, with gifis underneath, which differ 
in substance firom the rest of the plant, 



beinj; composed of two lamine ; the seeds 
are m the gills. — Some have enumerated 
no less than 634 species of this fungus, oth- 
ers 400. Of all these, only one species, A. 
eampesbiB^ common mushroom, or cham- 
pignon, has been selected for cultivation in 
jSngland. It is considered the most savoiy 
of 3ie genus, and is much in request for 
the tabfo. It is eaten firesh, either stewed 
or IxHled and preserved, either as a pickle 
or in powder ; and it fiimishes the sauce 
called hddaqf. The field plants are bet- 
ter fi>r eating, inasmuch as they are more 
tender than those raised on artificial 
beds. The vrild mushrooms are found in 
parks and pastures, where the turf has 
not been ploughed up fi)r many yean^ 
and the best time for gatheriuag them is 
August and September. 

Agate ; a fiMsil compounded of various 
substances, as chalcedpny, cornelian, jas- 
per, homstcme, quartz, &c. These diner- 
ent fossils do not all occur in eveiy A., 
commonly onW two or three of them. 
There are different kinds of A^ as the 
fortification, the landscape, the ribbon, 
the moss, the tube, the clouded, the zoned, 
the star, the fi-agment, the punctuated, 
the petn&ction, the coral and the jaq>er 
A. No country affords finer A., or in 
mater abundance, than Gennany* It is 
found in great quantities at Oberstein, in 
that countiy. It is also found in France, 
England, Scotland, Ireland, Sicily, Sibe- 
ria, and very beautiful in the East Indies, 
where, however, it is confounded with 
onyx. It is cut into vases, mortars, snuff- 
boxes, cups, rings, seals, handles for 
knives ana forks, hilts for swords, beads, 
smelling-boxes, &c. It was highly val- 
ued hy the ancients, who executed many 
fine works with it The collections of 
Brunswick and Dresden are remarkaUe 
for beautiful specimens of this kind. 
Great medicinal virtues were formeriy at- 
tributed to the agate, but it is now reject- 
ed fi»m medical practice. Agate some- 
times contains figures bearing a striking 
resemblance to some regularlv-shaped 
object, either natural or artificial, e. g. a 
man, a circle, an animal, &c. lliiB kind 
is the most prized. These figures may, 
however, be produced by artificially stain- 
ine the stone, so that stories- of wonder- 
ful figures found on agates are not to be 
implicitly believed. 

AaATBo; an Athenian, distinguished 
both as a tragic and a comic writer. We 
know only tiie names of some of his 
pieces. He is said to have been too par- 
tial to antithesis. As a tragic poet, he 
was once crowned at the Olympic games. 



AGATHO— AGE. 



95 



He WM a friend of Soemtee and Euhpi- 
dea» and was the fint who wrote on ficti- 
tioaaaubjects. He was distiiiguiahed aim 
for muflieal talent. 

AoATHOCiiSS waa one of the boldest 
adYeoturers of antiquity. His histoir is 
principally drawn from Diodonis Siciuus^ 
bodes 19 and 20, and fragments of book 
31, and from Justin, books 22 and 23L 
They derived their accounts from differ- 
ent sources, and difrer, therefore, especial- 
^ in the history of his youth. Agatho- 
eles was the son of Cardnus, who, having 
been expired from Rhegium, resided at 
niermae, in Sicily. On account of a 
mysterious oracle, he was exposed in his 
inttDcy, but was secretly brou^t up by 
his mother. At the aae of 7 years, the 
boy vnis again received by his jrepentant 
ftdier, and s^it to Syracuse to learn the 
trade of a potter, where he continued 
to reade, being admitted by Tunoleon 
into the number of the citizens. He was 
drawn fitmi obscurity 1^ Damas, a noble 
Syracusan, to whom his beauty recom- 
mended him, and was soon placed at the 
head of an aimy sent against Agrigentum. 
By a marriage with the widow of Damas, 
be became one of the most wealthy men 
of Syracuse. Under the dominion of So- 
gistratus, he was obliged to fly to Taren- 
tum, but returned after the death of the 
ioter, usurped the sovereignty, in which 
ne established himself by the murder of 
■ereral thousands of the principal inhab- 
itanta. and conquered the greater part of 
Sicily, 317 B. C. He maintained his 
lower 28 years, till 289 B. C. To 
mengthen his authority in his native 
country, and to give employment to the 
peoi^ he endeavored, like Dionysius, 
;o drive the Carthaginians from Sicily. 
Having bcMsn defeated by them, and be- 
sieged in Syracuse, he boldly resolved to 
peas over to Africa with a portion of his 
amiy. Here he fought for 4 years, till 
307, generally with success. Disturban- 
ees in Sicily compelled him to leave bis 
aimy twice, and, at his second return into 
Africa, he found it in rebellion against 
his SOD Aicbagathua He appeased the 
commotion by promising the troops the 
booty they should win; but, being de- 
feated, be did not hesitate to give up his 
own BOOB to the vengeance of the exaspe- 
med warriors, and expose these latter, 
without a leader, to the enemy. His sons 
were murdered ; the armv surrendered to 
the Carthaghiians. He himself restored 
quiet to Sicily, and concluded a peace, 
306 B. C, which secured to both parties 
ifa^ former poasesskms. He then enga- 



ged in several hostile expeditions to llaly, 
where he vanquished the Bruttii, and 
sacked Crotona. His latter days were 
nddened by domestic strife. His inten- 
tion was, that his youngest son, Agatho- 
cles, should inherit the tmrone. This stim- 
ulated his grandson, Archagathus, to re- 
bellion. He murdered the intended heir, 
and persuaded M»nou, a fovorite of the 
king, to poison liim. Tliis was done by 
means of^a feather, with which the king 
cleaned his teeth after a meal. His 
mouth, and soon his whole body, became 
a mass.of corruption. Before he was en- 
tirely dead, he was thrown upon a fhneral 
Sile. According to some authors, he 
ied at the age of 72 years ; according to 
others, at that of 95. Before his death, 
his wife, Texena, and 2 sons, were sent to 
Egypt. His son-in-law, Pyrzhus, king -of 
Epirus, inherited his influence in Sicily 
and southern Italv. Agathodes possess- 
ed the talents of'^a general and a sove- 
reign. He was proud of his ignoble de- 
scent His cruelty, luxury and insatiable 
ambition were the occasion of his ruin. 

AoATBODJEMON {OreekS'j a beneficent 
spirit, opposed to eacoiUBmanf an evil 
^irit. Ancient writera give this name to 
a kind of serpent reverid by the Egyp- 
tians. 
AoAVE.. (See w2Io«, wimericim.) 
AoE, in law ; the time when the law 
allows persons to do acts, which, for want 
of years, they were prohibited firom doing 
before. Some of the rules of the common 
law of England, in regard to ace, are as 
follows : 14 years in a man, and 12 iii a 
woman, is the age of discretion for con- 
senting to marriage. At 14, a minor may 
choose a guardian. Twenty-one years is 
the full age. A person imder the age of 
21 may make a purchase, but may disa- 
gree to it, if he chooses, on reaching lils 
full age. No one can be chosen a mem- 
ber of parliament under the a^ of 21 
years, nor ordained a priest until the age 
of 24 years, nor made a bishop before he 
is 30 years old. In marriages, when either 
of tlic parties is under 21 years, and is not 
a widower or widow, the consent of the 
parents or guardians of such minor is re- 
quired, if the marriage is in pursuance of 
a license ; or, if it be in pursuance of bans 
publicdied, the parent or yiaidian may, at 
the time of the publication of the bans, 
declare in church his dissent to such mar- 
riage, and prevent its taking effect. The 
age for serving in the milhia is fixun 16 
to 45 years. Cbfce'« 1 itsL 78.— The fol- 
lowing are some of the provirions of the 
Code J>r<qfoUim with regard to age : 40 



..gitized by Google 



AGE— AOEDA. 



inears are required ftnr a member of the 
legialatiire, 30 ibr a judge, juror or elector, 
and 22 to discharge any office in the 
courts. To contract maztiaffe, it requires 
that the man should he at least 18 years 
old, and the woman 15. But maniage is 
not valid without the consent of parents 
(or, in case of their death, of the otoer re- 
lations in the ascending line, who take 
their place), until the man is 25, and the 
woman 21 years old, and even then it is 
necessary to giire the parents or other 
relations notice. A person adopting must 
be as much as 50 years old* and at least 

15 years older than the person adopted, 
unless the kuner has saved the life of the 
ibrmer, in which case it is only neoessaiy 
that the person adopting should be of full 
age, and older than the person adopted. 
(See ^dfftkm.) FuU age is fixed at 21 
years for tx)th sexes. At 16 years, a minor 
can make a will.' Witnesses, in a strict 
sense, must be of full age. Under 15 years 
of age, a person can only affirm, without 
an oath. An innocent debtor of 70 years 
and upwards cannot be deprived of his 
personal liberty. If a criminal is under 

16 years, and the jury find that he has 
acted without a proper sense of his guilt, 
he is acquitted, except that he may be 
confined, for a limited time, in a house of 
correction. These are the provisions of 
the French code. — In the U. S. of Ameri- 
ca, the rules of the Engliali law respecting 
age have, in most cases, been adopted 
^ere applicabk. To be chosen presi- 
dent of the U. S., a man must be at least 
35 years old, a senator must be 30, and a 
representative 25 years old. Every fi^e 
white male citizen, of 18 years, is obliged 
to serve in the militia till he reaches the 
age of 45 years, unless exempted for some 
special reason. (See age in CWmtmiJ LawA 

A<FE. We find the ages of the world 
mentioned by the earliest of the Greek 
poets. They conipared the existence of 
mankind to the life of an individual^ and 
the earliest period of the workl to the 
tranquillity and happiness of youth. He- 
siod qpedu of five oistinct ages: 1. The 
golden or SahtmUm age, when Saturn ruled 
the earth. The peo^e were firee fit>m the 
restraint of laws ; they had neither ships 
nor weapons, wars nor soldiers ; the fertile 
fields n^ed no cultivation, andperpetual 
spring blessed the earth. 2. The sUver 
ag/i, which he describes as fioentious and 
wicked. 3. The kvsen ore ,- violent, sav- 
age and warlike. 4. The SeroMO^, which 
seemed an lupproximation to a better state 
of things. 5. The «tm agt, when justice 
and honor had lefi the earth. The poet 



supposed this to be the age in which he 
hunself lived. Ovid retted, in his Meta- 
morphoses, the division of Hesiod, with 
this difference — ^he omitted the heroic age, 
and phiced the finir ages before tlie fl<rad 
of Dieucalion. — ^This idea, first used as a 
poetical embellishment, was also intro- 
duced into philosophy. The ages were 
looked upon as a part of the grnit year of 
the worid, the revolution of which was to 
bring the heavenly bodies to their first po- 
sition* < Mythology was thus brought into 
the closest connexion with astronomy. 
The first, or golden ace, was under the 
dominion of Saturn ; the second, of Jupi- 
ter ; the third, of Neptune ; and tlie fouith, 
of Pluto, or, as some say, of Apollo. 
The time of the completion of the great 
year of the world, or of the heavens, was 
fixed by some at 3000 solar y ears; by 
others, hx the mysterious number 7777 so- 
lar years. Cicero estimated it at 12,954 ; 
Herachtus, at 18,000 ; and Orpheus, at 12 
months, consisting each of 100,000 years. 
The Sibylline books divided it into ten 
secular months, or the four seasons of the 
year. Spring was the goklen age ; Sum- 
mer, the silver; Autumn, the brazen^ 
which was interrupted by Deucalion's 
flood ; and Winter, the iron age ; and then . 
the cycle began with Spring again. — ^The 
idea of ages of the world is so deeply fixed 
in the nature of man, that it is interwoven 
with the religious sentiments of almost 
eveiy nation on the ^lobe. We find ex- 
amples of it in the miUennial reign of the 
Apocalypse, and in the Yugs of the East 
Indians. The idea of four ases of the 
world prevailed among the brahmins. 
The first, a kind of ^Iden age, lasted, ac- 
cording to their tradition, 1,728,000 years; 
the men of this period lived 400 years, 
and were all giants ; inthisperiod,thegod 
Brahma was bom. In the second penod, 
which lasted 1,296,000 years, theu: rajahs 
were bom ; men lived only 300 years, and 
vice began to creep into the world. Dur- 
ing the third age, which lasted 8,064,000 
years, men lived only 200 years, owing 
to tlie increase of vice. Of the last age, 
in which we now live, 4,027,213 years are 
already gone, and the life of man is sunk 
to one fourth of its original duration. 

Age. For the dififerent ages of life, see 
IJft ; see also LowevUy. 

AeEDA, synod of; an assembly of Jew- 
ish doctors, held A. D. 1650, so denomi- 
nated from a plain, on which they met, 
about thirty leagues distant fix>m Buda in 
Hungary. More thm 300 rahbies, and 
many other Jews, of difierent nations, at- 
tended. The obgect was, to debate the 



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AGEDA— AGINCOURT. 



9H 



question whether the Hesaah had ap- 
pealed. The negative of the queation 
was carried, and it was agreed that his 
eoming was delayed on account of their 
fins and impenitence. They were of 
opinion that he would be bom of a virgin, 
would come as a j^reat conqueror, would 
deliver the Jews mm eveiy foreign ^oke, 
and alter uothin j; in the Mosaic rehgion. 
Some ecclesiastics from Rome attended 
this meeting, but the multitude would not 
hear them. 

A6EMOGi«ANs, or AzAMOGLAifS, are 
children purchased from the Tartare, or 
raised every thmi year, by way of tribute, 
from the ChristianB tolerated in the Turk- 
ish eminre. They are circumcised and 
instructed in the religion of their masters, 
and in military exercises. From them 
the janizaries were recruited* (See /cuii- 

Agerda, amonff divines, sometimes 
ognifies things winch a man is bound to 
perform, in opposition to crtdenda^ which 
lie is bound to believe. It also denotes 
the service or offices of the church. A. is 
also used to signify church books com- 
piled by puUic authority, prescribing the 
order to be observed by the ministers and 
peOTle, in the ceremonies and devotions 
of toe church ; e. g. the ritual, liturgy, 
missal, &c In Prussia, the new A. (m 
the bst sense), arlHtrarily introduced by the 
king, but rejected by many clergymen 
and eongiegations, has occasioned some 
trouble or late years. Honors and promo- 
tions induced many of the clergy to adopt 
it, but others remained firm in their oppo- 
sition. The citjr of Berlin and the fiunous 
professor Schleiermacher were very con- 
spicuous in resisting it. In all the churches 
cK which the kmg was patron, it was bi- 
troduced. 

Amsiukus ; a king of Sparta, d90--306, 
Bw C. ; elevated to the throne aiier tlie death 
of his brother Aips, by Lysander, who af- 
terwards formed a conspiracy to depose 
him; but the plan was discovered and 
frustrated. CaUed by the lonians to their 
MRimance against Artaxerzes, he com- 
menced, after L3rsander's death, his glori- 
ous career ; defeated the Persians, but was 
compelled to stop in his victorious course, 
and turn his arms against Thebes, Cor- 
inth, &C., which had united against Spar- 
ta, aoAf m a subsequent war with Theoes, 
to contedd against Pelopidas and Epami- 
nondas, the greatest generals of those 
times. His prudence, however, saved the 
city, without the hazard of a battle. He 
deUvered it anew, at the a^ of eighty 
years, though it was actually in^ the hondiB 
toim 1. 9 



of Epaminondas. On his return firom 
his last campaign m Egypt, loaded with 
honors and presents, he was overtaken 
fay a storm on the coast of Libya, and 
peiiabed, being then in his 84th year. In 
neison, he was small and insignificant. 
He was, neverthelesB, a noble prmce, and 
almost adored by his soldiers, thou^ he 
sometimes violated the virtue of justice, 
in cases in which he could be useful to 
his country or friends. 

AeoRseATioN, in physics ; a species of 
union, whereby several things, which have 
no natural dependence or connexion with 
one another, are collected together, so as, 
in some sense, to constitute <me. Thus, a 
heap' of sand, or a mass of ruins, are bodies 
by aggregation. 

AeHRiiff, or AuenaiM ; a village in the 
county of Galway, in Ireland, memorable 
for a decisive battle fought in the neigh- 
borhood, July 12, 1691, between the forces 
of WilUam III, amountmg to 20,000 men, 
commanded by ceneral Ginckel, and 
those of James if, amounting to 28,000 
men, commanded by the French genera] 
St Ruth. The forces of William were 
victorious. 

AoiNCOURT, or Azincourt; a village in 
the district Saint-Pol, in the department 
Pas de Calais, ftmous for the battle of 
Oct 25, 1415, between the French and 
English. Henry V, king of England, 
eager to conquer Fiance, landed at Har- 
fleur, took the place by storm, and wished 
to march through Picardy to Calais, in 
order to fix his wmter-quarters in its neigh- 
borhood. With a powerful force, die dau- 
phin advanced against him. The numer- 
ical superiority of the French was great, 
and the confidence of the leader and 
the nobles such, that they refused the 
proffered aid of the duke of Burgundy 
and the city of Paria Henry V retreat- 
ed to the Somme. The French followed 
to harass his retreat, and to defend the 
passage firom Abbeville to St Quentin, 
which he* gained only through the inat- 
tention of the enemy. The iSi^lish, how- 
ever, being destitute of every thing, and re- 
duced bv sickness, Henry asked for peace 
on disadvantageous terms. The French 
refused his proposals, and succeeded in 
throwing themselves betwsoen Calais and ^ 
the English. These latter consisted of 
2000 men at arms .and 12,000 archers, 
and were ranged in order of battle be- 
tween two hills, with the archers on the , 
wings. Stakes, of which every man car- 
ried one, were fixed in fit>nt of them. 
The French, commanded by the consta- 
ble d'AIbiet, numbered 100,000 tnx^is, 



98 



AGINCOURT—AGITATORS. 



of whom 8000 were men at anna. Tfaey 
arranged theiaselvea in two diviaionfi,. 
with the men at anus, of whom 2000 
were mounted, m front The English first 
put themselves in motion. The French 
horse instantly hastened to meet them, 
but were received with such a shower of 
arrows by the archers, that they fell back 
on the first division, and threw it into eon- 
fiision. The lightrarmed arehers seized 
their clubs and battle-axes, and broke into 
the ranks of the knights on foot, who 
could not move on account of their heavy 
coats of mail, and the closeness of their 
anay. The English horse flew to assist 
the archers; the first French division re- 
treated ; the second could not sustain the 
chai^ of the victors; and the whole 
French army was soon entirely scattered. 
The victoiy was complete. Henry thought 
that Uie French would rally and renew 
the battle ; and, being alanned also by the 
report, diat a party of peasants, in aims, 
were plundering his baggage, he ordered 
all the prisoners to be massacred. The 
command was already executed, when he 
discovered the groundlessness of his fear. 
The vi<;torious army, however, in the pur- 
suit of the fly inff enemy, took 14,000 prison- 
ers more. 10,000 Frenchmen lay dead on 
the battle-field. Among them was the 
constable, with six dukes and princes. 
Five princes, among whom were the 
dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, were 
taken prisoners. The English lost 1600 
men killed; among them the duke of 
York, Henry's un^e, whom the duke 
d'Alen<^on slew at his side, while press- 
ing towards the kinff. He had already 
dashed the crown from Heniy's head, 
and lifted his hand for a more effectual 
blow, when the king's attendants sur- 
rounded him, and he feU covered with 
wounds. After the battle, the English 
ctmtinued their march to Calais, and 
thence sailed for England, to assemble an 
army for a new invasion. 
Agincourt. (See Seroux d',4gincourt,) 
Aeio is the diftereuce in value between 
bank money and coin or other currencv. 
The term is in most frequent use in Hoi- 
land and Venice. It is, however, used at 
Hamburg and other places in Germany. 
It is synonymous with premkun, when the 
bank money ia worth more than the same 
nominal amount of the current coin, and 
widi «£ucotm/, when its value is less. The 
agio at the bank of Amsterdam was firom 
t&ee to four per cent, before the French 
invasion of Holland in 1795 ; that of 
Venice was formally fixed at 20 per cent. ; 
the bank money of each of those places 



being so much more valuable than the 
current coin. This differeace in value 
arises oflen firom the circumstance, that 
the current coin is depreciated by wear- 
ing and clipping. The aaio of the bank- 
money of Haniburg was lormeriy 14 per 
cent on this account ^3^ is sometimes 
used to signihr the premium or discount 
on bills of exchange. 

Aei9 IV, king of Lacedcamon, and col- 
league of Leonidas in the covemment of 
Sparta, was the son of Eudamidss, and a 
lineal descendant of A^silaus. Histori- 
ans affirm that he w&s,m youth, of singu- 
lar promise, and that, in maturer age, he 
prepared, by the introduction of new laws, 
to correct the abuses which had crept 
into the Spartan government Tliis he 
found a measure of peculiar difficulty, but 
he was supported by his maternal uncle 
Agesilaus, though with a selfinh design, 
and likewise by many of the citizena 
They obtained a law for the equalization 
of property, and A. himself shand a valu- 
able estate with the community. In con- 
sequence of his exertions, Leonidas was 
deposed and banished* The people, how- 
ever, soon became dissatisfied with the 
projected reform, and while A. was iead- 
mg an army to aid the Achfeans, the in- 
discretion of his uncle Agesilaus, during 
his absence, occasioned a consmracy for 
the restoration of Lecmidas. llie con- 
spirators, having succeeded, forced A. to 
take refuge in a temple, which he never 
left but for the purpose of bathmg. On 
one of these occasions, he was surprised 
and dragged to prison. The ephon hav- 
ing there questioned him respecting his 
views in altering the laws, he answered 
that it was for Uie purpose of restoring 
those of Lycurgus. Sentence of death 
was passed upon lilra ;'but the ministers 
of the law, until forced by Democharett, 
refused to conduct him to a chamber re- 
served for the execution of criminals. He 
was there strangled, and he submitted to 
his sentence widi heroic firmness. The 
grandmother and mother of A. shared the 
same fate. 

Agitators, in Engliah history, were 
persons elected by the army, in 1647, to 
watch over its interests, and to control 
the parliament, at that time sitting at 
Westminster. Two private men, or mfe- 
rior officers, were {^pointed from each 
troop or company, and this body, when 
collected, was presmned to equal the 
house of commons ; while the peers were 
represented by a council of officers of 
rank. Cromwell at first made use of 
them, but afterwards issued orders for 



AQITATORS— AGNESI. 



nippresBing them. These associations, so 
dao^rous to the constitution, gave rise to 
the act which forbids any member to en- 
ter either house of parliament armed—- a 
regulatioa enforced with jealousy to this 
day. fiimeV IS^ chap. uz. 

AoLAi^; according to Hedod, one of 
die 3 graces, daughter of Jupiter and £u- 
lynome ; according to others, the mother 
of the graces, and wife of Vulcan. (See 
Graces^ 

Aglak. (See ^^vtZeia.) 

Aoif Airo ; a lake lying west of Naples* 
In its neighb^riiood are the famous grotto 
del Cane and the baths of St Januarius. 
Tlie former is noted for the suffocating 
vapors of carbonic add gas, which aacena 
fiom its bottook The badis are benefir 
dal in cases of gout, syphilis, &c. Their 
reputation has been mcreased, of late 
vears, by the way in which they have 
becm apphed by Mr. von Gimbemat to 
restoro tbe weakened electricity of the 
aidt 

AoHATSs (agnoH), in the civil law ; le- 
latioDS on the male side, in opposition to 
oo^gnolefj relations on the female side. ■ In 
the Scotch law, A. are understbod to be 
those persons nearest ralated by the fa- 
theiv though fomalea intervene. 

AjfiifKS, St ;. a saint who suffered mar- 
tvrdom at the time of the persecution of 
die Christians, in the rei^ of the empe- 
ror Diocletiait Her festival is oelebraled 
00 the 29th of January. Domenichino 
has painted her at the moment of her 
execution. Two churches of this saint, 
one in Rome, the other near the city, are 
lemaikabie buildings. In front of the lat- 
ter, the feast of me saint is celebrated 
with much observance. Many cattle, 
hones, &c. are brought there and blessed 
by the priest This ceremony is thought 
to protect them against sickness durmg 
the following year. 

Aeinss, St ; one of the Cassiterides, or 
SciDv islea (O^v.) This island is com- 
monly called Lighi'htmst idand, because 
it has a light-house. W. Ion. 6» 20"; N. 
lat49P5a^. 

AeiTKs SoREi^ the mistress of Charles 
VII, king of France, was bom 1409, of a 
noble &mily, and was one of the most 
beautiful and accomphshed women of her 
time. As kdy of honor to Isabella of 
Lorraine, duchess of Aniou, she accom- 
panied that princess, in 1431, to the French 
court Her beai^ attracted the fiivor of 
the young king,aiMl he appointed her one; 
of the q|tieen's ladies of^ honor. After 
some resistance, A. yielded to the passion 
of the monarch. The English then had 



poasesBion of half of France; and Charles 
Vll, though naturally bold, became de- 
pressed and inactive under the weight of 
his misfortunes. A. alone was f£le to 
rouse him fix>m his apathy, and make 
him foel what he owed to himself and his 
people. The eventual succeas of his arms 
mcreased his passion for his mistress, who 
did not, however, abuse her power over 
hint She retired, in. 1445^ to Loches, 
where Charles had buik her a castle. He 
afterwards cdnfened on her the county 
o£ Penthi^vPB, in Breta^e, the seigniories 
of Roche-Servi^re and Issoudun, in Bern, 
and the chlLteau de Beaut^, on the bank 
of the Mame ; whmoe ahe received the 
name of dame de beoM. She had lived 
here about 5 years, frequently visited by 
the king, when the oueen invited her 
again to court, in 1449. A. consented, 
and, to be neai«r the king, proceeded to 
the castle of Masnal-la-l^lle, where she 
died, in 1450, so suddenly as to afford 
ground for the susfncion of poison« She 
vras buried in the collegiate church of 
Loches, where her monument was to be 
seen in 179^ She left the king three 
daughters, who were acknowledged by 
him, and portioned at the expense of the 
crown. 

AoiNssi, Maria Gaetana, an ornament 
of her sex, was bom at Milan, in 1718. 
Her fiuher was don Pedro di A^esL 
In her 9th year, she m>ke Latin with 
correctness, and also delivered an oration 
in this limguage, in which ahe maintained 
that the study of the ancient languajfes 
was proper for iemales. Thi» oration 
was printed at Milan, in 1737. In her 
11th year, she is said to have spoken 
Greek as fluehtiv as her mother toncue. 
She now proceeded to perfect h^seff in 
the orientel lan^piagee, so that Ae was 
usually called a hoing oolyglot. She next 
studied geometry and speculative phi- 
k)80]4iy . Her &ther fostered her love of 
learning by assembling at his house, at 
certain times, learned societies, in wliich 
Maria proposed and defended philosophi- 
cal thesiee. The president de Broisses 
asserts, in his Lettem on Italy, that noth- 
ing can be imagined more deligfatfid than 
these conversations vrith one df the pret- 
tieet and most leanied females or the 
time. In lier 90di year, she appears to 
have become tved of tfaeae erudite dis- 
putations, the substance of which was 
afterwards published by her father. They 
fill a quarto vohmie. Mathematics now 
attracted her attenticm, and she compos- 
ed a treatise on conic sections ; besides 
which, in her 30th year, she published a 



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too 



A6NESI--AGRARIAN LAWS. 



treatise on the rudlmentB of annlysia, 
which has been considered as the oest 
introduction to Euler's works, and was 
translated into Engtish, in 1801, by the rev- 
erend John Colson, professor of mathe- 
matics at Cambridge. It gained her so 
much reputation, that she was appointed, 
in her ^Sd year, professor of mathemat- 
ics at the unirersity of Bologna. Her 
deep study of this science seems to have 
cast a gloom over her spirits. She se- 
cluded iierself altogether from society, 
retired to the strict order of blud nuns, 
and died in her 81st year, 1799. Her 
aster, Maria Theresa, set to music sey* 
eral cantatas, and the 3 operacL SojfhmUa' 
hoj Ciro in Armema, and Mtocri, with 
applause. 

AohOetje. (See Mimo^siUs.) 

AozroiikEN, in ancient Rome; a name 
or epithet given to a person by way of 
praise or dispraise, or from some remark- 
able event in liis history. Such names 
remained peculiar to the person, and not 
descendible to his issue. Thus one of the 
Scipios obtained the A. ofMicanuSf and 
the other o{ Anaticua^&om tneir achieve- 
ments in Asia and Africa. The Romans 
often had three names besides the A. ; the 
prcmomeny correq>onding to our Christian 
name, distinguishing the individual from 
others of the same mmily ; the second, or 
nomen, marked his clan; and the third, 
or cognomen^ expressed his femily; to 
these the A4 e. g. Mieus, CSmOatar^ Gtr- 
momeitf, &c. was added. 

Aomjs Dbi (Latm; the Lamb of God). 
1. A prayer of the Romish liturgy, begin- 
ning with the words Agna$ Dei^ generallv 
sung before the commimion, and, accorci- 
ing to the regulation of pope Sergius I, 
in 688, at the close of the mass. 2, A 
round piece of wax, on which is im- 
pressed the figure of the sacred Lamb, 
with the banner of the cross, or of St 
John, with the year and name of the 
pope. The pope consecrates and distrib- 
utes a great number of them. It was 
original^ customary, in the churches of 
Rome, to distribute the remains of the 
Paschal taper, consecrated on Easter eve, 
in small pieces, among the people, who 
burned them at hotne, as an antidote 
against all kinds of misfortune. But when 
the number of candidates became too 
large to be all satisfied, the above expe- 
dient was adopted. A. D. is also the 
name of that portion of the mass, which 
is introduced, m Roman Cadiolic church- 
es, at the distribution of the host 

AoowB, in geogpr.; the inhabitants of a 
province of Abyssinia^ They are, in their 



manners, ferocious, and in their religion, 
superstitious. They are heathens, and 
adore the spirit residing in the Nile. (See 
Musnnia.) Bruee^s 7\vv. voL i. 401. vol. 
iii.527. 

AoBLA ; a province of Hindostan Proper, 
situated between 25^ and 38^ N. lat ; the 
capital of which, of the same name, is in 
the possession of the British. Several 
rajahs, allies of the British, possess the 
western and north-western district TK^ 
part of the province south of the Chur . 
bul is under the dominion of the Mahrat* 
tas. No part of Hindostan afibrds a richer 
soil ; gram of all kinds, sucar, indigo and 
cotton are yielded with htue labor in all 
the British districts. Formeriv the prov- 
ince was also famous for its silks. It fur- 
nishes superior horses. It ccmtains 6 
miHions of inhabitants. A., the city, N. 
lat fXr Id', an4 E. Ion. 77° 56^, is con- 
nected with tm whole of the modem 
history of India. The Mahometans call 
it Mbarabad, It is ornamented^ with 
splendid edifices, of which the 2Vife JMo- 
Jud^ or Crown of Edifices, an unrivalled 
tomb to the memory of the empress of 
Shah Jehau, who died 1632, is me most 
famous. This is whoUy bulk of the finest 
white mari)le. General lord Lake took 
A. in 1803, from the Mainrattaa A. is ^ 
137 miles fiK>m Delhi, and 830 from Cal- 
cutta. 

AoRARiAii Laws ; laws enacted in an- 
cient Rome for the division of public 
lands. In the valuable work on Roman 
history by Mr. Niebuhr, it is satisfiictorily 
shown, that these laws, which have so 
long been considered in the light of un- 
just attacks on private property, had for 
their object only the disdibution of lands 
which were the property of the state, and 
that the troubles to which they gave rise 
were oceaaoned by the opposition of per- 
sons who had settled on these lands with- 
out having acquired any title to them. 
These laws of the Romans were so inti- 
mately coimected with their system of 
establishing colonies in the dififerent parts 
of their territories, that, to attain a proper 
understanding of them, k is necessary to 
bestow a moment's consideration on that 
system. — According to Dionysius of Hah- 
camassus, their plan of sending out colo- 
nists, or settlers, began as early as the 
time of Romulus^ -mio generally placed 
colonists firom the city of Rome on the 
lands taken in war. The same policy 
was pursued by the kings who succeeded 
him ; and, when the kings were expelled, 
it was adopted by the senate and the 
people, and then by the dictatoiB. Ther& 



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AGRARIAN LAWS. 



101 



were sevenl reasons induGmg the Roman 
gOTemment to pursue this policy, which 
was continued n>r a long period without 
any intennission ; first, to have a check 
upon the conquered people ; secondly, to 
have m protection aindnst the incursions 
of an enemy ; thinJDy, to augment their 
popolation ; fourthly, to flree the city of . 
Kome from an excess of inhabitants; 
fifthly, to quiet seditions; and, sixthly, 
to reward their veteran soldiers. These 
reasons abundantly appear in aU the best 
ancient authorities, in the later peri- 
ods of the republic, a principal motive 
ibr ealablishing colonies, was to have the 
means of disposinff of soldiers, and re- 
warding them with donations of lands ; 
and sudi colonies were, on this account, 
d«iominated mO^Jtary colonies. Now, for 
whichever of these causes a colony was 
to be established, it was necessary that 
some law respecting it shoald be passed, 
^tfeer by the soiate or people ; which 
law, in either case, was cialled Ux agrct- 
ru, an agrarian law, which will now be 
ezplaine£-^An agrarian law contained 
vaiious provisions j it described the- land' 
which vras to be divided, and the classes 
of people among whom, and their num- 
htn, and by whom, and in what manner, 
and by wbat boimds, the territory was to 
be parcelled out ' The mode of dividing 
the lands, as fiur as we now understand 
it, was twofold ; either a Roman popular 
tion was distributed over the particular 
territory, without any jformal erection of 
a colony, or general grants of lands were 
made to such dtizens as were willine to 
fbnn a colony there. The lands which 
were thus distributed were of different 
descriptions ; which we must keep in 
mind, in order to have a just conception 
of the operation of the agrarian laws. 
Ttiey were either lands tucen from an 
enemy, and not actually treated by the 
government as public property ; or lands 
which were regoxded and occupied by 
the Roman pe<^le as public property ; or 
public lands which had been artfhlly and 
clandestinely taken possession of by rich 
and poweriiil individuals ; or, lastly, lands 
which were bought with money from the 
publie treasury, m the purpose of being 
distiifafated. Now, all sudi agrarian laws 
as comprehended either lands of the en- 
emy^ or thoee which were treated and 
oceimied as public property, or those 
whien had h&en bought with the public 
moneys w^ne carried into effect without 
any puUic commotions ; but those which 
operated to disturb the opulent and pow- 
erfbl citizens in the possession of the 



T 



lands which they unjustly occupied, and 
to place colonists (or settlers) on them, 
were never promulgated without creat- 
' — jpeat disturbances. The &m law 
this kind was proposed by Spuriiis 
isius ; and the same measure was af- 
terwards attempted by the tribunes of the 
people ahnost every year, but was as cou- 
stantly defeated by various artifices of the 
nobles ; it was, however, at length passed. 
It impeais, both from Dionysius and Varro 
(de He RiuUea, lib. 1), that, at first, Romu- 
lus allotted twojugHu (about li acre) of 
the public lands to each man ; then Uu- 
ma divided the lands which Romuhis 
had taken in war, and also a portion of 
the other pubhc tends ; afterwards Tullus 
divided those lands which Romulus and 
Numa had iqipropriated to the private 
expenses of tlie regal establishment ; then 
Servius distributed among those wlu) had 
recently become citizens certain lands 
which bad been taken firom the Veientes, 
the Cffirites and Taitiuinii; and, upon 
the expulsion, of the kings, it appears that 
the lands of^ Tarquin the Proud, with the 
exception of the Campus Martius, were, 
by a decree of the senate, granted to the 
people. AHer this period, as the repub- 
lic, by means of its continual wars, re- 
ceived continual accessions of conquered 
lands, those lands were either occupied 
by colonists or remained public property, 
until the period when Spurius Cassias. 
twenty-four years after die expulsion of 
the kings, proposed a law (already men- 
tioned), by which one part of the land 
taken finom the Hemid was allotted to 
the Latins, and the other part to. the Ro- 
man people; but, as this law compre- 
hended certain lands which he accused 
private persons of having taken fipom the 
public, and as the senate also opposed 
him, he could not accomplish the pas- 
sage of it This, according to Livy, was 
the funst proposal of an agrarian law ; of 
which he aads, no one was ever proposed, 
down to the period of ius remembrance, 
without very great public commotions. 
Dionysius informs us,. further, that this 
pubtic land, by the negligeuce of the 
magistrates, had been suffered to fall into 
the possession of rich men ; but that, not- 
withstanding this, a divinon of the lands 
would have taken place under this law, 
if Cassius had not included among the 
receivers of the bounty the Latins and 
Hemici, whom he had but a little while 
before made citizens. Afler much de- 
bate in the senate upon this subject, u 
decree was passed to the following ef- 
fect: that commissioners, called decern- 



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AGRARIAN LAWa 



virs, appointed ftom among the pecsons 
of consular rank, should mark out, by 
boundaries, the public lands, and should 
designate how much should be let out, 
and how much should be distributed 
among the common people ; that, if any 
land had been acquired by joint services 
in war, it should be divided, according to 
ti-eat^', with those aUies who had teen 
admitted to citizenship ; and that the 
choice of the commissioners, the appor- 
tionment of the lands, and all other thmgs 
relating to this sulnect, should be com- 
mitted to the care of the succeeding con- 
mils. Seventeen years after this, there 
was a vehement contest about the divisk 
iou, which the tribunes proposed to make 
of lands then unjustly occupied bv the 
rich men ; and, three years after that, a 
similar attempt on the part of the trib- 
unes would, according to Livy, have pro- 
duced a ferocious controversy, had it not 
been for the address of Quintus Fabius. 
Some years after this, the tribunes pro- 
posed another law of the same kind, by 
which the estates of a great part of the 
nobles would have been seized to the 
public use; but it was stopped in its 
]>rogre8s. Appian says, that the nobles 
and rich men, partly by getting po^ession 
of the pubUc lands, partly by buying out 
the shares of indigent owners, had made 
thcitfielTes owners of all the lands in 
Italy, and had thus, by degrees, accom- 
])lij3hed the removal of the common peo- 
filc fipom tlieur possessions. This abuse 
stimulated Tiberius Gracchus to revive 
the Licinian law, which prohibited any 
individual from holding more than 500 
jugercE, or about 350 acres, of land ; and 
would, consequently, compel the owners 
to relinquish all the surplus to the use of 
the public ; but Gracchus proposed that 
the owners should be paid the value of 
the lands relinquished. The law, how- 
over, did not operate to any great extent, 
and, after having oost the Gracchi their 
lives, was by degrees rendered wholly 
inoperative. After this period, various 
other agrarian laws were attempted, and 
with various succm^ according to the 
nature of their provisions and the temper 
of the times in which they were proposed. 
One of the most remarkable was that of 
Rullus, whieb gave occasion to the cele* 
bmted oradon against him by Cicero, who 
prevailed upon the people to reject the 
Jaw.— Prom a careml consideration of 
these laws, and the others of the same 
ikind^n wliich we have not conmiented, 
it i^ apparent, that the whole object of 
be Rou|an agmrian laws was, the lands 



belonging to the State, the pHtile lands o< 
naticNMl domains, which, as already ob- 
served, were aoquired by conquest or 
treaty, and, we may add also, b^ confis* 
xsations or direct seizures of pnvate ea* 
tates by different &etio|is, either for law- 
ftll or unlawftil causes ; of the last of 
which we have a well-known example 
in the time of Sylla's proscriptions, llie 
lands thus claimed by the pubhc became 
naturally a subject of extensive specula- 
tion with the wealthy capitalists, both 
among the nobles and other classes In 
our own times, we have seen, daring the 
revolution in France, the confiscation of 
the lands belonging to the clergy, the no- ' 
bility and emigrants, lead to similar re- 
sults. The safes and purchases of hmds, 
by virtue of the agrarian laws of Rome, 
under the various com|^cated circum- 
stances wliich must ever exist in such 
cases, and the attempts by the govern- 
ment to resume or re-j;Tant snch aa had 
been sold, whether by right or by wrong, 
especially after a purchaser had been long 
in possession, under a title which he sup- 
posed the existing lawB gave him, natu- 
rally occasioned great heat and agitation ; 
the subject itself being intrinsically one 
of great difiiculty, even when the pas- 
sions and interests of the parties concern- 
ed would permit a calm and deliberate 
examination of their respective rights^ — 
From the commotions which usually at- 
tended the proposal of agrarian laws, and 
fit>m a want of exact attention to their 
true object, there has long been a general 
impresnou, among readers of the Roman 
history, that those laws were always a 
direct and violent inftingement of the 
rights of private propernr. Even such 
men, it has been observed, as Machiavel- 
li, Montesquieu and Adam Smith, have 
shared in this misconception of them. 
This erroneous opinion, however, has 
lately been exposed by the ^nius and 
learning of IViebuhr, in his Roman 
History above mentioned, a vvork which 
may be said to make an era in that de- 

Cnent of learning, and in which he 
cleariy shown, that the original and 
professed object of the agrarian laws was 
the distribution of the /mUtc knds only, 
and not those of private citizens. Of the 
Licinian law, enacted about 376 B. C, 
on which all subsequent agrarian laws 
were modelled, Niebuhr enumerates the 
following as among the chief provisions : 
]. The limits of the public land shall be 
accurately defined. Portions of it, wliich 
liave been encroached on by individuals, 
shall be restored to the state. 2. Every 

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AGRARIAN LAWS— AGRICULTURE. 



lOB 



Mtate in the public land^'not greater than 
this law allowsy which has not been ac- 
quired by ▼iolence or fraud, and which is 
not on lease, shall be good against any 
third person. 3. Every R<Muan citizen 
shall be competent to occupy a portion of 
newly acquned public tend, within the 
limits prescribed by this law, provided 
this land be not divided by law amone 
the citizens, nor granted to a colony. £ 
No one shall occupy of the public land 
more than ^ve hundred jugera^ nor pas- 
ture on the public commons more than a 
hundred head of laiige, nor more than 
five hundred head of small stock. 5. 
Those who occupy the pubhc iand shall 
pay to the state the tithe of the produce 
of the fieldy the fifth of the produce of 
the fiuit-tree and the vineyard, and for 
eveiT head of have stock, — and for eveiy 
head of small stock, — ^yearly. 6. The pub- 
lic lands shall be fiirmed by the censors to 
those willing to take them on these terms. 
The iunds- hence arising are to be ap- 
plied to pay the army. — ^The foregoing 
were the most important permanent pro- 
viaons of the Licinian law, and^ for its 
immediate eflfect, it provided that all the 

Sublic land occupied by individuals, over 
ve hundred /t^fero, should be divided by 
lot in portions of seven juftara to the ple- 
bcian8.-^But we must not nastily infer, as 
scMne readers of Niebubr's work have 
done, that these agrarian kiws did not in 
any manner violate private riglits. This 
would be quite as far from uie truth as 
the preyaUing opinion already mentioned, 
which is now exploded. Besides the ar- 
gument we might derive from the very 
nature of the case, we have the direct 
testimony of ancient writers to the injus- 
tice of such laws, and their violation of 
private ririits. It will suffice to refer to 
that of Cicero alone, who says, in his 
Offices (tib. 2, c 21)» <" Those men who 
wish to make themselves popular, and 
wfaoy for that purpose, either attempt agra- 
rian laws, in order to drive people from 
tbeur poeseasions^ or who maintain that 
cieditorB ought to forsive debtors what 
they owe, uiSiennine ue foundations of 
the state ; they destroy all concord, which 
cannot eaust when money id taken from 
one man to be given to another ; and they 
set aade jusdce, which is always viokited 
when every man is not suffered to re« 
tain what is his own" — which reflections 
would not have been called forth, unless 
the laws m Question had directly and 
plainly violatea private rights. The vari- 
ous modes in which those rights nugbt 
be violated would require a longer discus- 



sion, and one wbich would partake mon? 
of legal investigation, than might be ad- 
miesible in the present work. But as the 
republic of the U. States, like that of 
Rome, has also been much occupied in 
legislating upon the subject of its public 
lands, and as laws have been made, in 
some of the states, bearing a considerable 
resembhmce, in their operation, to the 
Roman agrarian laws, which will afford 
room for a useflii and intenesting com- 
parison between the laws of the two re- 
publics, we shall make some further re- 
marks upon this subject under the head 
of PxMie Lands, (See Landsj pMic,) 

AoRicoLA, Cneius Julius; a Roman 
consul under the emperor Vespasian, and 
governor in Britain, all of which he re- 
duced to the dominion of Rome, about . 
70 A. D. ; distinffuished as a statesman and 
genend. His life has been excellently 
written by his son-in-law, the famous 
Tacitus, who holds him up as an exam- 
ple of virtue. This life of^ A., in addition 
to its excellence as a i>iece of biography, 
contains information interesting to the 
English antiquarian. 

AoRicoLA, John, properly SchniUerj the 
son of a tailor at Eisleben, was bom in 
14^ and called, in his native city, mas- 
ter ofEidehen (fnagitUr hleb^), also John 
Emeberu He was one of the most active 
among the theologians who propagated 
^e doctrines of Luther. He studied at 
Wittemberg and Leipsic; was afterwards 
rector and preacher in his nadve city, 
and, in 1526, at the diet of Spire, chap- 
Iain of the elector John of Saxony. He 
subsequently became chaplain to count 
Albert, of Mansfeld, and took a part in 
the delivery of the confession of^Augs- 
bui^, and in the signing of the articles of 
Smalcald. When professor in Wittem- 
berg, whither he' went in 1537, he stirred 
up the Antinomian contiover^ with Lu- 
ther and Melancthon. (See Antmondan- 
itm.) He afterwards lived at Beriin, 
where he died in 1566, afler a hfe of con- 
troversv. Besides his theological works, 
he published a work explaining the com- 
mon Gennan proverbs. Its patriotic 
spnit, its strict morality and pithy style 
place it among the first Gennan prose 
compositions of the time, at the side of 
Luther's translation of the Bible. In con- 
junetion with Julius Pflug and Michael 
Heldingus, he composed the famous fn- 
ierun. 

Agricultural Chemistrt. (See Cktm- 

AoRicuLTURE is the art of cultivating 
die earth in such a manner as to cause it 



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AGRICULTURE. 



to produce, in the greatest plenty and per- 
fection, those veffetables which are lueilil 
to man, and to the animals which he has 
subjected to his dominion. This art is 
the basis of all other arts, and in all coun- 
tries coeval with the first dawn of civil- 
ization. Without agriculture, mankind 
would be savaces, thinly scattered through, 
interminable rorests, witli no other habi- 
tations than caverns, hollow trees or huts, 
mone nide and inconvenient than the 
most ordinary hovd or cattle-shed of the 
modem ctUtivator. It is Che most univer- 
sA as well as the most ancient of the arts, 
and requires the greatest number of oper- 
ators. It employs seven-eighths of the 
population of almost every civilized com- 
munity. — Agriculture is not only indis- 
|)enBable to national proqieritv, but is em- 
mently conducive to die wel&re of those 
w^o are engaged in iL It gives health to 
the body, enerey to the mind, is favorable 
to virtuous and temperate habits, and to 
knowledge and purity of moral character, 
which are the pillars of good government 
and the true support of natioml indepen- 
dence. — With regard to the history of 
a^culture, we must confine ourselves to 
sfight sketches. The first mention of ag- 
riculture isfi>und in the writings of Moses. 
From them we learn that Cain was a 
^ tiller of the eround," that Abel sacri- 
ficed the <*firsthng8 of his fiock,^ and that 
Noah ^bej^ to be a husbandman, and 
planted a vineyard.** The Chinese, Jap- 
anese, Chaldeans, Egyptians and PfaoBni- 
cians appear to have neld husbandry in 
high estimation. The Egyptians were so 
sensible of hs blessings, that they ascribed 
its invention to superhuman agency, and 
even carried their gratitude to such an 
absurd excess as to worship the ox, for 
his services as a laborer. The Carthagin- 
ians carried the art of agriculture to a 
hiffher degree than other naticMis, their 
contemporaries. Mago, one of their most 
fimious generals, wrote no less than 
twenty-eight books on anicultural topics, 
which, according to Columella, were 
translated into Latin by an express decree 
of the Ronfan senate^— Heeiod, a Gl-eek 
'^ter, supposed to be contemporary with 
Homer, wrote a poem on agriculture, en- 
titled fFeeks and DaWy which was so 
denominated because husbandry requires 
an exact observance of times and seasons. 
Other Greek writers wrote on rural econ- 
omy, and Xenophon among the number, 
but their works have been lost in the 
lapse of ages.— The implements of Gre- 
cian agriculture were very few and am- 
ple. Hesiod mentions a plough, consist- 



ing of three parts— the share-beam, the 
diaught-pole and the pk>ugh-tul; but an- 
tiquarians are not agreed as to its exact 
form ; also a cart with low wheels, and 
ten spans (seven feet six inches) in width ; 
likewise the rake, dckle and ox-goad ; but 
no description is given of the mode in 
which they were constructed. The oper- ■ 
ations of Grecian culture, according to 
Hesiod, were neither numerous nor com- 
plicated. The ground received three 
ploughings— K>ne in autumn, another in 
spring, Imd a third immediately before 
sowinff the seed. Manures were apjrfied, 
and Pnny ascribes their invention to tiie 
Grecian kinff Augeas. Tbeoi^rastus 
mentions six dififerent species of manures, 
and adds, that a mixture of soils produces 
the same effect as manursi. Clay, he 
observes, should be mixed with sand, and 
sand with clay. Seed was sown by hand, 
and covered with a rake. Grain was 
reaped vrith a sickle, bound in sheaves, 
threshed, then winnowed by wind, laid 
in chests, bins or granaries, and taken out 
as wanted by the famil}r, to be pounded 
in mortars or quern mills into meal. — ^The 
ancient Romans venerated the ploush, 
and, in the earliest and purest times of me 
republic, the greateat praise which could 
be given to an illustrious character was 
to say that he was an industrious and ju- 
dicious husbandman. M. Cato, the cen- 
sor, who was celebrated as a statesman, 
orator and general, having conquered na- 
tions and governed provinces, deiived his 
highest and most durable honois from 
having written a voluminous woric on 
agriculture. In the Georgics of VirgiL 
the majesty of verse and the hannony of 
numbers add dignitjr and grace to the 
most usefbl of all topics. The celebrated 
Columella flourishea in the reign of •the 
emperor Claudius, and wrote twelve 
books on husbandry, which constituted a 
complete treatise on rural affiiirs. Varro, 
Pliny and Palladius were likewise among 
the di^guished Romans who wrote ou 
agricultui^ subjects.— With regard to the 
Roman implements of agriculture, we 
learn that mey used a great many, but 
tiieir particular forms and uses are very 
impenectJy described. From what we 
can ascertain respeetine them, they ap- 
pear more worthy of the notice of tne 
curious antiquarian^ than of the practical 
cultivator. The plough is represented by 
Cato as of two kinds— one ftnr strong, the 
other for light soils. Varro mentions one 
with two mould-boards, with which, he 
says, ''when they plough, after sowing 
the seed, they are said to ridge." Phny 



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agriculture; 



105 



mentions a plough with one mould-board, 
and others with a coulter, of which he 
ays there were many kinds. — ^Fallowing 
was a practice rarely deviated from by 
the Romans. In most cases, a fallow and 
a yeai^ crop succeeded each other. Ma- 
nure was collected fiopm neariy or quite 
as many sources as have been resorted to 
by the modeni& Pigeons' dung was es- 
teemed of the greatest value, and, next to 
that, a mixture of night soil, scrapings of 
the streets and urine, which were applied 
to the roots of the vine and olive. — ^The 
Ramans did not bind their Qom into 
sheaves. When cut, it was sent directly 
to the area to be threshed, and was sepa- 
rtted from the chaff by throwing it mm 
one part of the floor to the other. Feed- 
ing down grain, when too luxuriant,, v^as 
practised. Vir|^ says, ** What commen- 
dation shaU I give to him, who, lest his 
com should lodge, pastures it, while 
yoon^ as soon as the blade equals the 
finrow!" (Geor., tib. i, 1. ill.) Watering 
on a large scale was applied both to arable 
and grass lands. Viml advises to ^bnng 
down the watere of a river upon .the 
sown com, and, when the field is parched 
and the plaDts drying, convey it from die 
farow of a hill in channels." ( ^eQ r., lib. i. 
I. 106l>— ne ftrm manojierai^&nfllp^ 
proved of' by the scielmio humHbien 
of Rome was, in ^neral, such as would 
meet the a^robation of modem cultiva- 
tore. The importance of thorough tillage 
is iBnstrated ny the following apologue : 
A vine-dresser had two daughters and a 
vineyard ; when his oldest daughter was 
marned, be gave her a third of his vine- 
vaxd for a portion, notwithstanding which 
he had the same quantity of fruit as for- 
merly. When his youngest daughter viras 
marned, he gave her hau of what remain- 
ed ; stfll the produce of his vineyard was 
nndiminishea. This resuh was the con- 
sequence of his bestovnng as much labor 
on the third part left after his daughters 
had received their portions, as he had 
been accustomed to give to the whole 
vineyard. — The Romans, unlike many 
cooqaerofs, instead of desolating, improv- 
ed me countries which they subdued. 
lliey seldom or never burned or laid waste 
conauered countries, but labored to ciiil- 
tze uie inhabitants, and introduce the arts 
ncccs e o ry ftrpromoting their comfort and 
happli2eS8. To ftcifitate communications 
from one district or town to another, seems 
to hare been a primsiy object with them, 
and tfaenr works of this kind are still dis* 
remible in numerous places. By em- 
ploying their troops in this way, when 



not engaged in active serviiDe, their com- 
manders seem to have had greatly the 
advantage over our modem gmerals. The 
Roman soldiero, instead of loitering in 
camps, or rioting in towns, enervating 
their strength, and cormpting their mor- 
als, were kept regularly at work, on ob- 
jects hiffhly beneficial to the interests of ' 
those whom they subjugated. — ^In the ages 
of anarchy and barbarism which succeed- 
ed the fiill of the Roman empue, agricul- 
ture was almost wholly abandoned. Pos- 
ttura^ was preferred to tillage, because of 
the nicility with which sheep, oxen, &c^ 
can be driven away or couched on tlie 
approach of an enemy ^ — ^The conquest 
of England fay the Normans c<Mktribiited 
to the improvement of agriculture in 
Great Britain. Owins to that event, many 
tiiousands of husbanmnen, fiom the fertile 
and well-cultivated plains of Flanders and 
Normandy, setded m Great Britain, ob* 
tained ftirms, and employed the same 
methods in cultivating them, which they 
had been accustomed to use in their na- 
tive countries^ Some of the Noiman bar- 
ons were great improvera of their lands, 
and were celebrated in history for their 
skill in agriculture. The Norman clsrgy^ 
an d espgc iattr^e monks, did still more 
in fMWiy mn the nobility. The monks 
.or<eVeiy monastery retained such of ttoih^^ 
lands as they could most convenient]/ 
take charge of^ and these they cultivated 
with great care under their own iniq>ec- 
tioB, and freouently with their own hands. 
The fiunous Thomas k Beoket, after he was 
archbishop of Cantertauiy, used to go out 
into the field with the monks of the mon- 
astery where he happened to reside, and 
join with them in reujSng their com and 
making their hay. The implements of 
agricuKure, at this period, were similar 
to those in most common use in modem 
times. The various operations of hus- 
bandry, such as manuring, pk>ughing, 
sowing, harrowing, reaping, threshing, 
winnowing, &c. are incidentally BMm- 
tioned by the writera of those daysp but it 
is iraposrible to collect fiK>m them a defi- 
nite account of the manner in which 
those operations were performed.— The 
first English treatise on husbandrv was 
published in the reijgn of Heniy VlII, by 
su- A. Fitzherfoert, judge of the common 
pleas. It is entitled the Book of Hua- 
oandry^ and c<Mitains directions for drain- 
ing, clearing and enclosing a farm, for en- 
riching the soil, and rendering it fit for 
tillage. Lime, mari and ^Hewing are 
strongly reconunended. ** The author of 
the Book of Hushandry,** says Mr. Lou- 

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AGRICULTUKE. 



don, ^writes from Lis own- experience of 
more than forty yean, and, it we except 
his biblical afluaiona, and some Teadges 
of the superatition.of the Roman writen 
about the influence of the moon, there is 
very little of hia work which should be 
onutted, and not a great deal that need 
be added, in so fiur as respects tlie culture 
of com, in a manual of husbandnr adapt- 
ed to the present time." — Agriculture at- 
tained some eminence during the reign 
of Elizabeth. The principal writers of 
that period were Tuaser, Googe and sir 
Hugh Piatt Tusser's Five Hundred 
Points of Husbandly was published in 
15^ and conveys much useful instruc- 
tion in metre. The treatise of Bamaby 
Googe, entided WhoUArti^f Hiuibandru^ 
was printed in 1558. Sir Hugh PlatTs 
woric was entitled Jtwd Houaea qf Art 
and MOmrtj and was printed in 1594. In 
die former woik, says Loudon, are many 
valuable hints on the progress of hus- 
bandly in the eariy part of the reigp of 
Elizabeth. Among other curious tmngs, 
he asserts that the fikianish or Merino 
sheep was originally derived from fr- 
iend. — Several writers on agriculture ap- 
peared in England during the common- 
wealth, whose names, and notices of their 
works, may be seen in Loudon's Ency- 
clopedia of Agricukure. From the resto- 
ration down to the middle of the eigh- 
teenth century, agriculture remained 
almost stationary. Cnmediately after that 
period, considerahle improvement in the 
process of culture vras introduced by Je- 
thro TuU, a i^ntieman of Bericshire, who 
began to drill wheat and other crops 
about the year 1701, end whose Horse- 
hoeing Husbandry was published in 1731. 
Though this wnter's theories 'vtrere in 
some respects erroneous, yet even bis er- 
rors were of service, by exciting inouiry, 
and calling the attention of husoanameu 
to important objects. His hostility to 
manures, and attempting, in all cases, to 
subscimte additional tilla^ in their place, 
were prominent defects m his system. — 
Aft^ the time of TuU's publication, no 
great alteratioii in British agriculture took 
place, till Robert BakeweU and others 
efibctied some important improvements in 
the breed (^cattle, sheep and swine. By 
skilfiil selection at first, and constant care 
afterwards to breed from the best animals, 
Bakewell at last obtained a varielr of 
sheep, which, for eariy maturity and the 
property of returning a great quantity of 
mutton ft>r the food wbdch they consume, 
as well as for the smaU proportion which 
the weight of the oftal bears to the four 



quartets, were without precedent. Cul- 
ley, Cline, lord Somerville, sir J. S. Se- 
bright, Darwin, Hunt, Hunter, Young, 
dec &C. have all contributed to the im- 
provement of domestic animals, and have 
left little to be demred in that branch of 
rural economy. — ^Amonf^ other works on 
agriculture, of distinguished merit, may 
be mentioned the Farmer's Letters, Tour 
in France, Annals of Agriculture, &c. &c. 
by the celebrated Arthur Young ; Mar- 
shall's numerous and excellent works, 
commencing with Minutes of Agriculture, 
puUished in 1787, and ending with his 
Review of the Agricultural Reports in 
1816; Practical Amculture, b^ Dr. R. 
W. Dickson, &c. £c The ynritin^ of 
Kaimes, Anderson and Sinclair exhibit a 
union of philosophical sagacity and patient 
experiment, which have produced results 
of great importance to the British nation 
and to the world. To these we shall 
only add the name of John Loudon, F. L. 
S. H. S., Mdiose elaborate Encyclopedia 
of Gardening and Encyclopeodia of Agri- 
culture have probably never been sur- 
passed by any similar works in any lan- 
guage. — ^The establishment of a national 
board of agriculture was of very great 
service to British husbandry. HartJib, a 
century before, and lord Kaimes, in his 
Gentleman Farmer, had {lointed out the 
utility of such an institution, but it was 
left to sir John Sinclair to carry their 
ideas into execution. To the indefotiga- 
ble exertions of that worthy and eminent 
man the British public are indebted for 
an institution, whose services cannot be 
too highly apmeciated. '^ It made formers, 
residing m dinerent parts of the kingdom, 
acquainted with one another, and caused 
a rapid dissemination of knowledge 
amon^ the whole profession. The art 
of agncukure was brought into foshion, 
old practices were amended, new ones 
intimluced^and a degree of exertion call- 
ed forth heretofore unexampled amons 
agriculturists in this island.!*— We shau 
now make a few remarks on the agricul- 
ture of different countries of Europe and 
of the U. States. 

IVenck c^pricuMurt began to flourish i 
early in the 17th century, under Hcs- i 
ry IV, and a work on that subject was | 
published by Olivier deSerres. In 1761, i 
there were 13 agricultural societies in j 
France, and 19 auxiliaiy societies. Those { 
of Paris, Amiens and Bourdeaux have | 
distinguished themselves by their me- \ 
moirs. Du Hamel and Buffon made the | 
study of rural economy fashionable, and ^ 
other writers contributed to the advance- | 



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ment of huBbandry; M. de Trudaine in- 
troduced the Merino breed of alieep in 
1776i» and count Lasteyrie has wntten 
a valuable wovk on rileep-biuibandiy. 
The celebrated Afthur Young made an 
anieultoial survey of France in 1787— 
86L Since that time, several French 
and Eaj^ish writers haye given the sta* 
osdcs of different districts, and the mode 
of cultivation there in use, and the abb^ 
Rosier and pfofesscM' Thouin have imb- 
fiflhed eeueral views of the whole king^ 
dom. Soonapaite established many new 
agricultural societies and proiessorBhipS) 
botanica] and economical gardens, fi>r toe 
exhibition of di^rent modes of culture, 
and the diaseniinaiion of plants. He also 
greatly enlai^^ and enriched that eicfeen* 
aire mstitution, the National Oahlen, 
whose professor of culture, the chevaher 
Thouin, is one of the most scientific a^- 
ricidtariBls in Europe. — ^The lands m 
Fiance are not genmlly enclosed and 
subdivided by hedges or other fences. 
Some fences occur near tovens, but, in 
ceneial, the whole counuy is open, the 
boondaries of estates bein^'maAed by 
aiiglit ditches or ridges, vnth occasional 
sionea or heaps of eimh, trees in rows or 
thinly scattered. Depredations fiiora pas- 
sengers on the hii^ways are prevented 
by gankt dumpitnsy which are estab- 
htbod tfarovKhout all France^— Since the 
time of Colbert, the French have paid 
attention to sheen, and there are consid* 
ciahle flocks of Merinos owned by indi- 
vidnab, besides the national flocks. That 
of KandKNiillet, established in 1786, is, or 
lately was, managed by M. Tessier, an 
cmineat writer on agriculture. Sheep 
are generally housed, or kept in folds and 
little yards or enclosures. Mr. Birkbeck 
considers the practice of housing or con- 
fining sheep as the cause of fo€rt-rot, a 
iBseaao Terr common among thepn in 
France. Where flocks remain out all 
nighty the shei^erd sleeps in a small 
thatched hut, or portable house, placed 
on wheels. He guides the flock by walk- 
ing before them, and his dog guards them 
fiwn wolves, which still abound in some 
parts of the country. In the south part 
of Fiance, the ass and the mule are of 
fieqpient use in husbandry. A royal stud 
of Arrfaan horses has been kept up at 
AnriUae, in Lamousm, for more than a 
cencnry, and another has been more re- 
cently estabUsfaed near Nismes. Poultry 
is an important ardde in French hua> 
bsnd^. Mr. Birkbeck thinks that the 
eonaumption of poultry in towns may be 
equal to that of mutton. The breed of 



swine 'w in general bad ; but fine hams are 
made in Bretagne fiom hogs reared on 
acorns, and fiitted with Indian com.— The 
French implements of agriculture are 
generally rude and unwieldy, and the 
operations of husbandry^* unslulfulhr per- 
formed^— The vine is cultivated in France 
in Adds and on terraced hills, in a way 
dififerent fiom that which prevails else- 
when. It is planted in bills, like Indian 
corn, kept low, and managed like a plan- 
tation of raspberries. The white mulberry 
tree is very eictensively cultivated for 
feeding the silk-worm. It is not placed 
in regular plantationa, but in comers, in 
rows h)^ the sides of roads, &c The trees 
are raised fit>m the seed in nurseries, 
and sold, generally, at five years' growth, 
when they have strong stems. They 
are planted, staked, and treated as pol- 
lards. The eggs of the silk-worm are 
hatched in rooms heated by means of 
stovestol8°ofR4aumur(7%Fah.) One 
ounce of eggs requires one hundred 
weight of leaves^ and will produce finom 7 
to 9 pounds of raw silk. The hatchine 
commences about the end of April,, ana, 
with the feeding, is over in about a month. 
Second broods are procured in some 
places. The silk is wound off the co- 
coons, in litde balls, by women and chil- 
dren. The olive, the fig, the almond and 
Tsrious other fiuits are also eztraisively 
cultivated in France. 

JlgricuUure in Germamf. The ear- 
liest German vrriter on husbandry was 
Conradus Heresbacbius, who fived and 
died in the 16th century. His work, De 
Re Ruttkoj was an avowed compilatipn 
fiom all the authors who had preceded 
him. No other books on agriculture, of 
any note, afipeared previous to the 17th 
century. With regard to the present 
state of agriculture in Germany, we would 
remark, that the country is very exten- 
sive, and presents a great variety of soils, 
surfece, cumate and culture. Its agricul- 
tural produce is, for the most part, con- 
sumed within its limits; but excellent 
wines are exported fit>m Hungary and 
the Rhine, together vrith flax, hams, geese, 
dlk,&c The culture oftbemidberry and 
the rearing of the silk-worm are carried 
on as fiir north as Berlin. The theoreti-^ 
cal agriculturists are well acquainted with 
all the improved implements of Great 
Britain, ana some of them have been in- 
troduced, especially in Holstein, Hanover 
and Westphalia; but; generally, (^leaking 
the ploughs, wagons, &c. are unwieldy 
and inefiicient Fish are carefiilly 
bred and fettened in some pkcee, espe- 



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AGRICULTURE. 



cially in .Prussia, and poultry is every 
where attended to, particularly in the 
neighborhood of Vienna. The cuknre 
of forests likewise receives particular 
attention in that country as well as in 
France. The conunon agriculture of 
Gennany is eveiy where improving. 
Government, as well as individuals, have 
formed institutions for the instruction of 
youtJi in its principles. The Imperial So* 
ciety of Vienna, the Geoigical Institution 
at Presburg, and that of professor Thaer, 
in Prussia, may be numbered among re- 
cent institutions of tliis description. 

Agricutture in UeHy, The climate, soil 
and sui&ce of Italy are so various as 
to have given rise to a grieater diversity 
of culture than is to be found in the whole 
of Europe besides. Com, grass, butch^- 
er's meat, cheese, butter, rice, silk, cdtton, 
wine, oil and fruits of all kinds are found 
in perfection in this fertile country. Lou- 
don asserts that only one-fifth of the sur- 
face of Itflily is considered sterile, while 
only a fifth of the surface of France is 
considered fertile. The population of 
Italy is greater, in proportion to its sur- 
face, than that of either France or Great 
Britain. Among the writers on the rural 
economy of Italy are, Arthur Young, in 
1788, Si8mon<fi, in 1801, and Chateau- 
vieux, in 1812.— In Lombardy, the lands 
are generally formed by mekofers {frofn 
meUiy half). The hmdlofd pays the taxes 
and repairs the buildings. The tenant 
provides cattle, unplements and seeds, 
and the nroduce is divided. The irri- 
gation or lands, in Lombardy, is a re- 
mariiable feature of Italian husbandry. 
All canals taken from rivers are the 
property of the state, and may be car- 
ried through any man's land, provided 
they do not pass through a garden, or 
within a certain distance of a mansion, 
on paying the value of the ground 
occupied. Water is not only employed 
for ffrasB-lands (which, when fully wa- 
tered, are mowed four and sometimes 
five times a year, and, in some cases, as 
early as Manm], but is conducted between 
the narrow riages of corn-lands, in the 
hollows between drilled crops, among 
vines, or to flood lands, to the depth of a 
foot or more, which are sown with rice. 
Water is ako used for depositing a sur- 
face of mud, in some places where it is 
charged with that material. The details 
of watering, for thoae and other puiposes, 
are given in various woriu, and collected 
in those of professor Re. In general, 
watered lands let at one thiid liigher price 
than those not irrigated^^The imple- 



ments and operationb of agriculture in 
Lombardy are both imperfect. The 

Slou^ is a rude contrivance, with a han- 
le 13 or 14 feet long. But tlie cattle are 
fed with extraordinary care. They are 
tied up in stalls, bled once or tvrice, clean - 
ed and rubbed with oil, afterwards comb- 
ed and brushed twice a day. Their food 
in summer is clover or other green herb- 
aee; in winter, a mixmre ofehn-leavcf*, 
cfover-hay, and pulverized walnut-cake, 
over which boiling vmter is 'poured, and 
bran and salt added. In a Short fime, the 
cattle cast their hair, grow smooth, round 
and fat, and so improved as to double 
thehr value to the butcher. — The tomato 
or love-apple {toltOwm lycopeni€um\ so 
extensively used in Itahan cookery, forms 
an article of field-cuhure near Pompeii, 
and especially in Sicily, fiiom whence it is 
sent to Naples, Rome and several towns 
on the Mediterranean sea. 

AgricuUvre ofiht U, SUdea of Amenea. 
The territoiy of the U. States is very- 
extensive, and presents almost every 
variety of soil and climate. The agf 
riculture of this wide-spread country 
embraces all the products of European 
cultivation, tb^ther ^th some (such as 
su^ and indigo) which are rarery made 
objects of tillage in any part of £uA>pe. 
A full description of the agriculture of 
these states would require a large vol- 
ume. We shall confine ourselves to such 
sketches as we may deem of most practi- 
cal importance to those who are or mtend 
to become cultivators of North American 
soil. — ^The ^xnxis of the Eastern, Northern 
and Middle States connst, generally, of 
firom 50 to 200 acres, seldom rismff to 
more than 900, and generally falling short 
of 300 acres. These fenns are enclosed, 
and divided either by stone walls, or 
rail fences made of timber, hedges not 
being common. The building fiist erect- 
ed on a "new lot,^ or on a tract of 
land not yet cleared firom its native 
growth of timber, is what is called a log- 
houK, This is a hut or cabin made of 
round, straight logs, about a foot in diam- 
eter, lying on each other, and notched 
in at the comers. The intervals between 
the logs are filled with slips of wood, and 
the crevices generally stopped vrith mor- 
tar made of clay. The fire-place com- 
monly consists of rough stones, so placed 
as to form a hearth, on vrfaidi wood may 
be burned. Sometimes these stones are 
made to assume the form of a chimney, 
and are carried up through the roof; and 
sometimes a hole in the roof is the only 
substitute for a chimney. The roof is 



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made of rafters, ibnnmg an aeute angle 
mt the summit of the erectk>D,«]xl is coy- 
ered with shingles, commonly split from 
pine-trees, or with baik, peeled from 
the hemlock {pimu canodeiuw).— When 
the occupant or ** first settler^ of this 
** new land" finds himself in **comfi)rtable 
drcumstances," he builds what is styled 
a ** frame house," composed of timber, 
held togeUier by tenons, mortises and 
nns, and boarded, shingled and clap- 
boaided on the outside, and often painted 
white» sometimes red. Houses of this 
kind generally contain a dininff-room and 
kitchen and three or four bed-rooms on 
the same floor. They axe rarely destitute 
of good ceUaxa, which the nature of the 
climate renders almost indispensable. 
The &rm-buildingB consist of a bam, pro- 
portioned to the size of the ftum, with 
sCaUs for horses and cows on each side, 
and a threshinc-floor in the middle ; and 
the more wealthy fiirmers add a cellar 
under the bam, a part of which receives 
the manure finom the stalls, and another 
part serves as a store-room for roots, &c. 
nr feeding stock. What is called a wm- 
ham is likewise very common, which is 
binh exclusively for storing the ears of 
In(Uan com. The sleepers of this build- 
ing are generally set up four or Aye feet 
fmn the ground, on smooth stone posts 
or pillan, which rats, mice or other ver- 
min cannot ascend. — ^With regard to the 
boBt manner of clearing forest-land from 
its natural growth of timber, the fi>l- 
lowing observations may be of use to a 
** first settler.^ In those parts of the coun- 
try where wood is of but little value, the 
trees are felled in one of the summer 
months, the earlier in the season the bet- 
ter, as tlie stumps will be less apt to 
sprout, and the trees will have a longer 
tuxae to dry. The trees lie till the follow- 
ing spring, when such limbs as are not 
▼eiy near the ground should be cut off, 
that they may bum the better. Fire must 
be put to them in the driest part of the 
month of May, or, if the whole of that 
month prove wet, it may be am>lied in 
the begmning of June. Only the bodies 
of the trees wiU remain after burning, 
and some of them will be burned into 
pieces. Those which require to be made 
shorter are cut in pieces neariy of a lencth, 
drawn together by oxen, piled in cloee 
hei^xs, and burned, such trees and lops 
being reserved as may be needed ror 
iencing the lot The heating of the soil 
00 destroys the green roots, and the ashes 
made by liie burning are so beneficial as 
manure to the land, that it will produce a 
VOL. I. 10 



good crop of wheat or Indian com widiout 
pkniffhing, hoeing or manuring.^If new 
land lie in such a ntuadon Uiat its natural 
growth may turn to better accoimt, wheth- 
er for tinner or fire-wood, it will be an 
unpardonable waste to bum the wood on 
thejpnound. But if the trees be taken o^ 
the umd must be ploughed after cleaiinff, 
or it will not praduoe a crop of any kii^. 
— ^The foUowmg remarks on this subject 
are extracted fivm some observations bv 
Samuel Preston, of Stockport, Pennsyl- 
vania, a very observing cultivator. They 
were first published in the New Elngland 
Farmer, mston, Massachusetts^ and may 
wove serviceable to settlers on uncleared 
lands. Previous to undertaking to clear 
land, Mr. Preston advises^—'' 1st. Take 
a yiew of all large trees, and see which 
way thev may be feUed for the great- 
est number of small trees to be felled 
along-nde (» on them. After felling the 
large trees, only lop down their limbs; 
but all such as are feDed near them 
should be cut in suitaUe lengths for two 
men to roll and pile about the large trees, 
by which means they may be nearly all 
burned up, without cutting into lensths, 
or the expense of a stronc team, to draw 
them together. 9d. Fell all the other 
trees parallel, and cut them into suitable 
lengths, that they may be readily rolled 
together without a team, nlways cutting 
the largest trees first, that the smallest 
may be loose on the top, to feed the fires, 
dd. On hill-sides, fell the timber in a level 
direction ; then the hm will roll toffether ; 
but if the trees are felled down bill, all 
the logs must be turned round before 
they can be rolled, and there will be 
stumps in the way. 4th. By followiug 
these dirediims, two men may readily 
heap and bum most of the timber, with- 
out requiring any team 4 and periuips the 
brands and Uie remains of the log^ieaps 
may all be wanted to bum up tne old, 
fallen trees. Afler proceeding as direct- 
ed, the ground will be clear for a team and 
sled to draw the remains of the heaps 
where they may be wanted round the old 
logs. Never attempt either to chop or 
dnw a large log, until the size and weight 
are reduced by fiire. The more fire-heaps 
there are made on the clearing, the better, 
particular^ about the old logs, wfaeie 
there is rotten wood. 'Die best time of 
the year to fell the timber hd a great meas- 
ure depends on the season's bein^ wet or 
dry. Meet people prefer having it felled 
in tlie month of June, when the leaves 
are of full siae. Then, by sprea^na the 
leavSiKand brash over the ground (fhr 

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AGRlCULTURf:. 



tliey should not be heaped), if there 
should be a very diy time the next Maj, 
fire may be turned through it, and will 
bum tlie leaves, limbs and top of the 
ground, so that a veiy good crop of In- 
dian com and pumpkms may be raised 
among the logs by hoeing. After these 
crops come on^ the land may be cleared 
and sowed late with lye and timothy 
grass, or with oats and timothy in the 
epnng. If what is called a good bum can- 
not be liad in May, keep the fire out until 
some very diy 4ime in July or August ; 
then clear off the land, and sow wheat or 
lye and timothy, lianH>wing several times, 
both before and after sowing; for, after 
the fire has been over the ground, the sod 
of timothy should be introduced as soon 
as the other crops will admit, to prevent 
briers, alders, nre-cherries, &c. finom 
springing up from such seeds as were not 
consumed by theirs. The timothy should 
stand four or five years, eit|ier for mow- 
ing or pastutfe, until the small roots of the 
forest-trees are rotten; then it may be 
ploughed; and the best mode which I 
have observed is, to plou|fh it very shallow 
in the autuom ; in the spnng, cross-plough 
it deeper, harrow it well, and it will pro- 
duce a first-rate crop of Indian oom and 
potatoes, and, the next season, the largest 
and best crop of flax that I have ever 
seen, and be in order to cultivate with 
any kinds of min, or to lay down again 
with grass. — ^These directions are to.be 
undenitood as applying to what are gen- 
erally called beech loMBj and the chop- 
ping may be done any time in the winter, 
when the snow is not too deep to cut low 
stumps, as the leaves are then on the 
ground. By leaving the brush spread 
abroad, I have known such winter chop- 
pings to bum as well in a dry time in 
August as that which had been cut the 
summer before.** — ^The agricultural im- 
plements and forming operations of the 
tl. States are, in most particulars, very 
similar to those of Great Britain. Cir- 
cumstances, however, require variations, 
which the sagacity of the American cul- 
tivator will lead him to adopt, often in 
contradiction to the opinions of diose who 
understand the science better than the 
practice of hudtandiy. In Europe, land 
IS dear and labor cheap; but in the U. 
States, the reverse is the case. The Eu- 
ropean cultivator is led, by aregard to his 
oWn interest, to endeavor to make the 
most of his land ; the American cultiva- 
tor has the same inducement to make the 
most o€ his labor. Perhaps, however, 
this principle, in America, is generally 



carried to an unprofitable extreme, and 
the formers would derive more benefit 
fix)m their land, if they were to limit 
their operations to such parts of their pos- 
sessions as they can amnd to till thor- 
oughly and to manure abundantly. A 
man may possess a large landed estate, 
vrithout bemg called on by good husband- 
ry to hack and scratch over the whole, 
as evidence of his titie. He may culti- 
vate well those parts which are naturally 
most fertile, and sufifer the rest to remain 
woodland, or, having cleared a part, lav 
it down to permanent pasture, which wifi 
yield him an annual profit, without re- 
quiring much labor. — ^The climate and 
soil of the U. States are adapted to the cul- 
tivation of Indian com, a veiy valuable 
vegetable, which, it has been supposed, 
could not be raised to advantage in Great 
Britain.* This entirely and Very advan- 
tageously supersedes the field culture of 
the horse-bean (vicia faba), one of the 
most common follow crops in that island. 
The root huBbandry^ of the raising of roots 
for the puipose of feediiig cattie, is like- 
wise of less importance in the U. States 
than in Great Britain. The winten are 
so severe in the northern section of the 
Union, that tumlps can rarely be fod on 
the ground, and all sorts of roots are vrith 
more difficulty preserved and dealt out to 
stock, in this country, than in those which 
possess a milder climate. Besides, hay 
IS more easily made fit>tn grass in the U. 
States than in Great Britain, owing to the 
season for hay-making being generally 
more dry, and the sun more powerfiil. 
There are many other circumstances 
which fovor the American fiumer, and 
render his situation more eligible than 
that of the European. He is generally 
the owner as well as the occupier of the 
soil which he cultivates ; is not burthen- 
ed with tithes; his taxes are light ; and 
the product of his labors will command 
more of the necessaries, comforts and in- 
nocent luxuries of life. — ^The American 
public seem, at present, ftilly aware of 
the importance of spirited and scientific 
agriculture. The state of Massachusetts 
has appropriated considerable sums to 
add to the fimds of the agricultural soci- 
eties in that commonwealth. Institutions 
for the promotion of husbandry, cattle- 
shows and exhibitions of manufoctures 
are common in every part of the Union. 

* Mr. Cobbett has lately attempted to rane hidiaA 
com in Euglaix). In a book which he publjdied in 
London, 19SB, (A Tnatiu on Cobbett's ComJ he 
professes to have met with much success in the cul- 
tnre of it. 



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AGRICULTURE— AGRIGENTUM. 



Ill 



A periodical puUkatioii, entitled the 
jSmerieali FhrmtTy is establiahed at Balti- 
more, and another, called the Nht Eng- 
lam/ Fanner, 18 pubhflhed in Boston. Men 
of talents, wealth and enterprise have dis- 
tinc:i]iriied themselves by their laborious 
and liberal efforts for the improvement of 
American husbandry. Merino sheep have 
been imported by general Humphreys, 
chancellor Livingston and. others, and are 
now common in the U. States. The 
most celebrated breeds of British cattle 
have been imported by colonel Powel of 
Powehon, near Philadelphia; and there 
prevails a general disposition, amon^ men 
of intelligence and high standing m th^ 
community, to promote the prosperity of 
American agriculture. — ^We shall con- 
chide with a few brief notices of some 
of the most prominent benefits and im- 
provements which modem science has 
contributed to the art of agriculture. The 
husbandmen of antiquity, as well as those 
of the middle BfeSy were destitute of many 
advantages enjoyed by the modem culti- 
vator. Neither the practical nor the theo- 
retical agriculturists of those periods 
had any correct knowledge of geology, 
mineralogy, chemistry, botany, vegetable 
pfayaiolo^ or natural philosophy; but 
theie sciences have given the modem 
huflbandman the command of important 
agents, elements and principles, of which 
the ancients had no idea. The precepts 
of their writers were confermable to their 
experience ; but tiie ratumak of the prac- 
tices they prescribed they could not, and 
rarely attempted to explain. Nature's 
most simple modes of operation were to 
them inexplicable, and their ignorance 
of causes often led to erroneous calcula- 
tions with regard to efiects. We are in- 
debted to m(^em science for the follow- 
ing among other improvements : viz. 1. 
A conect Knowledge of the nature and 
properties of manures, mineral, animal 
and vegetable ; the best modes of apply- 

Xth^, and the particular crops K>r 
;h particular sorts of manures are 
best suited. 2. The method of usin^ all 
manures of animal and- vegetable on^n 
while firesh, before the sun, air and ram, 
or odier moisture, has robbed them of 
their most valuable properties. It was 
fonnerly the practice to place bam-yard 
manure in layen or masses for the pur- 
pose of rotting, and turn it over frequent- 
ly with the plough or spade, till the whole 
had become a mere ccgffUt mortuum, desti- 
tute of almost all its orij^nal fertilizing 
substances, and deteriorated in quality 
almost as much as it was reduced in 



quantity. 3. The knowledge and means 
of chemically analyzing soils, by which we 
can ascertain their constituent parts, and 
thus learn what substances are wanted to 
increase their fertility. 4. The introduc- 
tion of the root husbandry, or the raising 
of potatoes, turnips, mangel-wurzel, &c. 
extensively, by field husbandry, for feed- 
ing cattle, by which a given quantity of 
land may be made to produce much more 
nutritive matter than if it were occupied 
by grain or grass crops, and the health 
as well as the thriving of tee ixjursis in 
the winter season greatly promoted. 5. 
Laying down lands to grass, either for pas- 
ture or mowing, with a ffreater variety of 
grasses, and with kinds adapted to a 
greater variety^ of soils ; such as orchard- 
ffrass [dachflu glomerata), for dry land, 
foul-meadow-grass (agrokia strida), for 
very wet land ; herds'-gxass or timothy 
{fhlewn praJtenseV for mS, clayey soils, 
&c &c. 6. The substitution of fellow 
crops (or such crops as require cultiva- 
tion and stirring of the cround while the 
plants are growing), in me place of naked 
mllows, in which the land is allowed to 
remain without yielding any profitable 
product, in order to renew its fertility. 
Fields may be so foul with weeds as to 
require a fallow, but not what is too of- 
ten understood by that term in this coun- 
try. " In - England, when a former is 
compelled to fellow a field, he lets the 
weeds grow into blossom, and then turns 
them down ; in America, a fellow means 
a field where the produce is a crop of 
weeds mnning to seed, instead of a crop 
of grain." 7. The art. of breeding the 
best animals and the best vegetables, by 
a judicious selection of individuals to 
propagate fit>m. — ^These improvements, 
with others too numerous to be here 
specified, have rendered the agriculture 
of the present period very different fix)m 
that of tiie middle ages when it had 
sunk fer below the degree of perfection 
which it had reached among the Romans. 
Agrigentum, in ancient geo^. ; now 
Oirgcnti or ^^ImgenH; a town m Sicily, 
in the valley of Mazara. about three miles 
fit)m the coast The modem town is 
near the ruins of the ancient one, is a 
bishop's see, and lies on the river St Blaise, 
47 mUes S. Palermo : long. 13^ SSf £. ; lat. 
37° 2Sy, N : pop. 11,876.— A. was much 
renowned among the ancienis. Dififerent 
stories are told of its foundation, among 
which is the fabulous tale, that Doedalus, 
who fied to Sicily finom the resentment of 
Minos, erected it Its altuation was pecu- 
liariy strong and imposing, standing as it 



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m 



AGRIGENTUM— ACSRIPPINA. 



did on a bare and rarecipitous rock, 1100 
feet above the level of the sea. To this 
mihtaiy advantage, the cipr added those 
of a commercial nature, being near to the 
sea, which afforded the means of an easy 
intercourse with the ports of Africa and 
the south of Europe. The soil of A. waa 
very fertile. Bv means of these advan- 
tages, the wealth of A became very great. 
It was therefore considered the second 
city in Sicily, and Polybius says (1. ix.) that 
it surpassed in grandeur of appearance, on 
account of its many temjples and splendid 
public buildings, most of its contempora- 
ries. Among the most magnificent of 
these buildings were the temples of Mi- 
nerva, of Jupiter Atabyris, of Hercules, 
and of Jupiter Olympius ; tlie latter, which 
vied in size and grandeur of design with 
the finest building of Greece, is said by 
Diodorus (Sic 1. xiii.) to have been 340 feet 
lon^, 60 broad, and 120 high, the foun- 
dation not being included, which was it- 
self remarkable for the immense arches 
upon which it stood. The temple was or- 
namented with admirable sculpture. But 
a war prevented the completion of it, when 
the roof only remained unfinished. Near 
the city was an artificial lake, cut out of 
the solid rock, about a mile in circuit, 
and thirty feet deep; firom which fish 
were obtained in abundance for the pub- 
lic feasts. Swans and other water-fowl 
fi^uented it. Afterwards, the mud hav- 
ing been sufiered to accumulate in this 
basin, it was turned into a renuirkably 
fruitful vineyard. Both the temple of Ju- 
piter Olympius and the lake were die 
work of a number of Carthaginian cap- 
tives. The people of Agri^entum were 
noted for their luxurious and extravagant 
habits. Their horses were also fiunous. 
( Vii^, Mn, 1. iii. v. 705.) After the ex- 
pulsion of the Carthaginians firom Sicily, 
it fell, with tittle resistance, under the 
power of the Romans. Diodorus states 
the population, in its best days, to have 
been not less than 120,000 persons. Many 
of the modem writers describe minutely 
this interesting spot. Christian churches 
have there, as in many other places, been 
erected out of the remains of temples. 

AoRioiriA ; a Grecian festival, solem- 
nized at night in honor of Bacchus. He 
was suppcsed to have fied, and the fe- 
males assembled to seek him. At length, 
tired of their vain search, they exclaimed, 
that he had taken refuge with the Mu- 
ses, and concealed himself among them. 
These mysteries have been thought to 
signify that learning and the muses should 
accompany good cheer. This solemnity 



was fbUowed bjf a bai»|iiet^ at the oloss 
of which it was customaiy lo propose to 
eaejti other riddles, whence A. isused to 
denote a coQectioii of riddlea, charades, &c. 

AaaippA, Henry Cornelius, bom in 
1486^ at Coloign^, wa9 a man of tatonts, 
learning and eccentricity. In his youths 
he was secretary to the emperor Maxi- 
milian, subsequently served 7 years in 
Italy, and was knighted. He says that he 
was acquainted with 8 lan^a^pes. On 
quitting the army, he devoted lumself to 
science, and made pretensions to an ac- 
quaintance with magic. In certain lec- 
tures, he advanced opinions which in- 
volved him in cc^tests with the monks 
for the remainder of his tife. In 1530, he 
wrote a treatise " On the Vanity of the Sci- 
ences," which was a caustic satire upon 
the inefficiency of the common modes of 
instmction, and upon the monks, theolo- 
gians and members of the univer8ide& At 
a subsequent period, he produced another 
treatise at Antwerp, ^On the Occult Philos- 
opher.'' This was asketch of mistical the- 
ok>gy , explaining, on the principles of ^e 
emanative system, the hann<my of the el- 
ementary, celestial and intellectual worids. 
His pretenmons to skill in occult science, 
particularly alchymy, led to his receiving 
numerous in\itadons fit>m royal persona- 
ges and others of high rank, and his ina- 
bility to answer their absurd expectations 
produced their suh0ei|uent neglect of him. 
After an active,^ varied and eventful life, 
he died at Grenoble, in 1539. 

Ag&ippa, Marcus Vipsanius; aRoman, 
the son-in-law of Augustus, with whom 
he was twice consul. Although not of 
high birUi, his talents soon raised him to 
hmor. He distinguished himself as a 
general, and commanded the fleet of Au- 
gustus in the battle at Actium. As the 
minister and fnend of the emperor, he 
rendered many services to him and the 
Roman state. He was impartial and up- 
right, and a fnend of the aits. To him 
Rome is indebted for 3 of her principal 
aqueducts, and several other works, of 
public use and omament (See .^t^^- 
tus.) 

AoRiPFiNA. 1. The wife of the emperor 
Tiberius, who veiy reluctantly divorced 
h^, when obliged to many Julia, the 
daughter of Augustus, after the death of 
her first husband, Agrip{)a. A. was sub- 
sequently married to Asmius GaUus^ whom 
Tiberius, still retaining his love for hia 
former wife, condemn^ to perpetual im- 
prisonment, in the spirit of a jealous rival. 
— ^ The daughter of Marcus Vipsanius 
Agrippa, by Julia, daughter of Augustus ; 



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A6IlIPPINA~.AOUESSEAU. 



113 



iviie of C. Germanictifi ; a heroic woman, 
adorned with mat Tiitues. She accom- 
pwued her hamnd in all bis campaigns, 
and accused llberius, before the senate, 
of compassing his death. The tyrant, 
wlio hated her for her yirtues and jm^u- 
laiity, banished her to the island of Pan- 
datnia, where she starved herself to death. 
The cabinet of antiquities at Dresden jpos- 
seases 4 fimoous busts of this A^^ A 
daughter of the last mentioned A. and 
sister of Cahgula, bora at Colore, which 
she enlarged, and called CoUjma ^ffigrippi* 
nm. She bad the misfortune to Income 
the modier of Nero, by Domitius Aheno- 
baihus. Her third husband was the em- 
peror Claudius, brother of her father, who 
named her after he had divorced Mes- 
salma. She was distinguished for ability 
and political experience, but her ambition 
was boundless, joid her disposition cun- 
ning and dissolute. She was murdered 
by Nero, her son, to whom she was 
troublesome after he had become empe- 
ror. It is said, that she begged the assas- 
nns to stab her first in the womb, that had 
brou^t forth such a mcmster. 

AeuEj in medicine ; a disorder belonff- 
ing to the class of intermittent fevers {Je- 
hm tntermUtentes,) It may be followed 
by serious consequences, but, generally, it 
is more troublesome than dangerous, and 
is sometimes even considered salutary. 
According to the length of ihe apynxtOj 
or intermission between one ftbrile parox- 
ysm and another, agues are denominated 
qiuHdiana^ tertians^ or quartans; which 
tttter are much the most obstinate, being 
generally attended with a greater degree 
of visceral obstruction than those the at- 
tacks of which return at shorter intervals. 
The quartan ague is apt to terminate in 
dropsy. An ague paroxysm has been di- 
vided into the cold, the hot and the sweat- 
ing stases. The feeling of extreme cold, 
in the first stage, cannot be prevented by 
fin or the heat of summer. Generally, 
afier the sweatin^^ staj^, in which there is 
a profuse exhalation m>mthe pores of the 
sInn, vrith a flow of urine, depositing a co- 
pious sediment, of a lateritious or brick- 
dust appearance, the patient falls into a 
reii^e^ng sleep, from which he awakes 
without any remains of indisposition, ex- 
cept a slight degree of languor and debility. 
Agues occur chiefly in situations where 
there are shallow, stagnant waters. Hence 
their frequency in Holland, in the East 
and West Indies, m the flat, marshv parts 
of England, and the thinly setded puts 
of the U. States, where they diminish 
with the clearing of the woods and the 
10* 



draming of the lands. The neiriiborhood 
of riveis or marshes, therefore, is carefully 
to be avoided by persons afflicted with 
affues. They are cured by medicines, 
which, at the same time that they exert a 
tonic influence, produce and keep up an 
impression upon the system greater than 
that commumcated by the causes of the 
disease ; such as Peruvian bark, various 
bitter and astringent drugs, certain metal- 
lic salts, &c. 

AouE-cAKE ; a name sometimes riven 
to a hard tumor on the left side of the 
beUy, lower than the false ribs, said to be 
the eflbct of intermittent fever. 

Aguesseau, Henry Francis d', a man 
distinguished in the annals of French elo- 

2uence and jurisprudence, was bom at 
imoges in 1d68, and eariy evinced dis- 
tinguished talents. His &ther, intendant 
of Languedoc, was his first instructer. 
The interoourse of d'A. with Racine and 
Boileau formed his taste for poetry. He 
was, in 1691, avocat giniral at Pari& and 
at the age of 33 years, proevreur gerUral 
of the parliament In this office, he ef- 
fected many improvements in the laws 
and the administration of justice, and took 
particular care of the government of hos- 
pitals. During a famine in the winter of 
1709, he employed all his power to re- 
lieve the su^ring. As a steady defender 
of the privileges of the nation and the 
Galilean chur^,he procured the rejection 
of the decrees of Louis XrV,and the chan- 
cellor Voisin, in favor of the papal bull 
Unigenitus. Under the government of 
the duke of Orieans, he was made chan- 
cellor in 1717, but fell, in 1718, mto dis- 
ffrace, on account of his opposition to 
Law's destructive system of finance, and 
retired to his country seat at Fresnes. 
He there passed, according to his own 
words, the happiest days of his life, em- 
ployed in reading the Bible, projecting a 
code, and instructing his children. Math- 
ematics, agriculture and the arts and sci- 
ences occupied his leisure hours. In 
1720, loud clamors against Law were 
raised throughout France, and it was 
thought that a man like d'A., who pos- 
sessed the love of the nation, vras neces- 
sary to allay the general discontent He 
was, therefore, replaced in his former dig- 
nity. This period of his life did not add 
to his renown ; for he accepted his oflicc 
firom Law, and fove his consent to cer- 
tain weak and injurious plans, which the 
parliament rejected ; he finally suffered 
the same pariiament to be exiled to Pon- 
toise. In 1723, he was banished a second 
time, ft)r o[^K)sing the cardinal Dubois, 



114 



AGUESSEAU— AIONAN. 



but was recalled in 1727 by the cavdmal 
Fleury, and in 1737 restored to his (bnner 
office. He fiwmed the design of intro- 
ducing uniformity into the executi(»L.<^the 
ancient lawa, and of adding ^at wa3 
wanting. But tine work surpassed the 
ability of a single man. He died in 1751, 
after resigning, in 1750, the office of chan- 
cellor. His works, which have passed 
through several editions, are said, by Bou- 
terwek, to be models of tlieir kind ; iiill 
of spirit, judicious, elegant, ^et powerful, 
and rich m valuable instruction for states- 
men and lawyers. His discourses, with 
which he opened the sittings of the par- 
liament, are excellrait — ^His nephew, the 
marc|uis d'Aguesseau (Heiury Cardin Jean 
Baptisie V peer of France^ and member of 
the academy of sciences, died at Paris, 
Januaiy 23, 1826b He was a lawver, 
member of the first national assembly, 
and senator imder Napoleon ; afterwards, 
a fidthtul adherent of the king. 

AouiRRA, Joseph Saenz de,a Benedic- 
tine, and learned man, was bom in 1690. 
He was censor and seoretaiy of the su- 
preme council of the inquisition in Spain, 
and professor in the univeruty of Sala- 
manca. He published commentaries on 
Aristotle's Etnics. He died at Rome, in 



Agustini, in mineralogy-, a term by 
which professor Tromsdorff has desig- 
nated a 8UM«ieed new earth, discovers 
bv him in UDB. It bears a great resem- 
blance to alumma. — Jtmaks dt CkimUy 
xxxiv, p. 133. 

AouTi, the catia aguti of Linnseus ; an 
American animal, much resembling the 
Guinea pig. There are three varieties, all 
indigenous to South America and the 
West' Indies. They hve on vegetables, 
inhabit hollow trees, and burrow in the 
sround. They eat like the squirrels, grow 
ut, and are used as food in South Ajneri- 
ca. They propagate very &8t. 

AoTiriAiTi, or AoTififsifSEs. (See Sha- 
ken,) 

Ahakta; a kingdomon the Gold Coast 
of Africa, extending from the Ancobra to 
the Chamah ; bounded on the west by 
Apollonia, axid on the east by the Fantee 
territories. It is the richest, and in eveiy 
respect the most improved district upon 
this coast. The principal towns are Ax- 
im, Dixcove and Succondee. 

Ah A8UERC8, in Scripture history ; a king 
of Persia, the husband of Esther, to 
whom the Scriptures ascribe a singular 
deliverance of the Jews from extirpation, 
which they conunemorate to this day, by 
an annual feast, that of Purim, preceded 



by what is called the/osi^ JMIber. Dif 
ferent (^liuious have been entertained bv 
Sealiger, Prideaux and others as to whiek 
ef the. kings of Persia mentioned in other 
historical books may be the A. of the Bi- 
ble. — MMnun»$ is also a Scripture name 
for Caml^yses, the sob of Cvtus, Eaara iv. 6L 
and Sot AjBtyages, king of the Modes, i>imt. 
ix. 1. 

Ahitophsl; one of king David's ooun- 
s^Uors, and highly esteemed lor his po- 
litical sagacity. He was certainly one of 
the first men of his age, both for wisdom 
and wickedness. His advioe to Absalom, 
who followed the wicked part of it, but 
left the wise part unaecompliriied^ to- 
other with tlie tra^^cal end of the poli- 
tician, the first suicide recorded in histo- 
ry, are well known. 

A-HULL ; the situation of a ship when 
all her sails are furied on account of the 
violence of a storm, when, having lashed 
her lielm on the lee-side, she lies nearly 
with her side to the wind and sea, her 
head being somewhat inclined to the di- 
rection of the wind. 

Aid ; a subsidy paid, in ancient feudfli 
times, by vassals to their lords on certain 
occasions. 

Aid-major. (See AtlfuUmi,) 

AioNAN, Stephen, a poet and author, 
bom in 1773, at Beauaency, on the river 
Loire, and since 1814 a member of the 
French academy, has distinguished him- 
self by successful translationsof the Iliad, 
and of Pope's Essay on Criticism, into 
verse. The transhition of the Ihad is the 
best in the French language. He also 
translated the Odyssey, but we know not 
whether the version has been published. 
He translated, likewise, some English 
tales, e. g. the Vicar of Wakefield. His 
original writings consist of a tragedy, 
Brmiehaid; an opera, JSTepkOiaU^ with 
music by Blangini ; and some excellent 
political essays, Sur lejury ; De V Hat des 
froie^anU en France^ dtpuis It XV siide, 
jusau* k naaJ<nirSy&Lc, 2ded. Paris, 1818, 
and Sur Us covps d* Hat ; as well as vari- 
ous contributions of merit to the Minerve 
lYangaiae, He was liberal in bis \iews, 
wrote well and independently, but with 
moderation. A. showed remarkable cour- 
agtd in publishing his tragedy, La Mart de 
£oui8 XVIf his first poem, a few weeks 
after the execution of the kins. He held 
several public offices during the reign of 
terror, and opposed, in some cases suc- 
cessfully, the tyranny of the administra- 
tion. A. died at Paris, June 23, 182i. 
His place in the academy was filled l^ 
Sommet. 



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AIGUILtON^AHL 



115 



AtavtLLOK, duke d' ; peer ef FKaaee, 
wad minister of fbreicn affidis under 
Louia XV ; dietinguiahec^ as a courtier, bv 
his reader wit» but destitute of almost oil 
the qualities that constitute the statesman. 
During his ministry the partition of Po- 
Jand took place ; and till it was actually 
accomplished^ d* A. knew nothing of this 
proffigate project. Even Louis XV ex- 
cbimed, when it came to his knowledge, 
*Had Choiseul been here, this partition 
would never have taken place.** D' A. 
was bom in 1720. When he tint ap- 
peared at the court of Louis, he struck 
ifae &ncy of the duchess of Chateauroux, 
mistreflB of the king. She obtained him 
an appointment in the anny in Italy. Af- 
ter expeii^icing many alternations of 
favor and di^mce, he was admitted, 
through the innuenee of the countess du 
Banry, into the ministry with the abb6 
Tenai and the chancellor Maupeou, af* 
ter ClKiiseurs down&lL His administra- 
tion of the department of foreign affairs 
was disgraceful to France, which, under 
him^ degenerated from the liigh diplo- 
matic cnaiBCter she had hitherto sus- 
tained. He boasted of having brouj^t 
about the revolution of Sweden in 1^^ 
which now is made a n^itter of reproach 
to him. At the accession of Louis XVI, 
be was removed from the ministiy. His 
place was supplied by the count of Ver- 
gennes, in 1774. D' A. was hated by the 
queen, was exiled in 1775, and died in 
banishment in his 80th year. 

A11.SA, or Elba ; a smaU, roclnr island 
in the Frith of Clyde, hear the W. coast 
of Scotland, of a conical form. It is a 
consfHcuous object, 940 feet hi^h, 7 miles 
from the Bhore» about 2 miles m circum- 
ference; Ion. 5« S' W., lat 55^ 18^ N. 
Innumerable sea-fowl, many of which 
are good for the table or viduaUe on ac- 
count of their feathers, frequent it ; a few 
rabknts and goats live on its sterile 
mz&ce. A ruinous castle stands on its 
vunmit, and is useful as a sea-maik. 
Excellent banks, well stocked with fish, 
surround it. 

Auros, or Ainus; the aborigines of 
Jesso and Saghalin, commonly called 
wUd KtarUeSf and supposed to be covered 
with hair in unnatural profbsion. They 
are nearly black, and resemble the Kamt- 
achadalcs, but have more regular features. 
The Chinese and Japanese say that they 
have immense bearos; captain Brough- 
ton, who anchored at Endermo har&r, 
in Jesso^ in 1797, remarks, that the bodies 
of tlie men ar«; covered with long black 
hiur ; and Krusenstera, the Russian navi- 



gator, memms that a chM of thk da* 
scription was seen in 180$, but that the 
parents had no such charact^nstuM, and 
he denies that it is generaL Other testi- 
mony, e. g. that of the eariy missioiiarieA 
at JMNuok, seems to eon&m this peculiar!^ 
U or dke A. The women 4ive veiy ugly. 
The A. are of a mild, hbeml diapositian ; 
thmr manners, however, are veiy little 
known. Polygamy is innolised anoMMig 
th&BO. Agriculture they know very little 
o£ They fetten bears for winter provis- 
ion. The A. were formerly indepradent, 
but are now in sulyection to the ^manese. 
AivswoKTB, Dr. Hemr, an Engtiah- 
maa, distinguished himsMf, about 1586^ 
among the Brawnisaab Ifis knowledge 
of Hebrew, and his annotations on the 
Holy Scripturjse, gained him much repu 
tation. He died about 1689, in Amstet* 
dam. He is said to have reatored to a 
Jew a valuable diamond which he had 
lost. The only compensatioB, which he 
asked was a coaf^nence vrith some Jew- 
ish rabbles on Ae prophecies of the Old 
Testament relating to the Messiah. The 
Jew pronused to biing it about, but, feil- 
ing of success, is said to have poisoned 
A. through shame and vexation. 

AiifswoRTH, Robert, bom at Wood 
yak, in Lancashire, 1660^ was master 
of a boarding-school at Biethnal-Green, 
whence he removed to Hackney and 
other places in the neighborhood of Lon- 
don. After acquiring a moderate fortune, 
he lived privately till 1743, whm he died. 
He wrote the well-known Latin and 
English Dictionary, publlBhed in 1796; 
and in 1752^ the-fourm edition, under the 
care of Dr. Ward and William Y»un|rey 
was enlarged to 2 vols, folio. Many edi- 
tions with improvements have followed. 
Aiou ; a group of 16 isbnds in the east- 
em seas, off the JV. coast of Waggiou, and 
surrounded by a reef 50 miles in compass, 
which is penetrated by a deep channel 
on tlie north-west side. Aiou Baba is 
the largest, about 5 miles in cireuit, 500 
feet high, lon.128^ 25^ £., lat OP 39^ N. 
Fish, turtle and tropical fiuits abound in 
these islands. They have some tiade with 
the Chinese. 

Aia (Greek, iu^^ ; Latin, air)^ in natural 
philosophy, is that fluid, transparent sub- 
stance which surrounds our globe, reach- 
ing to a consideiable height above its 
sur&ce, perhaps 40 milea ; and this ocean 
of air is the great laboratory in whiek 
most of the actions of life go on, and 00 
the composition of which they depend. 
Though invisible, except, in laige masses^ 
without smell or taste, yet h is a sub- 

.y,u...oy Google 



116 



AIR. 



stance poflBeasitig all the principal attri- 
bates or matter; it 10 impenetmble, pon- 
derable, compreanUe, diuitable, peiiectly 
elastic, and its particles are operated on 
like those of other bodies, by chemical ac- 
tion. To prove the impenetrability of the 
air, a very simple experiment is sufficient. 
Plunge a glass receiver perpendicularly 
into water, after having put under the 
receiver a piece of cork. However deep 
you may plunge the vessel, the water 
never reaches the top of it, though it 
diminishes the volume of the air; the 
liquid, therefore, cannot penetrate the air. 
Tne cork serves to show how high the 
water rises. In fitct, the most common 
occurrences give constant proofs of the 
impenetrabili^ of the air, and the theory 
of sailing, of windmills, &c is based on 
that property of this fluid. (See HlniL) 
To prove that the air is ponderable, it is 
only necessary to weigh a large balloon, 
first empty, and afterwards flll^ with air. 
It has been found, that 100 cubic inches 
of air, very dry, taken at the temperature 
of 60°, and under the barometrical pres- 
sure of 30 inches, weighs 90.5 grains ; 
and this weight is to that of water as 1 to 
770. Galileo first discovered that air is 
ponderable, though several preceding 
f^loeoj^eis seem to have had some sus- 
picion of the fiict. (See GalUeo, Torricd- 
n, Bioromder,) In consequence of this 
quality of air, the atmosphere which sur- 
rounds us exerts a pressure on all points 
of the globe proportionate to its weight ; 
this is we cause of the rise of tiquids in 
suckiiur-pumps, siphons and the barome- 
ter. To show this pressure, plimge the 
orifice of an exhausted tube, closed at 
the other end, into a liquid. The liquid, 
yielding to the pressure of the external 
air, rises in the tube till the weight of its 
cdkimn is equal to that of the atmospher- 
ic column. In this experiment water 
will rise 33 feet, and mercury 29 inches, 
provided the place where the experiment 
IS tried is nearly on a level with the sea ; 
for the height varies with the weight of 
the column of air, which diminishes in 
proportion as we ascend above the level 
of the sea. The height of the column 
of mercury in the b(ut>meter, therefore, 
affi>rds a good means of determining the 
elevation of any given place. The weight 
of the colunm en air, which presses con- 
stantly on a man of middle stature, is 
equal to 33,343i pounds. But this weight 
does no injury, because it is counterbal- 
anced by the reaction of the fluids, which 
fill the interior cavities of the body. (See 
Air-pump.) That air is compressible, and 



that the space which it oceupiea corre- 
sponds always to the pressure on it, had 
been shown by Mariotte. He took a bent 
glass tube, with legs of unequal length, 
exactly graduated; after having sealed 
the onfice of the shorter leg, he intro- 
duced a small quantity of mercury, sufii- 
cient to rise to an equal height in both 
legs. The air enclosed in me shorter 
leg then counterbalanced the atmo^ieric 
column. By raising the mercury m the 
lon^r leg to the height of 29 inches, the 
air m the shorter leg was compressed in- 
to half the space which it occupied at 
first. In other words, the weight of two 
atmospheres (the colunm of mercury be- 
in^ equal to one) compressed the air to 
this degree. Mariotte continued to pour 
mercury into the long leff, and found that 
the weight of 2, 3, 4, tic atmospheres 
reduced the air confined in the shorter 
leg to hy h if &<^- of itik primitive vol- 
ume. In repeating this experiment, it is 
necessary to give time to the caloric 
which is disengaged to pass off. It 
seems as if the compression of air would- 
be indefinite, if we had sufficiently pow- 
erful means; but as yet we have only 
been able to reduce its volume to one 

dilateb^lity of air consists in the tendency 
of a volume of confined «ur to occupy a 
greater space. In consequence, it presses 
equally m all directions on the sides of 
the vessel containing it, and this pressure 
increases or diminishes in proportion as 
the enclosed air i? condensed or rarefied^ 
provided the temperature remains the 
same. The dilatability of air has, accord- 
ing to the preceding experiment, no 
limits. A bladder, almost empty, will 
become inflated if placed in an exhausted 
receiver. Elasticitjr being the property 
of a body to resume its original form as 
soon as the force which changes it ceases, 
it is evident, fix)m what we have said, that 
it is a property of air. The different ap- 
plications maide of air in the different 
branches of art are so various and nu- 
merous, that we cannot possibly enume- 
rate them. Of the chemical properties 
of air, it will be sufficient to mention 
the following: the ahcients believed it a 
simple body, one of the four elements ; 
modem chemists have discovered that it 
is composed of two bodies, apparently 
elementary,— oxygen and azote. The 
most accurate experiments have shown 
that thb fluid, taken from different parts 
of the globe, and even at a great heieht, 
is composed of 21 parts of oxygen. To of 
azote, 1 part of carbonic acid, and somo 



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AIR. 



UT 



atoms of hydrofan. The «f vefracts the 
nye of tight, and its power of refinction 
is in the ratio of its density. (See 12e- 
firoeUon.) It is capshle of acqiwng elec- 
tricity, SLod it refuses, wheB very dry, a 
free passage to the electricity which tends 
to escape from electrified bo&es. (See 
EUebicify) When sul;9ected to groat 
heat or cold, it 10 dilated oar amdenssdt 
but underooes qo change of properties. 
If it ia 8u<ktenly comprised, much heat 
is disengaged, with a oright Ught It en- 
ters bodies througli tlie most minute 
pores, and adheres to th^nt strongly; coaL 
particolaily, absoihs a great Quantity or 
air. (See Car6on.) Water and all liquids 
alwa^ contain it, and it can only be ex- 
pelled by a strong heat Almost all com- 
KMisdhle bodies decompose it at a hi^h 
temperature, which varies with the dif* 
ferent substances. They absorb iUi oxy- 
gen with the disengagement of more or 
less caloric and U^^t, and form acids or 
oxydes : phosphorus, however, combinea 
at a low temnerature with the oxygem 
and azote of tne air, and produces, with 
the former, phosphorous acid ; with the 
latter, pbosphureted nitiogen: the nnna- 
ture of the air and the melting of the 
phosphorus iavor these combinations* 
Wheal the air is brought into contact 
with animal and vegetable substances, it 
chan^ ihem immediately, particularly 
if it IS moist, and gives to some of them 
acid properties; it bleaches flax, hemp, 
flilk, and increases the brilliancy of many 
colors. It is indispensable to the life t)f 
all organic beings ; animals respire it in- 
cessantly, and decompose it ; a part of its 
oxygen is tiansibnnea into caibonic acid, 
ana this combination produces caloric, 
which contributes principally to the pres- 
ervation of animal heat (See Re^pim- 
Hon.) Vegetables imbibe the carbon, 
which the carbonic acid,difiu8ed through 
the aJY, contains. The air is the agent of 
combustion ; the particles of bodies com- 
bine with its oxygen, and evolve heat 
and li^t (See CombuOion.) Finally, 
the air 18 the principal medium of soimd. 
(See AcouHict.) For further information, 
see the articles Jtbnospheref Cku and Con- 
iagum. 

Afx, in painting, deserves the most ac- 
curate study of the artist, particularly of 
the landscape pamter, as it is the medi- 
um tltfough which all objects aro seen, 
and its density or transparency deter- 
minee theur appearance, ooth in respect 
to size and color. It softens the local 
colofs, and renders them mora or less 
decided or characterized, producing what 



ia technioallir eiAed torn. The appear- 
anoes prodiM^ed bv the interposition of 
the air difler with the ehmate^ me season^ 
and the time of the day ; and landscape 
painters, who, in other reqiectB, are not 
masters, have (riven the greatest ehann to 
their pictuies Dy a happy imitation of 
these apywaranoea, even whero the ob- 
jects pamted possessed in themselvea 
v^ry utile attoaotion* Haekeit» a Ger- 
man, who was a long time painter to the 
late king of Naples^ excels, perfaaps»in thia 
Iwanch of art, aU modem paimaia His 
views cm this sobject are given in hia 
life by G6the. 

Aia, fixed. (See Got.) 

Aia, in music (in Italian, oKa), at the 
present day, means a eontinuous oaelodv, 
m which some lyric sul))eet or passion is 
expressed. It was originally ep|M»ed 
to the inegiilar declamtion of recita- 
tive, or the more staid action of ehofal 
music. Saumaise regards the term as 
derived from the Latm ainu The air ap^ 
pertained, cousequentiy, to measured mu- 
sic, and, whether constituted of one or of 
mote voices, this measured style (if not 
choral) was denominated mr. But in mod- 
em days^ by way of distinction, the ^rie 
mflody of a single voice^ accompanied bv 
instramentsv is itsproper form or eomposi- 
tion. Thus we mid it in the higher or- 
der of musical works ; as in cantatas, oiar 
tories^ operas^ and also independsndy, in 
coneeitos. It should be conatituted of 
euphonic sinqple lyric stiaias. An air 
fomerly auppoeed as its ground-work a 
particulsr state of feeling or emotion, of 
a certain duratioB, expression and interest, 
to which the recitative is generally pre- 
paraftoiy. Fornieriy, too, as easentiai ta 
an air, a symphony, expressing the bm^ 
den of the stltnzBS or couplela of the sang 
(rUomtUoy or refrainjb wa» introduced as 
tributary to the leading radody, which 
was followed by another and less elabo- 
rate part, forminff the antithesii^ to whioh 
was subsequenimr added a repetition of 
the first part ^wice the days of Gkick 
and Mozart, these have declined, and 
other forma have been adopted, fMitieii- 
lariy by Moaart, more eanfonMible to 
poetry, and nMote expressive of the senti- 
ments and situation of the singer. StiH 
Mozart could net eatirel)y withstand the 
prevailing taste^ with rsmenee to which 
he produced nnmeroua bravura airs, not 
alvirays in ehivacter, yel not wwrting an 
expression and effiwt Another forai o€ 
airs are the emmtuM (or single strainal 
lately introduced by the Italians, and oaf- 
culated to add 9«oe and enbeHnhmenft 



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118 



AIR-AIR-PUMP. 



to the song. At the pment day, the 
Germans either adopt this or make use 
of other fturms, as me subject may re- 
quire^--jir»effo signifies a short, less elab- 
orate air, designed to express a more am- 
ple and transient emotion. — Arioao is also 
applied to music resembling the aria, and 
is inserted in single lyrical pasaages to 
vaiv ^ recitative. 

AiR-euic; an instrument for the pro- 
jection of bullets by means of condensed 
air. The ancients were acquunted widi 
the principles of its construction, and an 
instrument of this description was invent- 
ed by Ctenbus of Alexandria, who flour- 
ished about IdO B. C. The first modem 
account of /an air-gun, which we meet 
with, is in the ^I^meiito <f ./IrfiZterie of David 
Rivaut, preceptor to Louis XIII of France. 

A1K-PIFS8 ; a recent invention fi>r 
the ventilation of ships by means of the 
rarefying power of heat Mr. Sutton, a 
brewer of London, is the inventor. If the 
usual aperture to an v fire be closed up in 
fit>nt, and another be introduced by the 
side of the fire place, it will attract the 
current of air into that direction; and 
the coppers, or boiling-plaoes of ships, are 
well Imown to be placed over two holes, 
separated hj a grate, the one for the fire, 
the other n>r the ashes; there is also a 
flue fiom the tope for the discharge of 
anioke. Mr. Sutton's pipes, now, are in- 
troduced into the ash-plaoe, and cairied 
thiou^ the hold to anv part of the ves- 
sel. The two holes before alluded to 
are closed up by strong iron doors ; a con- 
tinued draught of air supplies die fire, 
and creates a salutary circulation throurii 
any part of the vessel into which ate 
pipes may be directed. They are made 
either of copper or lead. 

AiR-PiTMF ; a machine for 

air from some vessel or cavity, 
and thereby making what is 
called a vaeman. It is one of 
the most curious and usefiil 
of iriiilosophical instruments. 
By experiments with it, the 
weight, elasticity and many 
other properties of air may 
be shown m a very simple and 
satisfoctory manner.— Let Rbe 
the section of a rIssb bell, closed 
at the top T, but open at the 
bottom, and having its lower 
edge ^und smootti, so as to 
rest in ckse contact with a 
smooth brass plate, of which 
S S is a section. This glass 
is called a ncewer, because it 



reoBives end holds sobstances on miiich 
experiments are to be made. If a little 
unctuous matter be rubbed upon the 
edge of the receiver R, and it be pressed 
with a slight cuxsular motion upon the 
plate S S, it will be brought into such 
close contact as to be air-ti^ht In the 
middle is an opening A, viiuch commu- 
nicates bv a tube A B with a hollow cyl- 
inder or barrel, in which a solid piston P 
is moved. The piston-rod C moves in 
an air-tight collar D, apd at the bottom 
of the cylinder a valve V is placed, 
opening &eely outward, but immediately 
closed by any pressure fiom without 
There is thus a finne communication be- 
tween the receiver R, the tube A B and 
the exhausting barrel B V. This com- 
munication extends in the same manner 
to a second similar barrel X V. When 
the piston C P is pressed down, and has 
passed the opening at B, the air in tiie 
twrrel B V will be enclooed, and will be 
compressed by the piston. As it will 
thus be made to occupy a smaller space 
than before, its densitjr, and consecmentlv 
its elasticity, will be increased. It will 
therefore press downwards upon the valve 
y with a greater force than that by 
which the ^ve ispressed upvirards l^ 
the external air. Tnis supenor elastic 
force will open the valve, through which, 
as the piston descends, the air in the bar- 




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AnUPUMF— AISrTRtniK. 



139 



rd win be diiven ilito the atmosphere* 
If the pifltoii be {mihed quite to the bot- 
tom, the whole air in the barrel wUl be 
thus expelled. Hie moment the piston 
begiDS to ascend, the pressure of me air 
from without closes the valve completely. 
None of the external air can enter ; andL 
as the piston ascends, a vacuum is left 
beneath it ; but, when it rises beyond the 
opening B^ the air in the receiver R and 
ifae tube A B expands, bv its elastici^, so 
as to fill the barrel BY. A second depres- 
sioD of the piston will expel the ur con- 
tained in the banel, and the process may 
be continued at pleasive. The commu- 
nicaftion between the barrels and the re- 
ceiver may be closed by a stop-cock at G. 
It is evidently only in consequence of the 
ehstieity of die aur that it expands and 
fifls the barrel, diffiising itself equally 
throughout the cavity in which it is con- 
tBine£ The operation of the machine 
depends, therefore, on the elasticity of the 
air, and it is obvious that a perfect vacu- 
um cannot be formed by it in the receiver, 
as <Mily a part of the air is each time ex- 
pelled, and a portion must always remain 
after each depression of the piston. The 
degree of rarefiustion produced by the 
machine may, however, be easily calcu- 
lated. Suppose that the barrel contains 
one third as much as the receiver and 
mbe together, and, therefore, that it con- 
tains one fourth of the whole air within 
the vahre V. Upon one depression of the 
pinon, this fourth part will be expelled, 
and diree fourths of the original quantity 
wiD remain. One fourth of this remain- 
ine quantity will in like manner be ex- 
pdled by the second depression of the 
piston, which is equal to tnree sixteenths 
of the original quantity. By calculating 
in this way, it will be found that, after 30 
depressions of the piston, only one 9096th 
part of the original quantity will be left 
m the receiver. The rarefoction may 
thus be carried so for that the elasticity 
of the air pressed down by the piston 
ahaO not be sufficient to force open the 
valve. To show how far the exhaustion 
has been carried at any particular point 
of the process, a barometer-^uge is con- 
nected with the machine. This is a glass 
mbe, opening at E into the receiver, and 
at F inmierosd in a cistern of mercury. 
Am the nurefoction proceeds the mercury 
risee from the pressure of the external 
air, and indicates how for this pressure 
exceeds that fit>m within the receiver, 
that is, the degree of exhaustion. Both 
pisuHiB are worked by the wheel H and 



winch Y, by means of the rack or 
tooth-woik on the piston-rods. When 
one piston is raised, the other is depressed. 
The winch is then turned in the oppo- 
site direction, and the piston which had 
been rused is depressed, and the other 
raised. When the rare&ction of the air 
within the barrels is considerable, the 
pressure of the atmosphere upon each 
' piston is not resisted from within, and 
merefore opposes its ascent But this 
pressure is not felt by the operator, as the 
pressure upon one piston counterbalances 
that upon the other. The elasticity of 
the air is proved by the action of the 
machine. Its pressure is proved by the> 
great fonmess with which the receiver is 
pressed upon the plate S S during the 
rareftction of the au* within. If any ani- 
mal is placed beneath the receiver, and 
the air exhausted, he dies almost imme- 
diately; a lighted candle under the 
exhausted receiver immediately goes 
out Air is thus shown to be necessaiy 
to animal life and to combustion. A 
bell, suspended from a silken thread be- 
neath the exhausted receiver, on being 
struck, cannot be heard. If the bell be 
in one receiver, from which the air is not 
exhausted, but which is within an ex- 
hausted receiver, it still cannot be heard. 
Air is therefore necessary to the produc- 
tion and to the propagation of sound. A 
shrivelled apple or cranberry, placed be- 
neath an esumusted receiver, becomes as 
plump as if quite fi«sh. They are thus 
shown to be ftill of elastic air. A great 
variety of experiments may be made, 
which are very interesting, but too nu- 
merous to be described. — ^The air-pump 
was invented by Otto de Guericke, bur- 
gomaster of Magdeburg, about the year 
1654. Modifications and unprovements 
were afterwards made bv Boyle, Hawk9- 
bee, Morton and many others. It is made 
in various forms, one of the simplest of 
which is that already described. 

AiR-TRUNX ; a contrivance by Dr. Hales 
to prevent the stagnation of putrid efflu- 
via in jails, or any apartments where 
manv people are collected. It consists 
of a long, square trunk, open at both ends, 
one of which is inserted into the ceiling 
of the room, and the other extends a 
c<Nisiderable distance beyond the roof 
'nm)ugh diis trunk a continued circula- 
tion is carried on, because the putrid 
effluvia are much fichter than the purs 
atmosphere. Dr. Keil estimates these 
effluvia arising from one man in 24 
hours at not less than 39 ounces. These 



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1^ 



AIR-TRUNK— AIX LA CHAFELLE- 



trunkB were first tiiea in the English 
house of commons, where they were 9 
inches wide within, and over the court 
of king's bench, where diey were 6 
inches wide. 

AisBife (Demois.) well known for her 
romantic adventures and unhanpy ftte, 
born in Circassia, 1689, was purchased by 
U&e count de FerrioL the French ambassa- 
dor at Constantinople, when a child of 4 
years, for 1500 livres. llie seller de-- 
clared her to be a Circasoan princess. 
She was of great beauty. The count 
took her with him to France, and gave 
her an education, in which noth'mg was 
neglected but the inculcation of virtuous 
principles. Her disposition was fl;ood, but 
iier liie immoral. She sacrificed her in- 
nocence to the solicitations of her bene- 
&ctor. On the other hand, she resisted 
the splendid ofiers of the didce of Or- 
leans. Of her numerous suitors, she ft- 
vored only the chevalier Aidy. This 
love decided her &te. Aidy had taken 
the vows at Mfdta ; he wished to disen- 
gage himself fix>m them ; but his mistress 
herself opposed the attempt The finit 
of her love was a daughter, bom in Eng- 
land. She was subsequently a prey to 
the iHtterest remorse; she resisted her 
passion in vain, and lived ih a continual 
struMle with herself; which her weak 
healm was unable long to sustain. She 
died 1727, thirty-eight veats old. Her 
letters are written in a pleasant and flu- 
ent strain, and exhibit a lively picture 
of the author's feelings. They contain 
many anecdotes of the prominent per- 
sonages of her times. The^ first ap- 
peared with notes by Voltaire, subse- 
quently with die letters of Mesdames de 
ViUars, La&yette, and de Tencin, 1806, 
3 vols. 

Aix (among the Romans, Aquc^ SexHa), 
in the French department of the mouths 
of the Rhone, on the river Arc, contains 
21,960 inhabitants, is the seat of an arch- 
bishop, a royal court of appeals and 
chamber of commerce, a school of theolo- 
gf and jurisprudence, a college, a con- 
siderable library, a learned society and a 
museum. Several manu&ctures are car- 
ried on in the city, principally of cotton ; 
they are, however, on the decline. The 
warm baths, too, are less viated than for- 
meriy. In the church of the Minorites, 
Frederic the Great erected a monument 
to the marquis d' Aigeos. This city has 
the largest limits of any ciQr in France. 
The numerous fiumilies residing on the 
great gardens around the city are counted 
among the population, as is customary in 



France and Italy. This is the reason 
that the accounts of the population of the 
southern dties of Europe seem so fi*e- 
quently exaggerated to strangers, unac- 
ooainted Wim the circumstance. Aix 
derives its principal support from the 
culture and manu&cture 0f silk, in its 
extensive district, which contains marshy, 
sandy, calcareous and stony soils, together 
'widi the cultivation of the c4ive, and 
of the finiits of the south, which are well 
paid for by the luxury of northern 
France. Lon. 5« 97' E. ; lat 43« 3^ N. 

Aix la Cbafellb (in Qenaan, Aachen) ; 
capital of the district of the same name, 
in the Prussian grand duehy of the Lower 
Rhine;51*'55'N.lat.;5°54'E.km. The 
district contained, in the year 1825, upon 
1550 square miles, 396,025 inhabitants, 
amonjr which were 3S24,453 Catholics, 
9686 Protestants, and 1891 Jews. The 
ciw itself contains 2732 houses, and, in 
18^2, had 34JS84 inhabitants. It lies be- 
tween the Rhine and the Mouse, at a 
distance of about 37 miles fix>m the for- 
mer and 18 fit)m the latter. It is very 
pleasantly situated, in a fine vale, sur- 
rounded by beautifiil hifls. Tliere are 
traces of its existence under the govern- 
ment of the Romans, to whom it was 
known as early as the time of Cssar and 
Drusus; Pliny mentions it under the 
name of Vetera. Here, according to 
some writers, the emperor Chariemagne 
was bom, A. D. 742; here he died, A. D. 
814. The extensive privileges which he 
and other emperors conferr^ on this im- 
perial city,j;ave rise to the saying, that 
"the veiy air of A. made firee even the 
outlaws of the empire." 55 emperors 
have been crowned m this city, and the 
imperial insignia were preserved here 
till the year 1795, when they were carri- 
ed to Vienna, and are now in the imperial 
treasury. Its citizens, throughout the 
empire, were exempt fiim fou£] service, 
both in peace and in war ; fit)m attach- 
ment of their goods and imprisonment : 
fi-om tolls and taxes levied on the proper- 
ty of travelling merchants, &c. By the 
?eace of LuneviHe, concluded Feb. 9, 
801, which separated the left bank of 
the Rhine ftom Germany, the city was 
transferred to France, and remained, till 
the overthrow of Napoleon, the chief 
town of the department of the Roer. 
To its French name, jJtr, the term la Cha- 
pdU has been added in order to distin^ 
guish it ftom other towns of the same 
name. The market-place of A . is adorned 
with a statue of Chaileraagne, in bronze. 
On the spot where, in ancient times, a 



ADL LA CHAPELLE. 



12J 



Soman battle Blood, ib» kmgs of the 
Franks btiih a royal castle, in Gennan 
PfiOz. This was desdroved, A. D. 882, 
by the Normans, restorecf by the emperor 
Otho III, 993, and used in the 14th cen- 
toiy as the town-house. This building 
contains many relics of old German art, 
the hall where the emperors' were 
crowned, the bust of Napoleon and his 
first empress painted by David, -a tower 
of Roman origin, &c. The minster was 
erected between the yeare 796 and 804, 
by the emperor Charlemagne, and was 
ornamented with great splendor. In the 
middle ines the monument of Charle- 
magne, with the simple inscription, Ckh 
roio Mkigno. Above it hangs, suspended 
bf a chain, a colossal crown of silver and 
gik cof^r, a donation of Frederic I, 
which serves as a chandelier for 48 can- 
dles. Hero is to be seen the chair of 
white marble, on wliich several emperors 
have sat at the time of then* coronation. 
It was formerly overlaid with gold. The 
church of the Franciscans is distin- 
guidied by a beautiful picturo of Ru- 
bens, the Due&ni from the Crots^ which 
was carried to Pars, but has been brought 
boelc. Hie inhabitants are for the most 
part Cadiolics, many of whom aro ac- 
tivity engaged in manu&ctures. The 
dotfas of A. are famous op the continent 
of Eiuope. A manufacture of needles, 
estabfished about the middle of the 16th 
centuiy, by Gauthier Wolmar, formeriy 
emi^oyed moro than 15,000 workmen, 
but in the year 1806 only 8000. A. con- 
tains 15 charitable institutions ; it has 7 
mineral springs, 6 of them warm. The 
most famous is the imperial spring, the 
vapor of which, if confined, deposites sul- 
phmr. The rooms for bathinff are excel- 
lent, with bajths from 4 to 5 feet deep, in 
massive stone, after the old Roman lash- 
ion ; the greater part have bed-chambers 
with chimneys. At a distance of 500 
paces firom A. lies the village of Burt- 
scheid, which also contains hot spring 
The upper springs are in the village it- 
self^ the lower in the valley, in the open 
air. The water is useful for washing 
and dyeing dotiis. The upper springs 
contain no hepatic gas, and deposit no 
sulphur ; in tms respect they diner fit>m 
the longer, and those of A. There are 
also in Burtscheid manuftctnres of broad- 
cloth, cassimere and needles. The coal- 
mines and pyrites in the surrounding 
country account for the hot-wells of %A. 
and B. The names of several streets, 
Alexander, Francis, Wellington street, 
remind us of the congress of A. in 1816. 
VOL. I. 11 



(See tiie article j^.Cof^T'eM at) Thehisto- 
ry and description of A. with B. and Spa, 
by Aloys Schreiber, Heidelberg, 1894, is 
the best guide-book for travellers on the 
Rhine. 

Aix I.A' Ckafbij«e, congress at In 
modem politics, the congress at A. in Oct 
and Nov. 1818, is of high importance. 
The principal measures determined on 
at this meeting of the great powers which 
had conquer^ Napcdeon were the fol- 
lowing: l.The army of the allies, con- 
sisting of 150,000 English, Itussian, Aus- 
trian, Prussian and other troops, which, 
since the second peace at Pans, had re- 
mained in France, to watch over its 
tran^iuillity, was vritbdrawn, after France 
had paid tiie contribution imposed at the 
peace of 1815. The king of France was 
then admitted into the holy alliance.- 
Thus the congress Of A. restored inde- 
pendence to France. 2. The 5 dhes, the 
emperors of Austria and Russia, and the 
kings of Great Britain, France and Prus- 
sia, issued at this time the famous decla- 
ration of Nov. 15, 1818, a document ^ 
very dangerous tendency, too indefinite 
to settie any of the in^rtant political 
questions then pending^ but fall of the 
personal views and feeungs of the mon- 
arehs, and the legitimate ofiisprinff of the 
holy alliance conchided Sept 20, 1815, 
at Paris. The fi^ends of absolute gov- 
ernment in Europe, who confound the 
idea of the reigning fiunily with that of 
the state and the ^veroment, admired 
the paternal professioDS of the sovereigns 
in this instrument, which is principally 
of a religious character; but sagacious 
politicians and the friends of justice fore- 
saw all the evils which it afterwards pror 
diiced. Its vagueness admitted of a great 
latitude of constraction, and it was soon 
followed by a breach of the law of nations 
in the invasJon of Italy and Spain under 
the newly-declared dMt fP %nierventi4m 
arm^Cy promulgated at Laybach, a direct 
consequence of the doctrines advanced 
at A. The holy alliance, with all the 
declarations of the succeeding congresses 
at Troppau, Lay bach and Verona, aflbrds 
the first instance of an avowedly personal 
alliance between many monarehs to main- 
tain certam principles of government, and 
attack every nation wiuiin their reach 
which adopts a different political creed. 
After the termination or the struggle 
against Napoleon, in which princes and 
people were firmly united, the former 
anxiously separated their interests fix>m 
those of the tatter, and at the congress at 
A. they openly manifested t)ie 



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133 



AIX LA CHAPELLE— AJACCIO. 



which erery iucceedlng congreas has 
developed more clearly. (See HoUf Mi- 
ttnce.) The king of France, at this con- 
gress, became a member of the holy alli- 
ance onl^ in his personal character, not as 
the constitutionai chief of the French gov- 
ernment, following the example of the 
present king of England, then prince 
regent In iact, the accession of these 
two sovereigns was only to avoid appear^ 
ing dhrectly opposed to the alliance. 3. 
From the congress of A. are to be dated 
all the decisive measures of the GenQan 
governments against the liberal spirit 
which had spread among their subjects 
since the wars with Napoleon. In A. it 
was first seen how unwiUing the king of 
Prussia was to fulfil his promises of Ube- 
ral institutions, and how anxiously Aus- 
tria desired to suppress whatever tended 
to give force to public opinion, to secure 
the rights of the people, or promote the 
cause of representative ^vemment At 
A. Mr. Stourdza, a Russian subject, pub- 
lished his infiuential work, Mhnoire aur 
V iial actud de V JUemagne, ' The con- 
gress at Carlsbad (q. v.) was an immedi- 
ate consequence of the congress at A. 
It had reference, however, omy to Ger- 
many. History will point out the fwriod 
of these congresses as the era of violent 
political bigotry, correeponding to the for- 
mer ages of religious Digotry in its prin- 
ciples as in its measures. (See rii. de Pradt's 

pdle, 8va Paris, 1819, and Mr. Sch6U'8 
lEsioire des Traits de Potr, with his A'- 
ckkes pdUiques, 1618>19.) For the c<m- 
gress at A. in 1748, soe the following 
article. 

Aix LA Chapelle, treaties of peace 
concluded at The firet, May 2d, 1668, 
put an end to the war carried on against 
Spain Iw Louis XIV, in 1667, after the 
death of"^ his father-in-law^ PhiUp IV, in 
support of his claims to a great part of 
the Spanish Netlieriands, which he urged 
in the name of his queen, the in&nta 
Maria Theresa, pleading the jus dewdtt- 
tioniSf prevailing among private persons 
in Brabant and Namur. Ck)nd^ had al- 
ready conquered Franche-Comt^, and 
Tureune had taken 10 fortresses, when 
the triple alliance, concluded by de Witt 
and air William Temple (see mu and 
Temple)^ determined France to make 
peace with Spaiu, on conditions which 
were agreed upon at St Germain with 
the allies, and ratified at A. Spain had the 
option to surrender either the Francfae- 
Comt^ or the fortified places in the Neth- 
eriands. She chose to give up the latter. 



Thus France obtained a part of the an- 
cient Burgundy, the Spanish fortressea 
Lille, Charleroi, Binch, Douai, Toumai, 
Oudenarde, and six others, together with 
theur appendaees. (See SchSl^ HisL dta 
TrmUs, &c. i. 331.) The second peace of 
A., Oct 18, 1748, terminated the Aus- 
trian war of succession (see Austria^ in 
which the parties were at fii^t Louis XV 
of France and the empress Maria There- 
sa, and, in the sequel, Spain on one side, 
and Great Britain, Maria Theresa and 
Charles Emanuel, king of Sardinia, on 
the .other. In this war, the United Neth- 
eriands were enga^ged as allies of Great 
Britain and Austria, Modena and Gen- 
oa as aUies of Spain. Maria Theresa 
surrendered to Philip, infimt of Spain, 
Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. Thus 
the fourtli sovereign line of the house of 
Bourbon, that of Parma, (since 1817 estab- 
lished in Lucca), took its origin. On the 
whole, the state of possession before the 
war was restored, the pnurmadc sanction 
and the succession of the house of HanO" 
ver in Great Britain guarantied, and Si- 
lesia and Glatz seciued to the king of 
Prussia. A Russian auxiliary army of 
37,000 men, under prince Repnin, in the 
pay of the naval powers, approaching, in 
the spring of 1748, firom Bohemia to the 
Rhine, accelerated the ccmclusion of the 
peace. The plenipotentiaries of France, 
Great Britain and the States General, in 
a secret session, April 30, 1748, signed the 
preliminaries, four copies of which were 
presented to the other powers engaged 
m the war, and signed by them separately. 
Charles Stuart, the eldest son of the pre- 
tender, protested, at Paris, July 16, again9t 
the exclusion of his &ther, who called 
himself James III, firom the British 
throne. The above-named three powers 
first signed, in like manner, the <lefinitive 

Siace, whereupon Spain, Genoa and 
odena, July 20, and Austria, July 23 
(by her plenipotentiary, count, ailerwarda 
prince Kaunitz), did the same. (See 
Schm. i. 411, et seq.) 

Ajaccio, or AJA.ZZ0, the capital of 
Corsica, contains 6570 inhabitants. It 
has a harbor, protected by a citadel, lying 
to the north of the gulf of the same name, 
on the western coast of the island, at the 
confluence of the rivers Terignano and 
Restonico. The entrance into the har- 
bor is rendered unsafe by projecting 
rocks. A. is the birth-place of NajwleoD, 
his brothers and sisters. It is the hand- 
somest city of Corsica, and tlic seat of a 
bishop. In the commercial world, it is 
famous for its coral and anchovy fishe- 



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AJAQCIO— AKENSIDE. 



m 



lies; leas so, in the leanned woxklf for its 
sttdemy. Lon. 8° M E.; lat. 4P 59^ N. 

Ajajlow ; a town rendered memorable 
by Joshua's vict<»rT over the five Canaan* 
itish kings, and still more so by the extra-* 
oniinafy circumstance of the miraculously 
iengtbened day. 

AiAir ; a coast and countiy of Afiica, 
which has the river Quilmanci on the 
south, the mountains firom which that 
river springs on the west, Abyssinia and 
the straits of Babelmsndel on the north, 
and the Indian ocean on the east. The 
coast abounds with all the necessaries of 
file, and has plenty of ver^ sood horses. 

Ajassaluck ; the Turiush name for a 
village on or near the site of the ancient 
Ephesus. The whole place seems to 
have been built Grom the niins of £phe* 
sian gnuDdeur. Tamerlane encamped 
here, after having subdued Smyrna, in 
1402. 

Ajax (Gteek, Mag\ Amouf the Gre- 
cian cfakfe who fought funmat Troy 
were Ajax Oileus and Ajax Telamonius. 
The Ibnner, the son of OUeus and £ti* 
opis, a Lociian, was called Uu Uss, He 
aoGoimMUBied the expedition to Troy, be- 
cause ne lis4 been one of the suitors of 
Helen. In the oombat» his courage son\e- 
times degeoented mto inconsidenue fuiy. 
£xam[mi ef this ara given by the poets 
wbo WMWffdixi H<Hner. When the 
CifeekB^ they sav* had entered Troy, Cas- 
sNidra fled to the temple of Pallas, firom 
whence she was fiHved, and dragged 
afeog, bound as a captive. Some ac- 
counts add, that she caught hold of the 
staftoe of the geddess, and that A. dragged 
her away by the haur ; others, that he vi- 
olated the pro^ietess in the ten^le of the 
goddess. Ulysses accused him of this 
crime, vrhen he exculpated himself with 
an oath. But the anger of the goddess 
at last ovenook him, and he perished in 
the waves of the sea.' The other A. was 
I of Tdamon, fimn Salamis, and a 
Ml of iEaeus. He, also, vras a 
r of Helen, and sailed vrith Id slups 
to Troy, where he is rraHrasented by 
HoDEier as the boldest and handsomest of 
the Cheeks, afier Achilles. He under- 
stood, not how to speak, but how to act 
He was finnk, and fiill of noble pride. 
After the death of Achilles^ when his 
amas, which Ajsz ckhned <mi account of 
his courage and relationship, were award- 
ed to Ulysses, he was filled with rage, 
and, dri^ by despair, threw himself on 
Uaswoid. 

Akbah ; a celebratedBancw conquer- 
or in the first century of the Hegirs, who 



overran Afiica firom Cairo to the Atlantic 
ocean. A general revolt among the 
Greeks and Afificans recalled him fi:om 
the west, and occasioned his destruction. 
He founded Cairoau, in the interior of 
Afiica, to check the bariMuians and se- 
cure a place of refiige to the fiunilies of 
the Saracens. 

AxBAR, or Ajosb, Mohammed, sove- 
reign of Lidia ; the greatest Asiatic prince 
of modem times. He was bom at Amer- 
ket, in the year of the Hegira 949 (1543 
of the Christian »ra)) and, afier the death 
of his &ther, ascended the throne, at tbe 
age of 13, and sovemed India under the 
guardianBhip of his minister, Beyram. 
His great talents were eariy dev^oped. 
He fought with distinguiahed valor 
against his foreign foes and rebellious 
subiects, among whom was Beyram him- 
self His government was remaricaMe 
fi)r its mildness and the jmatest toler- 
ance tovrards ail sects. Though com- 
pelled, by continued commotions, to visit 
the cyfferent provinces of his eminre at 
the head of his araay, he loved the sci- 
ences, esgw^aJly history, and was inde- 
fititigable in his attention to the internal 
administration of his empue. He msti- 
tuted inquiries into the jtopulatimi, the 
nature and productions of each province. 
The results of his statistical labora were 
collected by his minister, Abul Fazl, in a 
woric, entitled ^veen Mberi, printed m 
t:M^ah, at Calcutta, 178a-«6, 3 vols., 
andrrorinted in London. A. died, afier a 
reign of 49 years, m 1017 (1604, A. D.) 
His splendid s^Nilchral monument still 
exists near Aoa, with the simple inscrip- 
tion, Mbar tte MmurabU. He was suc- 
ceeded by hw son Selim, under the name 
Sffihimgir, 

AxBNSf Dx, Mark, a poet and physidaD, 
was bom m 1721, at Newcasde-upon- 
Tyne. His fioher, a butcher, of the Pres- 
byterian sect, intended him fi>r a clergy- 
man, and placed him, at the age of 18, 
in the universi^ of Edinburgh, to qualify 
him for that office. The taste of A. was 
not inclined to that profterion, and he 
abandoned the study of theology for that 
of physic. Having received some assist- 
ance fiom the fimds eroplojred by the 
Biasentera in the educaticMi of young men 
intended for the ministry, he very honor- 
ably refiinded the amount when be relin- 
quished his theokMrical studies. After 3 
years residence at Edinbiugh, he went to 
Leyden, and in 1744 became doctor of 
physic. In a thesis, which he published 
on receiving his degree, De Ortu et hert^ 
sienio FoituB Himamj he proposed a new 



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124 



AKENSIDE— AKERMAN. 



tlieoiy, which has been mnce confirmed 
and receired. In the same year, he pub- 
lished die Pleasures of Imagination, 
which, however, he is said to have writ- 
ten during his residence at Edinburgh. 
In the ibliowing year, he published a col- 
lection of odes, and the epistle to Curio, 
a satire on Pulteney. Aner having un- 
successfully attempted the practice of his 
profession at Nonliampton and Hamp- 
stead, he was invited to London by his 
friend Mr. Ihrson, from whom he received 
a pension of £900 a year. Here he be- 
came a fellow of the royal society, was 
admitted into the college of physicians, 
and read the Gulstonian lectures in anat- 
omy, but never obtained a very extensive 
practice. While at London, he wrote 
litde poetry, but published several medi- 
cal essays and observations. His dis- 
course on the dysentery (1764) has been 
much admired for the eleeance of its 
Latinity. He died 1770, m the 49th year 
of his age, of a putrid fever. A. was a 
man of religion and strict morals ; a phi- 
losopher, a scholar and a fine poet. His 
conversation is described to have been of 
the most delightful kind, learned and in- 
structive, without any affectation of wit, 
cheerfiil and entertaining. Yet his pride, 
insolence and irascibility involved him in 
frequent disputes, and prevented his suc- 
cess in the practice of his profession. 
His fevorite authors were Plato and Cice- 
ro among the ancients, and Shaftesbury 
and Hutchinson among the modems. 
The odes of A. do not entitle lum to a 
veiy hiph rank in lyric poetry ; his epistle 
to Cuno is written in a tone of vigorous 
and poipant satire. He is particularly 
distinguished as a didactic poet, and has 
left in his Pleasures of Imaffination one 
of the most pleasing didactic poems in 
our language. The periods are harmo- 
nious, the cadence graceful, and the 
measure di^ified. It is replete with el- 
evated sentiments, with images of poetic 
beauty and high philosophy. The sen- 
tences are sometimes extended to too 
great length, splendid imagery too much 
accumulated, and the thought eometimes 
too thickly overlaid with words. These 
feults he endeavored to correct in the 
new edition, in which many other changes 
are introduced ; but the original will al- 
WBVS be more read and admSed. 

AxBRBLAB, John David ; by biith a 
Swede. When very young, he accom- 
|)anied the Swedish embassy to Constan- 
tinople in the capacity of secretary. The 
leisure which his station afforded, he em- 
ployed in travelling through the East 



He visited Jerusakm and the Troad in 
1792 and 1797; and has offered some 
suggestions respectihg the siuia^n of the 
city of Troy, in the German translation 
of Le Chevalier's travels, which display 
both the classical scholar and the learned 
orientalist For some time, about the 
year 1800, he lived in Gdttingen, and then 
went to Paris, as Swedish charg6 d'af^ 
feires. Discontent at the changes in his 
native country is said to have induced 
him to throw off all connexion with 
Sweden, and retire to Rome, where he 
received from the duchess of Devonshire, 
and other fiiends of literature, the means 
of living in fiteraiy leisure. He died at 
Rome, Feb. 8, 1819. His writings dis- 
play a great knoindedge of the oriental 
and western lan^^uagea, which he could 
speak as well as mterpret Among them 
are his Lettrt h M. SShutre dt Sae^ $ur 
rikrihare cursive CopU {Mag. Entye^j 1801, 
tom. v.), the Lettre aM,de Saey, nor Pin- 
gcr^lOion Efiypiiemie de IU>^ 1802, 

tom. iu.), his fiunous explanation of the 
inscriptions on the lions at Venice, MUee 
star deux htscr^^ions en Caradires JRk- 
niquesy irouvies h Vemse et star ks Varan- 
mr, avee lea Ranarquu dt M» d^Ausse d» 
Vithmn. Equally important^ both for 
the knowledge of ancient vmtings and 
of inscriptions, is the i^ucruiime Greca 
9wra vnaLaxmna dipwako Trvmidoinvm, 
SmoUro neUe Vtcmanxe d^Mfmt (Rome, 
1813, 4to.), in improving which he was 
employed when surprised by death. The 
last or his works, that wpeared in print, 
was a IMre war tme Mer^plton FMm- 
ciemie trwmit h MiihMs (Rome, 1814, 4tii.), 
addressed to coimt Italinsky. The na- 
tional institute at Paris chose him a eor- 
responding member of their society. He 
lies buried near the pyramid of Cestius, 
at Rome. 

AsERMAN, or AcKEBMAN (the aocient 
Julia Alba and Hermonoclis) ; a town in 
Bessarabia, a province of Russia, on the 
coast of the Black sea, at the mouth of 
the Dniester, 65 miles S. E. of Bender, 
68 S.W.of Otchakow; Ion. 3a>44'E.; 
kit 46^ 12' N. ; pop. stated very diflfer- 
entlv ; formerly at 90,000, more recently 
at 8000. It contains a number of mosquesi, 
one Catholic and one Armenian church, 
and has some trade. A. has recently ac- 
quired some celebrinr by the treaty be- 
tween Russia and Turkey, there con- 
chided, Oct 6, 1896^ in which the latter 
power agreed to the 83 points of the 
Russian liftimafifm. This treaty is a sup- 
plement to the peace of Bucharest The 
poite ceded to the emperor Nicholas all 



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AKERMAN— ALABAMA. 



Ids 



the fbrtrBOWB in Aflia of which it had pne- 
vmmmIt demanded the restorataoo^audac- 
knowfedged the political arganizatiou (if 
we dare use thia expieaoion for ao rude 
a state of poUtica) which Ruaaia had 
detennined on fiv Serria, Moldavia and 
Walarhia, But the treaty waa not eze- 
ented till 1837, and then not to the eatia- 
fretion of Ruaaia. This fiimialied the 
oatenaihle reaeon of the pteeent war be- 
tween the two great eastern powen. 
(See J2iiaiui,and QUoman Empirt,) 

A fain AM A, one of the U* States ; bounded 
N. by Tenneaaee, E. bv Geoisgia, S. by 
Flonda and the gulf of Mexico and W. 
by Miaaisdppi; ton. SS'^to 88^ 30^ W.; 
laLdOPl(Kto35^N.; 330 miks long, fiom 
N. to S^ and 174 from E. to W. ; square 
milea, about 51,000; pop. in 1810, leas 
than 10,000; in 1816, ^,683; in 1818, 
70,544 ; in 1830, by the imperfect census 
as first returned, 127^901 ; by the cenaus 
as subsequently completed, 144,317; in 
1827, 244,041, of whom 152,178 wera 
whites, 93^308 slaves, and 555 fi-ee per- 
BOOB of color. The last esdmate of the 
number of Indians within the territory oP 
the U. Statea, by the wax department, in 
1829, states tbat there are 19,200 Indians 
in the state of A. — ^The number of counties 
into which this state was divided in 1820, 
was 24; and m 1828,36. Tuscaloosa is 
the present seat of government Oahaw- 
ba was formerly tne capitaL Mobile is 
the princqMd port. (q. im— >The principal 
liven are the Alabama, Tombeckoee, Mo- 
bile, Black- Warrior, Coosa, Tallapoosa, 
Tenmnsee, Chatahoochee, Perdido, Ca- 
havrba and €k>necuh.^ — ^The southern pert 
of the state, which borders on the guu of 
Mexico and Florida, throughout a space 50 
or 60 miles wide, is low and level, cov- 
ered with pine, cypress and loblolly ; in 
the middle it is hiUy, with some tracts of 
'tpen land or prairies; in the northern 
part it is somewhat broken and mountain- 
ous. The Alleghany mountains termi- 
nate in the north-east part. The forest- 
trees in the middle and northern divis- 
ions are post, black and white oak, hick- 
ory, poplar, cedar, chesmut, pine, mul- 
beny, iuv— The soil is various, but a 
lai|^ part of it is excellent In the south 
it IB generally sandy and barren ; and a 
part of the high lands are unfit fi>r culti- 
vatkNi. A large portion of the country 
which lies between the Alabama and 
Tcmbeckbee, of that part vmatered by the 
Cooaa and Tallapoosa, -and of that on the 
TemieaBee, consists of very excellent land. 
On the margin of the rivers there is a 
qiianti^ of cane bottom-land of great fer- 



tili^, generally firom 1 to | mile wide. 
On the outside of this is a space which 
is low, wet, and intersected by stagnant 
water. Next to this river swamp^ and 
elevated 10 or 15 feet above it, succeeds 
an extenaive body of level land, of a black, 
rich aoil, virith a growth of hickory, black 
oak, post oak, poplar, dogwood, &c. Af- 
ter this come the prairies, which are vride- 
apreadlng plains, or gentler-waving land, 
without timber, clothed with grass, her- 
bage and flowers, exhibiting, in the montli 
of May, the most enchanting scenery^ — 
Cotton is the staple production, and is 
raised in great quantities. Other produc- 
tions are maize,* rice, wheat, lye, oats, &c. 
Iron ore is found in several places, and 
coal abounds on the Black- Warrior and 
Cahawba. — ^Tbe climate in the southern 
part of the bottom-land bordering on the 
rivers, and of the country bordering on 
the Muscle shoals, is unhealthy. In the 
elevated country, the climate is very fine ; 
the vrinters are mild, and the summers 
pleasant beine tempered by breezes finom 
the gull of Mexico. — The population of 
this state, firom the time when the first 
settlement was cominenced, has increased 
with remaricable rapidity. Occupying the 
valley of the' Mobile and its tributary 
streams, the Alabama and Tombeckbee, 
its position, in an agricultural and com- 
mercial point of view, is highly advan- 
tageous; and fi!om the fertility of its soil, 
and the value of its productions, it may 
be expected to become an important mem- 
ber of the Union. — ^The Cherokee Indians 
occupy the N. £. comer of the state, the 
Creeks the eastern part, and the Cbicka- 
saws and Choctaws some portions of the 
western^ — ^Alabama originallv belonged to 
the state of Georgia ; in 1800, the country 
including the present states of Mississippi 
and Alabama was formed into a territory ; 
the part of Fbrida between Pearl and 
Penudo rivets being taken possession of 
by the U. States in 1812, and annexed to 
this territory, emigration into it imme- 
diately commenced. During the years 
1813 and 1814, it was harassed bv the 
attacks of the savages, who were reduced 
to submisfflon by general Jackson. In 
1817, the western portion of the territory 
became the state of MisaisBippi, and the 
eastern the territory of Alabama, which, 
by an act of congress, March, 1819, vras 
admitted into the Union as an indepen- 
dent state. By its constitution, adopted 
July, 1819, the legislative power is vested 
in two houses, chosen by universal suf- 
fiage.— 'Many of the settlers in this state 
are rich plantevB. Some of the lands were 



196 



ALABAMA— ALAMANNI. 



sold for $50 an acre in a state of nature. 
The fertility of tiie soil, the genertd salu- 
brity and miMness of the climate, the 
ffreat fiicilities fbr intenial narigation and 
foreign commerce, sufficiently account fbr 
t))e rapid mcrease of its population. — 
F'or an account of tiie Yazoo lands, and 
tlie proceedings of the legislature of 
Georgia respecting tliem, see Ckor^itu 
For Sie constitution of A. see CmutUur 
turns ofihe U. States, 

Alabama ; a rrver which gives its name 
to the state so called ; (see tlie preceeding 
article). It is formed by the junction of 
tie Coosa and Tallapoosa, and, flowing 
S. S. W., unites with the Tombeckbee, 
45 miles above Molnle hay, to form the 
river Mobile. From the junction to Clair- 
borne, 60 miles, it is navigable at all sea- 
s(ms for vessels drawing 6 feet. From 
Clairbome to the mouth of the Cahawba, 
about 150 miles, the river has 4 or 5 feet 
of virater. From the mouth of the Cahaw- 
ba to the junction of the Coosa and Talla- 
poosa, the navigation generally continues 
good, the river affording «3 feet of water in 
the shallowest places. The river is sub- 
ject to great vanodon by rising and falling. 

Alabama ; a tribe of Indians so called, 
whicli formerly inhabited the eastern side 
of the Mobile river. 

Alabaster (in Greek, itXa^anr^oi; in 
Latin, alabcL8Ur\ in mineralogy ; (see Oifp- 
sum.) In sculpture ; the common name, 
among ancient and modem artists, for 
gypsum and the calc-»nter of modem min- 
eralogy. A. has a greater or less degree 
of trans]>arency, according to its good- 
ness ; has a granular texture, is softer than 
moH^le, does not take so fine a polisli, and 
is usually of a pure white color. In Eu- 
rope, it is found near Coblentz in Germa- 
ny; in the neighborhood of Cluny, in 
France ; in Italy,near Rome. Some of the 
A. near this city is particularly celebrated 
fbr its whiteness and the «ze of its blocks, 
which are lam enough for a statue of the 
size of life. There are, also, many quar- 
ries of the granular gypsum, which is used 
for the manufiicture of plaster of Paris, in 
Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, Eng- 
land. To prepare the plaster, the gyp- 
sum is burned and ground. Moulds and 
casts from statues and other sculptures 
are formed from this valuable material, 
and also a very strong cement for the use 
of the sculptor and mason, to form the 
close jomts of mari)le ; plasterers use it 
also mucii, particularly for mouldings 
and fbliaae. The ancients obtained large 
bk)cks of A. from Thebes (where was a 
town from which it received this name), 



and used it for statues and cohimns. The 
various museums cmitain m^oy vases and 
similar articles of A., fbr which the Ro- 
mans often employed this material. They 
imported much fifom Cyprus, Spain and 
even Africa. They liked paiticulariy to 
put their lamps in vases of transparent A^ 
which eave an agreeable softness to the 
liffht In the museums, several figurss 
of ancient sculpture are preserved, the 
bodies of which are of A. and the heads 
of some other substance. A box, vasci, 
or other vessel, to hold perfumes, formed 
of A. was caltod by the ancients aHaboB' 
truan ; Horace calls them onydbdes. The 
alabastrum is always among the attrilmtes [ 
ofiheBaihing Venus. Oriental A. was the 
most sought after fbr the purpose of 
making these vessels. 

Alacrahes ; a range of bidden rocks, 
shoals and banks in Sie gulf of Mexico, 
near the coast of YucatML Lon. 90^ 

w.; lataa^ae'N. 

Aladan, Alada, or Aladine Islaitds 
a cluster of small idands in the bay of 
Bengal, belonging to what is sometimes 
called the Mergvi Arck^dagOj near the 
coastof Slam. They run from d^5^to 9^ 
40^, N. lat, and are in 97° 5iy, £. Ion. 

Alamaniti, Luigi; a fiunous Italian 
poet, bom at Florence, in 1495, of one of 
the noblest and most distinguished fiuni- 
lies of the republic. His fuher was zeal- 
ously devoted to the party of the Medici, 
and he himself stood in high favor with 
the cardinal Giulio, who governed in the 
name of pope Leo X; but, conceiving 
himself to have been injured, he Joined a 
conspiracy formed agamst the life of the 
cardmaL The plan was discovered ; A. 
fled to Venice, and, when the cardiiud as- 
cended the papal chair, under the name 
of Clement V II, he took refuge in France. 
But the misfortunes which befell this pope 
{giving Florence an opportunity to become 
tree, in 1527 A. retumed thither. His 
countiy sent him on an embassy to Geir- 
00. Here he became the friend of An- 
drew Doria, with whose fleet he went to 
Spain. Charles V soon after sailed in 
the same fleet from Spain to Italy, to ar- 
range the affairs of Florence, and suliject 
it to the Medici. After this new revolu- 
tion, A., proscril)ed by the duke Aleasan- 
dro, went to France, where tlie frvors 
of Francis I retained him. Here he 
composed the greater part of his w<M!ksL 
The king esteemed him so hifhlv, that, 
after the peace of Crespy, in 1544, he sent 
him as ambassador to tne emperor Charles 
V. A. discharged his office with great 
He was held in like estimation by 



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ALAMANNl— ALARIC. 



127 



Henry 11, who aleo employed him in aev- 
eral negotiations. He ibUowed the court, 
and was with it at Amboise, when he was 
attacked with the dysentery, which ter- 
minated his life. His principal worics are 
a ooOection of poems, eclogues, psalms, 
aatireB, ele^es, mbles, 6lc^ piut in blank 
vene, the mvention of which is contested 
with him by Trissino; Open 7\Mcatie, 
a didactic poem ; La CotttiMBeume, to 
iriiich he is mostly indebted for his fimae ; 
Ginme U Onieit^ a heroic' poem, in 
34 cantofl, fix>m an old French poem of 
the same name ; La ^^oarekUk, an eiMO, 
in which he describes, in a few happy 
imitations of Homer, the siege of the city 
of Bourra (Avaricum,) likewise in 34 
cantos ; IJara^ a comedy in versi sdruc- 
cioU (see Rh/me); and a number of epi- 
grams. The writings of A. are recom- 
mended by ease, perspicuity and purity 
of style, but often want strength and 
poetic elevation. 

A-LA-Mi-ftE, in music; an Italian 
method to determine the key of A, by its 
doDunant, and subdominant, A £ D. In 
the Guidooian scale of music, a-la-mi-re 
is the octave above a-re, or A in the first 
space in the base. 

AxAN, or Allen, William, was bom 
in Lancashire, in 1532. Being warmly 
attached to the Roman Catholic religion, 
he left England on the accession of Eliz- 
abeth; and, though he soon after returned, 
he lived in the greatest privacy, and final- 
ly fled to Flanders. He was, both during 
this concealment in England and his res- 
idence abroad, actively en^paged in writing 
and distributing polemical tracts, and was 
one of the ablest advocates of Rome. He 
asseited the necessi^ of deposing Eliza- 
beth, maintained that heresy absolved 
subjects firom their allegiance, and recom- 
mended the invasion of En|^land by the 
Spaniards. For these services he* was 
created a cardinal, and continued to re- 
aide at Rome till his death, in 1594. 

AutNB ; a cluster or islands in the gulf 
of Bothnia ; 5GP XT to 60° 32^ N. lat., and 
18° 47' to 21° 37' E. long. They contain 
13^340 inhabitants, of whom more than 
9000 belong to the principal island of the 
same name, which is 40 miles long and 
30 bitMuL Above 80 of these islands and 
rocks are inhabited. They contain some 
good haibors. In 1809, this cluster of 
idands, together with Finhmd, was made 
over ^Sweden to Russia. The ffovem- 
roent ft>tmded a city there, and fertified 
some spots. The ground is so stony, and 
the soil BO thin, that the crops sometimes 
either in hot summers. Several circum- 



stances conspire to make tlie Aland isles 
the principal rendezvous of the Russian 
fleets, which ride there secure in fortified 
harbora. These circumatances are, the 
eariy breaking of the ice in spring ; the 
lateness of the period till which tlie har- 
bors and roadsteads remain open and free 
from ice, on account of the strenff cuirents 
which cross t)iere fix>m the gulfi of Both- 
nia ftml Finland ; the facihty of observing 
the ships entering lake Maler, and of 
watching the Swedish coasting trade 
along the right coast of the gulf of Both- 
nia, as well as of protecting the Russian 
coasting trade on the left shore of the 
same gulf. 

Alani, or A1.AN8 ; one of the warlike 
tribes which migrated firom Asia west- 
ward at the time of the declme of the 
Roman empire. They appear to have 
lived near mount Caucasus. A part of 
the tribe (about 375 A. D.) viras conquered 
by the Huns ; another part turned their 
steps towards the west, probably, drove 
the Vandals and Suevi firom their abodes, 
and passed with them over the Rhine into 
France and Spain (about 407). The Vis- 
iffoths drove mem fiK»m hence or reduced 
them to subjection ; and, since 412, they 
are lost among the Vandals. (<}. v.) 

Alaric, king of the Visigoths; tlie 
least barbarous of all the conquerors who 
ravaged the Roman empire. Histoiy first 
mentions him about A. D. 395, when the 
Goths' were united vrith the armies of 
TheodosiuB the Great, in order to repel 
the Huns, who menaced the western em- 
pire. This alliance disclosed to A. the 
weakness of the Roman empire, and in- 
spired him with the resolution of attack- 
ing it himself. The dissensions between 
the two sons and successors of Theodo- 
sius, Arcadius and Honorius, and their 
ministers, Rufinus and Stilico, facilitated 
the execution of his purpose ; and, though 
the brave Stilico was successfiil in avert- 
ing his first attack, in the years 400—408, 
by routmg him on the Adda and at Ve- 
rona, yet A. found, in 404, an opportu- 
nity of returning to Italy with his aitny. 
By the mediation of Stiuco, he conclud- 
ed a compact with Honorius, conforma- 
bly to which he was to advance to Epirus, 
and firom thence to attack Arcadius^ in 
conjunction vrith the troops of Stihco. 
This war did not take place ; but A. de- 
manded an indemnification for having 
undertaken the expedition, and Hono- 
rius, at the advice of Stilico, promised 
him 4000 pounds of gokl (see 5KZtoo) ; 
but, after tne execution of the lattev, he 
failed to fiilfil his promise. A. advanced 



/Google 



138 



ALARIC— ALBALONGA. 



with an army to Italy, and inveated Rome ; 
but waa persuaded- to apare the city on 
leoeiving a ranaom of 5000 poundfas of 
gold, aOyOi^pounda of nlver, 4000 silk 
ganuentB, dOOO piecea of fine acarlet cloth, 
and 3000 pounds of pepper. Negotiations 
took place between Honoiius, in Raven- 
na, and A^ widi a view of putting an end 
to the war; but the parties could not 
agree, and A. besiesed Rome a second 
time. By cutting on the supplies of the 
city, he soon compelled a capitulation, 
by virtue of which the senate declared 
the prefect of the city, Attalus, emperor 
instead of Honorius. But Attalus evinced 
so little prudence, that A. obliged him 
publicly to r^^ the empty dignity. 
Ne^tiations again took place with Ho- 
nonuB, but were as unsuccessful as the 
former, and A. besieged Rome fbr die 
third time. The Goths penetrated into 
the city in 410, sacked it, burned a pa^ 
of it, and destroyed a great quantity of 
ancient works of art. But the modera- 
tion of A. is praised, because he gave 
orders to spare the churehes, and those 
who had fled to them fbr shelter. The 
once proud mistress of the world now' 
experienced a severe retribution fbr the 
sunerings which she had caused to sq 
many cities, coimtries and nations in the 
days of her former splendor and power. 
The treasures collected during a thousand 
years, firom all quarters, became the prey 
of barbarians. A. left Rome after a resi- 
dence of 6 days, with the view of reduc- 
ing Sicily and Africa. He had alrMdy laid 
waste Campania, Apulia and Calabria^ 
when death overtook him at Cosenza, a 
Calabrian town, A. D. 410. He was buri- 
ed in the channel of the Busento, that his 
remains might not be found by the Ro- 
mans ; and the captives employed in the 
work were murdered. Rome and Italy 
celebrated public festivals on the occa- 
sion ; Sicily and Afiica saw themselves 
freed from imminent danger; and the 
world enjoyed a moment of peace. But 
the march of desolation was soon re- 
newed; the barbarians had learned the 
way to Rome ; A. had taught them the 
weakness of the former queen of the 
worid. 

Alatamaha, or Altamaha ; the larg- 
est river of the state of Georgia, formed 
by the junction of the Oakmukee and 
Oconee, both of which rise in the spurs 
of the Allegany mountains. A^er the 
junction, the A. becomes a large river, 
flowing with a gentle current, through 
forests and plains, 190 miles, and runs 
Into St Simon's sound by several mouthS| 



60mi1es S. W. Savannali. Its average 
breadth is about 600 yards, its depth 8 
feet, and the bur at the mouth of the 
river has 14 feet of water at low tide. 
Large steam-boats have ascended the 
Oconee branch to MiUedfieville, and the 
Oakmulgee to Macon, about 900 milee 
from the ocean by the windings of the 



Ai^T, or THuRipA; die name of a 
ceremony practised by the Tuiks at the 
commencement of war. We are in- 
formed by baron Tott (q. v.), who saw the 
ceremony which accompanied the break- 
ing out of a war between Russia and the 
porte, that the A. consists of a kind of 
masquerade, in which the difierent trades- 
men exhibit the imiriements of their re- 
active arts, and tneir mode of opera- 
tions. (A mmilar exhibition of various 
trades was seen in the proeesncm formed 
to celebrate the commencement of the 
rail-road at Baltimore, July 4, 1838.) 
The mechanics are followed by the stand- 
aid of the prophet Mahomet, brought 
firom the seraglio, to be carried to the 
Ottoman armv. This sacred banner is 
viewed with fanatical reverence. None 
but emire are allowed to touch it; and 
the very look of an infidel is said to be 
sufficient to profane it. The A. having 
been almost forgotten, from the long 
peace which preceded the war above- 
mentioned, the Christians imprudently 
crowded to wimess the exhibition; the 
emir, who preceded the holy standard, 
cried with a loud voice, " Let no infidel 
profane with his presence the banner of 
the prophet; and let every Mussulman, 
who perceives an unbeliever, moke it 
known under pain of reprobation.'* At 
these words, the fanaticism of the Turks 
was roused, and a horrid massacre of the 
Christians began, in which no age and 
neither sex was spared. 

Alba Lonoa; a considerable city of 
Latium ; according to tradition, built by 
Ascanius, the son of JSneas ; governed, 
after the death of its founder, ay JEnesM 
Sylvius, the second son of JESaeas. It 
was the Inrthplace of Romulus and Re- 
mus, the parent of Rome, under whose 
dominion it fell, in consequence of the 
victoiy of the Romans in the contest be- 
tween the Horatii and Curiatii. The beau- 
tiful lake of Albano, with its canal, and 
the castle of GandoUTo, still remind us of 
A. (See Mdmhr^s Rtman Ifisf.)— There 
was also a city of Alba near the Lacus 
Fucinus, a town of the Marsi ; an A. Pom- 
peia in Liguria, and an A. Julia, now 
Weissembui^g, in Transylvania. 



ALBAN-.ALBANIA* 



1SS» 



AxBAif ) St, li^ed in the dd csentuiy, aad 
is said to have been the fint person who 
sufiored maityrdonk lor ChristiBnity iu 
Great Britun. He was bom near the 
«>wn which now bean his name, in Hert- 
ibidshire. In his youth, he served 7 
vesiB as a soldier, under the emperor 
biocletian. Returning to Britain, he em- 
Inced Christianity, and suffered inartyr- 
dom in the great persecution which took 
pbce IB the time of the above emperor. 
A number of miracles are attributed to 
this saint. The celebraied monasteiy of 
St Alban^ was founded between 4 and 5 
centuries after his death, by Ofb, king 
ofMeicia. 

Aujjn ; a rich and powerful family 
of Rome, which fled before the Turin in 
the 16lfa century, fiom Albania to Italy. 
Here it was divided into two branches ; 
Ifae one constimting the fiunily of Beiga* 
mo ; the other, that of Urbino. The Ro- 
man bianeh of the A. owes its splendor 
to a fortunate circumstance. It was an 
A. who announced to Uriian VIII the 
aoqnjB^on of Urtiino ; aad riches and 
poets of honor were the reward of his 
tidings. The influence of the ftmily was 
veiy great when Clement XI ascended 
the papal chair, in 1700. Of tlie nephews 
of this pope, Annihale A., Alessandro A., 
and Giovanni Francesco A., Annihale has 
distinguished himself by his writings and 
collections of books and woiks of art, 
which have been inoorporaied with the 
treasures of the Vatican. Alessandro A., 
hnyounger brother, bom at Urbino in 
IBSif took orden at the express desire of 
pope Clement XI. He was raised to the 
dicnity of cardinal, in 1721, by Innocent 
Xlll. As a i|iember of the sacred col* 
l^e, as protectinr of Sardinia, and, under 
Benedict XIV, as associate protector of 
flie imperial states, he took an active part 
m all the contests in which the papal 
court was then engaged, particulariy on 
account of his peat fiiendship for the 
Jesuits, of which many proofe exist, es- 
pecially in the journals of fiither Corda- 
re. In the charms of a ouiet, Uteraiy 
lifo, of agreeable socie^,ana a well-filled 
table, tiM cardinal found neater enjoy- 
ment than in the turnKm of business. 
One of his greatest pleasures vras in a 
collection of woiks of art, which he was 
asnsced in arranging b^ Winckelmann, 
whoae collections he mherited. It is 
known how nncerely Winckelmann was 
devoted4o the canfinal, whose knowledge 
could appreciate and second the genius 
ofthearcheeotogiBt Of this, his splendid 
viUa before Porta Salanu at Rome, not* 




withstanding many losses, affimis striking 
proof. Morcelli, Msrini, Fea andZoega 
combined to make it known, and owe a 
portion of their own reputation to its 
treasures. It contains the richest modem 
private collection, and does honor to the 
taste of its founder. It was said in Rome, 
soon after the death of the cardinal, as a 
proof of hiB- acquaintance with ancient 

diat he could distinguish the genu- 
>m the counterfeit by the mere 

, without the aid of his eyes. Inde- 
active, yet never an author, the 
died, Dec 11, 1779. Dionigio 
Skrocchi has written his life. 

AiAAKi, Francesco, a femous painter, 
bom at Bologna, in 1578, entered the 
school of DionysiuB Calvert, a Flemish 
painter, who had a great reputation in 
Bologna. A. was one of his most distin- 
guiriied scholan. He labored here sev- 
eral years, in cimnexion vrith Bomenieh- 
ino, to whom he was closely attached by 
ftiendship and love of ait ; and some le- 
semblance is perceptible in their manner 
of coloring. But in mvention he sur- 
passes lus fijend, and, indeed, all his rivaki 
of the school of Calveit. His female 
forms Mengs places above those of all 
odier painters ; an opinioa which we can- 
not assent to unooncUtionally. Those of 
his compositions that are most fiiequently 
met with are, the sleepin^^ Venus ; Diana 
in the bath ; Danae rechning ; Galathea 
on the sea ; Europe on the buD. Scrip- 
tural subjects he has less fi»<|uently se- 
lected ; when he has, the pemtings are 
principally distinguished for the beautv 
of the heads of ttie an^ls. In general^ 
he was most successful m paintings of a 
limited chancter. He had a numerous 
school m Rome and Bologna. The 
scholars of Ghiido. with whom he vied^ 
accused him of emminacy and weakness 
of style, and maintained that he knew 
not how to give any digni^ to male 
figures. Foi Uiat reason, he avoided sub- 
jectB which demand fire and spirit, and 
has been called, not without reason, the 
Anaereon of pahitera. The narrowness 
vof his sphere of excellenoe was eventu- 
ally injurious to him. He outlived his 
feme, and died in 1660, in the SSd year 
of his age. He lefi behind him several 
writings, which Mslvasia has preserved. 
Albahia (m the Turidsh language, 
Ammd; in the Albanian, SSfc^en) ; (Epirus 
and lUyria); a Turidsh iwovince in Ar- 
naut-Wilajeti, extending nomthe Drino to 
the Acrocemmian mountains, along the 
coast of the Adriatic and Ionian seas. It 
has a delicious ctimate, and produces iu 

. ..gitized by Google 



130 



ALBANIA— ALBAIfO. 



abundaace wine, man^ oil, tobacco, cot- 
ton, wood, nunerusalt, and homed cattle. 
The principal mountainB are the Monte- 
negro and the Chiineni ; the principal 
riven the Drino, Bojana, Sonuna, &c 
The dOOfiOO inhabitants are compoaed of 
Turks, Greeks, Jews and AmautB ; the ' 
last of which constitute the boldest sol- 
dien in the Turkish armies. The country- 
is divided into the pashalics of Janina, 
Qbessan and Scutari, and the sanj^iacats 
of Aulona and Delvino. The principal 
cities are Janina, Delvino^ Scutari, Du- 
razzo, Argyro-Gastro, Valona, &c. The 
authority of the porte in this region is 
very uncertain, bemff more or less relax- 
ed m proportion as ue independent com- 
munities and be^s eofau^ *or C(xitiact 
their possessions, in opposition to the pa- 
shas whom it appoints. The vast, moon- 
tainouB coast or A. is veiy little known. 
The Venetian ^vemment, while the re- 
public of Venice existed, dafended it 
uainst any permanent conquest l^ the 
'rakish pashas. Here Chedc and Gath- 
olic Christians, and Mahometans like- 
wise, hve in a half savage state, and under 
the most various forms of goyemment. 
At the time of the revolt of the Greeks, 
the most soulheni part of Albania took 
the ancient name of J^pwtit. (See l^ptrti*.) 
From the lake of Janma arise the rivers 
Acheron (q. v.) and Oocytus, not fiur finm 
the mouth of which lies FBigtL Epirus, 
especially in the neigfabniioiKl of the sea, 
is a ftttile country; it produces wine, 
com and firnit. In ancient times, its 
horses were ftmed fyr swifiness, its 
cows far size, and its dogs for strngth 
and courage. These races seem now to 
be extinct Before the Greek revolntion, 
Ali Pasha (q. v.) ruled in Janina. In 
Scutari, there are yet independent com- 
munities, the inhahtfants of mount Mon- 
tenesro, the Suliots and others in the 
neignborfaood of the former Venetian, 
now AfMCrian, territory. These small fhee 
tribes enjoyed, as fong as the r^ublie of 
Venice exisied, the secret protection of 
that goveramttit ; to whidi is to be at- 
tributed their success in 'maintaining 
themselves agamst the Turkish force, 
and the violenoe of private feuds. The 
same pofig^ was pursued likewise by the 
French Ifiyiian government In the 
country itself; the Amauts are called 
Sandan. They are boU and indeftti- 
^le, but mercmiary and perfidious war- 
riofs. Tli^ once constituted the flovror 
of the Turkish army. Every one vrho 
has no landed profserty seeks to acquwe 
the means of obtaining it, by incursions 



into die neichboring territory, or military 
service in foreign countries. The sons 
of influential mnilias, or distinguished 
soldiers, collect a troop, and, like the for- 
mer condMari of Italy, sell their aid to 
any one who wHl pay them welL This 
migration of armed hordes, caused by the 
want of landed proper^ sufficient to 
support them, is a national instinct, com- 
mon to the Greek, Catholic and Ma- 
hometan Amauts. f*or this reason, the 
communities in the most fertile valleys 
rarely increase, and there is 41 great dis- 
proportion of unmanned females^ But in 
case of attack, the women defend their 
homes and property with masculine cour- 
age. The political influence of the clei^ 
is great among the Chrbtian Amauta. 

Albano. Roman tradition represents 
Alba Longa as the parent city or Rome. 
It gives us a catalogue of the kings of 
A11», who lived beforo the foundation of 
the latter city ; but this is now univeisaUy 
b(^e ved to be fiimlous. TuUus Hostilius 
is said to have destroyed the city, and 
transplanted tfaa inhahitams to kome. 
Its Bite was afterwards occupied Irv a 
village, surrounded by the splendid villas 
of the Roman ndbnfity. Tiberius and 
Domitian indulged in their palaces at A. 
their appetite for pleasure and for craelty. 
The present A. still gkuries in its old re- 
nown. On the mountain of A. the anni- 
rersary of the alliance of the Romans and 
Latins, cmicluded under Tarquin the 
Proud, was celebrated with peculiar so- 
lemnities. The lake of A. is a wonder 
of nature and ancient art During the 
war with Veii, 995 B. €., this lake is said 
to have risen in a hot summer, without 
any visible cause, to an unusual height 
Etruscan soothsayers spread the repoit, 
that the fote of Veii depended on the 
drawing ofi^ of this water ; and the Ro- 
mans^ confirmed in this belief by a Del- 
phic oracle, erected a remarkable stract- 
ure for this purpose. (Lh. r. 15^19.] 
Durinff the labor, they probably learned 
fix>m Sie architectural Etruscans the art 
of excavating subterranean canals, which 
they soon applied to undermining the 
fortifications of Veiij and thereby gained 
possession of the city. The canal of the 
lake of A. b 9700 paces in len^, 6 feet 
high, and 9| broad. Niebnhr, m his Rs- 
fiMeht GfefcA»eft(«(Roman History), part2, 
page 294, reflards ihis admirable work as 
an ancient hubor or all Latium ; or, if be- 
longing particularly to Rome, to be re- 
ferred to the age of the kings. The Al- 
banian stone is also femous. It is of a 
dark-gray color, and is excavated in large 



digitized by 



Google 



ALBANO— ALBATROSS. 



m 



A. It if of two khids; 
one of wliich k called Sperom^ the 
other Pepaitm. Of this, ms Winckel- 
mann, was made the foundation of the 
cafHtol at Rome, buih in the year of the 
dty 387, of which five kyen of large 
stonea are still to be seen aoore flonndi 
The doaca nuacmOi a work of the T^ 
cnins, as well as the most ancient of the 
Roman funenJ monmnents at A., and 
anodier of their oldest worio, oonstnicted 
about the 358th year of die dty, the out* 
let of the lake of A., at present Lago di 
CHtflllo, are buih of this stona 

Albai^, or Albani, counlesB of; prin* 
eesi Louisa Maria Caroline, or Aloysia, 
bora m 1753, cousin of the last reigning 
prince of Stolbeig-Gedem, who died in 
laM, mnried, in 1773, the English pre- 
tader, Charles Stuart After this mar- 
riage, she bore the title of countess of A. 
Her marriage was unfruitful and unhap* 
py. To escape from the bariiarity of her 
hnaband, who lived in a continual state 
of intoxication, she retired, in 1780, to a 
doiater. After his death, in 1788, the 
French court conferred on her an annu- 
ity <^ 6^000 litres. She survived the 
house of Stuart, which became extinct at 
the death of her brother-in-law, the car- 
dinal of York, in 1807. (See Stuart) She 
died at Florence, her usual {dace of resi- 
denoe, Jan. 29, 1834, in her 70d year. 
Her name and her misfortunes have been 
tiansmitted to posterity in the worics and 
the autobiography of cotmt Victor Alfieri. 
lliis ftunous poet called her mia donna, 
and eonfessea that to her he owed his 
iaspiiaticni. Without the fiiendship of 
die counteas of A., he has said that he 
never should have achieved any thing[ 
excellent : ** Jtnztt laqutUa non auni mm 
ftUo mdla di Imtmo.^ The sketch of his 
firet meeting with the countess, qndia 
MiOimma e heBa ngnora^ as he calls 
ner, is ftill of sentiment and genuine po- 
etiy. (See Ayieru) Her aahea and thoae 
of Affleri now repose under a common 
monument, in the ohurch of Santa Croce, 
at Florence, between the tombs of Ma- 
chiaveHi and Michael Angela 

Ai.BAifT, a city of New Yorii, the seat 
of the government of the state, is rituated 
on the west bank of the Hudson, 144 
mifeB N. of the city of New York; kit. 
43»a0'N.; Ion.73^ Id' W.; pop. in 1810, 
9,356; in 18S)0, 12,013; and in 188& 
15;974. Albany lies near the head of 
tkle-water, on one of the finest rivers in 
the world, which is navigable as ftur as 
the citv for sloops of 80 tons ; and, ex- 
oqicwlien the nver is obatructed by ioa. 



steam-boats run daily between this phce 
and the citv of New York. The Ekie 
and Champiain canals form a junction at 
Watervliet, about 8 miles nevth of the 
city, and their united channel is connect** 
ed at A. vrith a large basin, which covets 
a surftee of 32 acres, on the west side of 
the river. These advantages^ together 
with many stage-coaches in vanous diiec- 
tiODB, render A, one of the greatest thor- 
oughftres in the United StatelB. The city 
cairies on an exiennve trade by means 
of sloops, chiefly with the city of New 
Yorit; and also, to a consideralMe amount, 
with Bostxm, Philadelphia, and other 
places. The exports consist of wheat, 
and various other kinds of produce.^-'A. 
was settled by the Butch alM>ut the year 
1614, and is, next to Jamestown in Vir- 
nnia, the oldest town in the U. Statea 
The site on. which it is built is veiy un- 
even, and it was originally laid out wiUi 
little regard to elegance. The older 
houses are in the Dutch style, with the 
gable ends to the streets; but within the 
ust 20 years, the city has been greatly 
improved, and it now contains many 
elegant public and private buildingB. 
The principal pubtic eoifices are die oap^ 
itol or sjtate-hottse, a large structure of 
stone, the Albany academy, a spacious 
and elegant edifice, the state-hall for the 
public offices, a state arsenal, and 12 
houses of public wor^p. 

Ai.bant; the modem district of die 
cokmy of the cape of Good Hope. (See 
Good Hope.) 

Albateosb {diomedeoy L.); a aenus of 
web-footed birds, having me following 
generic characters: a very k>ng bill, 
wliich is sutured, robust, thick, straight 
and laterally compressed, terminating in 
a large hook, apparently articulated there- 
with. The upper mandible is lateralhr 
grooved, and the short, tubular nostrils 
are situated in these grooves ; the lower 
mandible is truncated. The toes are very 
long, and are webbed with an entire 
membrane ; the lateral toes are Mtemally 
edged by a narrow membrane. There is 
no hind toe nor nail ; the nails are short 
andMunt The tail is rounded, and com- 
posed of fourteen feathers.— The A. most 
generally known is the dkmedea exvkms 
of natnnilistB, ib»JrigaU hM^ m&n^/-^war 
IM and etpe Bhiep of aaikna. It is the 
bigest of marine l^nlB,as its winss, when 
extended, measure fiom 10 to 12 feet fixvm 
tip to tip. These fenff wings are veiy 
narrow, but the A. iiehig extremely 
strongs is able to fly widi ease over a vast 
space. Except during high winds, when 

.y,u...oy Google 



lao 



ALBATR68S. 



It wBKeoda to ifce superior rogionfl of the 
mif the A. aaiki gently over the surftee 
of the billows, rising and sinkisg in grace* 
fill undulation, and seizing with avidity 
eveiy hickleas creature that approaches 
the Buiftce. Pursuing its prey in this 
manner, it ui^^ its flight mr from land, 
and, by occasionally ahghting upon ves- 
sels, deceives the iiiexperienced voyager 
into an idea that the shore cannot be vecy 
distant At night, this foigd settles down 
upon the waves, and sleeps securelv until 
hunger egein commands a renewal of its 
efforts.— The A. miffht be assumed as a 
perfect emblem of ^uttony, as it is scarce- 
ly poBsibley in description, to do justice to 
its ezcessive voraci^. Whenever food is 
abundant, it gorges to such a degree as to 
become unable either to fly or swim; 
frequendy it is ^seen in this state, with a 
fish partly swallowed and partly hangine 
fix>m its mouth. The guDs then atSack 
and wony it until it dSgoraes, its prey, 
upon which they are ready to seize. 
When caught by lyand, it makes violent 
struggles with its wings, and strikes with 
its beak. Fish spawn, gelatinous mol- 
luscie, and various small marine animaliB 
eoBstitute its ordinary food. Flying-fish 
are also particukriy exposed to tliis de- 
vourer, whose swiftness of wing is far 
superior to theirs. The voice of 3ie A. is 
a harsh, disagreeable cry, somewhat re- 
sembling that of a pelican; it has also 
been compered to the braying of an ass. — 
Towards the middle of June, vast num- 
bers of these birds flock towards the coast 
of Kamtschatka, the sea of Ochotsk, the 
shores of the Kurile ishmds and Behring's 
straits. They arrive there, extremely leui, 
a short time preceding the fish, which 
come annually to spawn in the fresh wa^ 
ter of the rivers ; but, soon after, the birds 
become very fiit finom the abundance of 
food. They begin to retue fipom these 
coasts about the end of July, and b^ the 
15th of August the whole have disap- 
peared. During their sojourn, the Kamt- 
sehadales catch nombera of them by bait- 
ing books with fish, or by knocking them 
oa the head iff hen oversorged. They are 
not taken for their flesh, which is coarse, 
rank and disgusdng ; but their large, hol- 
low wing-bones fiunish the natives with 
various useful implements, while certain 
parts of their intestines are inflated and 
employed as floats for fishiag-net&— About 
the middle of September, they seek the 
southern shores of America, for the pur- 
pose of breeding ; there they build nests 
of earth two feet or more hish, and lay 
utmierc»U8 eggs, wbicli are urger than 



those of a goose, being dwut 41 UMsfaes 
long, generuly white, except towards the 
larger extremity, wh^ie they are speckled 
witn black. These ecgs are edible, and 
it is stated, by those who have used them, 
that the white is not rendered hard by 
boilinff. While the female sits upon the 
nest, me male is industriously employed 
in supplying her with food. This seems 
to be more especially necessary, as hawks 
are constantly on the watch ibr an oppor- 
tunity of pouncing upon the egos the 
moment the nest is left exposed. As 
soon as the A. finally relinquishes the 
nest, it is taken possession oTby a species 
of penguin. — ^The common A. (tHomedea 
exutanu^ is fi^m 3 to 4 feet long, of a 
grayish-brown or whitish color, with lines 
of black upon the back and wings. The 
inferior purt of the body and rump are 
white ; the end of the tail and a great 
part of the wings are black. The shafts 
of the quills are yellow. The feet, toes 
and web membrane are of a reddish- 
brown color ; the beak is blackish. The 
febiale is similar to the male ; theyoung 
difler much fiom the adult. The A. 
moults twice a year without changing its 
colors. — ^Three other q»ecies are consid- 
ered as havinff been established by natu- 
ralists : diommea Murorh^neos, black and 
yellow-beaked A^ of the size of a domestic 
goose ; dUmedea metdieea^ dark-brown or 
chocohite-colored A., larger than the c<»n- 
mon goose ; diomedMjmigmotay sooty or 

Quaker A., smaller than me common A. 
I is highly probable that fiiture investi- 
gation will reduce the nuiuJer of species 
which have been proposed. — This bird is 
most commonly found within the tropics, 
about the cape of Good Hope, and even 
amid the ice of the Austral seas. It is 
sometimes, though rarely, seen on the 
coasts of the MidcDe Statesof the Union. — 
Except what has been already mentioned 
relative to the use made of them by the 
Kamtschadales, we know of no economic 
purpose for which they are employed. 
Possibly their large quiljs might be found 
useful, if obtained in sufficient numbers. — 
The importance of the A. in the economy 
of nature may b^ readily collected fi^m 
what we have stated relative to its ftiod, 
and the vast extent of surfece over which 
it can protract its flight It serves as one 
of the numerous restrainers of the sup^ 
abundant increase of animal life, and, in 
its turn, becomes the prey of creatures 
stronger or more sanguinary than itseUl 
Among others, a species of Ustris is a 
dreadml eneniV, and beats it, while on the 
wingi until tne A. di^;orges. its food. 



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ALBATROSS— ALBERT L 



V^ 



which the ochor immediately seizee, or 
the bkowB are continued until the huge 
bud expires, a victim to the iHTenous ap- 
petite of its adversary. This fierce bird 
is cMnmonly caUed the skuappdl; but it 
is improperly termed guU, being more 
closely allied to the petrels and A. in ap- 
peaiance ; in habits, it has some analogy 
with the eagles. When the A. is attacked 
by a flock of gulls or other birds, while 
on the wing, it has no other resource but 
that of suddenly dro^^ing upon the water. 
Under all circumstances, however, the 
cowardice of this gigantic bird is equal to 
its voiracious gluttony. 

AusEMAKLE SouND ; an inlet of the sea 
on the east coast of N. Carolina. It ex- 
tends into the country 60 miles, and is 
fiiom 4 to 15 wide. It mav be considered 
as an estuary of the Roanoke and Chowan 
riverB. It communicates with the Atlan- 
tic ocean and Pamlico sound by small 
inlets, and with Chesapeake bay by a 
canal cut through Dismal swamp. 

Ai.B«ROifi, Giulio, cardinal, and minis- 
ter of the king of Spain, was the son of a 
gaxdener. He was bom in 1664, at F^- 
renzuola, a viUage of Parma, and edu- 
cated for the church. His first ofiSce was 
that of bell-ringer in the .cathedral of 
Piacenza. Possessed of uncommon tal- 
ents, he soon became canon, chaplain and 
favorite of the count Roncovieri, and 
bishop of Sl Donnin. The duke of 
Paima sent him as his minister to Ma- 
drid, where he gained the affection of 
Philip V. He rose, by cunning and in- 
trigue, to the station of prime minister ; 
became a cardinal; was all-powerful in 
Spain after the year 1715, and endeavored 
to restore it to its ancient splendor. He 
refbnned abuses, created a naval force, 
<»ganized the Spanish army on the modd 
of the French, and rendered the king- 
dom of Spain more powerful than it had 
been since the time of Philip II. He 
formed the great project of restoring to 
Spain her lost possessions in Italy, and 
he began with Sardinia and Sicily. Even 
when tibe duke of Orleans, regent of 
Frenee. renounced the Spanish alliance 
lo form a connexion with England, the 
proud prelate did not alter his system; 
on the conthuy, he threw off his mask, 
attacked the emperor, and took Sardinia 
and SieOy. Afier the Spanish fleet was 
destfoyed by the English in the Mediter- 
raneaD, he entertained the idea of stirring 
op a genearal war in Eun^ ; of fbnning 
an aiuance fi>r this pinpose with Peter 
the Great and Charies ^I ; of involving 
Austria in a war with Tiukey, exciting 



an insurrection in Hungary, and causing 
the duke of Orleans to be arrested by a 
court faction. But the scheme was dis- 
covered. The duke, in connexion with 
England, declared war against Spain, and 
explained, in a manifesto, the intrigue^ 
of the Itidian cardinal. A Frencli army . 
invaded Spain, and, although Alberoni en- 
deavored to crip^e the power of France 
by fomenting disturi^ances within that 
kingdom, the Spanish monarch became 
despondent, and concluded a peace, the 
chief condition of which was the dismis- 
sal of the cardinal. He received, Dec. 
1720, orders to <}uit Madrid within 24 
hours, and the kmgdom within 5 days. 
He was now expoKd to the vengeance 
of the powers ofTEurope, by all of whom 
he was hated, and saw no country where 
he could abide. He did not even dare to 
go to Rome, because he had deceived the 
pope, Clement XI, in order to obtain the 
rank of cardinal. While crossing the 
IVrenees, his carriage was attacked, one 
of his servants killed, and he himself 
obliged to continue his journey on foot 
and in disguise. He wandered about a 
long time under false names. He was 
arrested in the territory of Genoa, at the 
request of the pope and the lung of 
Spain ; the Genoese, however, soon dis- 
missed him. The death of Clement put 
an end to this persecution, and liis suc- 
cessor, Innocent XHI, restored him, in 
1723, to all the rifl[hts and honors of a 
cardinal. He died m 1752, at the age of 
87 years. 

Albert I, duke of Austria, and after- 
wards emperor of Germany, was bom in 
1248, son of Rodolph of Hapsburg (q. v.], 
who had, a short time before his death, 
attempted to place the cro¥ni on the head 
of his son. But the electors, tired of his 
power, and imboldened by his age and 
infirmities, refiised his request, and in- 
definitely postponed the election of a king 
of the Romans (this was the title of the 
designated successor of the emperor). 
After the death of Rodolph, A., who in- 
herited only the military qualities of his 
&ther, saw his hereditaiy possessions, 
Austria and Stiria, rise up m rebellion 
against hhn. He quelled by force this 
revolt, which his avarice and severity had 
excited; but success increased his pre- 
sumption. He wished to succeed Ro- 
dolph in all his dirties, and, without 
waiting for the dedsion of the diet, seized 
(he insignia of the empire. This act of 
violence induced die electors to choose 
AdolphuB of Nassau emperor. The dis- 
turbances which had broken out against 

Lv.gitized by VjOO^..^ 



134 



ALBERT I.— ALBERT THB GREAT. 



him in Switacrland, and a diaeaae wMch 
deprived him of an eye, made him more 
humble. He delivered up the inflignin, 
and took the oath of allegiance to the new 
emperor. As soon as he hrfd quelled the 
insurreetion in Switzerland, he was in- 
volved in new quarrels with his subjects 
in Austria and Stiria, especially with the 
bishop of Salzburg, who, uj^n the report 
of his death, had made an mcursion mto 
his dominions. In the meantime, Adol- 
phus, after a reign of 6 years, had lost the 
regard of all the princes of the empire. 
A. endeavored to avail himself of this 
change of feeling, and succeeded so far, 
by assumed mildness, in deceiving the 
princes, that they chose him emperor, 
after deposinj; Adolphus at the diet in 
12d8. Adolphus, hovrever, would not re- 
sign his high dignity, and force was feund 
necessary to remove him. The rivals met, 
with then: armies, near Gellheim, between 
Worms and Spire. A. enticed Adolphus, 
by a feigned retreat, to fellow him with 
his cavalry only. The leadens engaged 
hand to hand, and Adolphus exclaimed 
to his adversary, **■ Thou shalt lose at once 
thy crown and life." *^ Heaven will de- 
cide," was the answer of A., striking him 
with his lance in the fece. Adolphus fell 
fiom his horse, and was despatched by 
the companions of his antagonist. The 
last barrier had fellen between A. and the 
supreme power, but he was conscious of 
having now an opportunity of displaying 
his magnanimity. He voluntarily resign- 
ed the crown conferred on him by the 
last election, and, as he had anticipated, 
was reelected. His coronation took place 
at Aix la Chapelle, in August, 1298 ; and 
he held his firat diet at Nurembei^, with 
the utmost splendor. But a new storm 
was gathering over him. The pope, Bon- 
iface VUI, denied the right of the electors 
to dispose of the imperial dignity, de- 
claring himself the real emperor and le- 
{[itimate king of the Romans. He accord- 

E* summoned A. before him, to ask 
m, and submit to such penance as 
lould dictate ; he forbade the princes 
to acknowledge him, and released them 
from their oath of allegiance. The arch- 
bishop of Mentz from a friend became 
the enemy of A^ and joined the party of 
the pope. On the other hand, A. fenned 
an aUiance with Philip le Bel of France, 
secured the neutrality of Saxony and 
Brandenburg, and, by a sudden imipdon 
into the electonte of Mentz, ferced the 
archlnshop not only to renounce his alh- 
aoce with the pope, but to form one with 
him for the 5 ensuing years. Dismayed 



by this rapid Aiocess, Bomfeoe eilteret 
into negotiations with A., in which the 
latter agaa showed the duplicity of his 
character. He broke Ins alliance with 
Phil^ acknowledged that the westeni 
empire was a grant from popes to the 
emperors, that 2ie electors derived their 
right of choosing from the see of Rome, 
and promised to defend with aims the 
rights of the pope, whenever he should 
demand it, against any one. As a reward^ 
Boniface excommunicated Philip, pro- 
claimed him 10 have forfeited his crown, 
and gave the kingdmn ci France to A* 
Philip, however, diastised the pope. A. 
was engaged in unsuccessful wars with 
HoUanci^ Zealand, Friesland, Hungary, 
Bohemia and Thuringia. While prepar- 
ing to revenge a defeat which he had 
simered in Thuringia, he received the 
news of the revolt of the Swiss^ and saw 
himself obliged to direct his forces thither. 
The revolt of Underwalden, Schweitz 
and Uri had broken out Jan. 1, 1308. A. 
had not only foreseen this consequence 
of his oppression, but desired it, in order 
to have a pretence for subjecting Switzer- 
land entirely to himself. A new act of 
injustice, however, put an end to his am- 
l»tion and life. Suabia was the inherit- 
ance of John, the son of his younger 
brother, Rodolph. John had repeatedly 
asserted his right to it, but in vain. When 
A. set out for Switzeriand, John renewed 
his demand, which was contemptuously 
rejected by A., who sooffingly ofi^red him 
a garland of flowers, saying, ** This be- 
comes your age ; leave th<i cares of gov- 
ernment to me." John, in revenge, con- 
spired with his governor, Walter of Es- 
chenbach, and three friends, against the 
life of A. The con^iratois improved the 
moment when the emperor, on his way 
to Rheinfelden, was separated from his 
train by the river Reuss, and assassinated 
him. A. breathed his last. May 1, 1308, 
in the arms of a poor woman, who was 
sitting on the road. He was a prince re- 
gardless of right and equity, t)rrBnnical, 
avaricious, ambitious and able. How 
cruelly Agnes, queen of Hungary, re- 
venged her fethers death, will be related 
under John the Parricide* 

AiJiERT THB Great, or Albbrtds 
Magnus, bishop of Ratisbon; a distin- 
guished scholar of the 13th century. Be- 
sides his theolo^cal learning, he was well 
versed, for his time, in mechanics, nfttural 
history and natural philosophy. He was 
bom in 1193 (acoormng to some accounts^ 
in 1^51 at Lauingen, in Suabia, of the 
noble femily of Bollst&dt } studied at 



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ALBEKT THE GREAT.— ALBINOS. 



135 



PiMlua; becaniA a monk of the Domini- 
cm Older ; id 1264,. was made provincial » 
of hie order; aad, in 1960^ receiTed from 
pope Alexander IV the biahopiiG of Rat- 
isbon. Two yean later, he returned to 
his convent, devoted hixnaelf to acience, 
and produced many learned worin on 
srithmetic, geometiy, optica, muaic, as- 
trology and astronomy. He died in 1280. 
Ai^Bieuisss (Albigeois); a name com- 
moo to aevetai heretical seots, particulariy 
the Orthari and Waldensea, who agreed 
in opposing the dominion of the Roman 
hierarchy, and endeavoring; to restore the 
flin^licity of primitive Chnstianity. They 
had increased very much towards the 
close of the 12th century, in the south of 
France, about Tddlouse and Albi, and 
were ^nominated b^ the crusaders j^., 
from the district Albigeois (territory of 
Albi]^ where the army of the cross, called 
toge&er bypope Iimocent III, attacked 
them in 12Q0. The aflsassination of the 
papal legate and inquisitw, Peter of Casr 
temao, while occupied in extirpating these ' 
heretics in the teiritoiy of the count Ray- 
mond of Toulouse, occasioned this war, 
which is in^KMtant as the first which the 
Romish church waged agamst heretics 
within her own dominions. It was carried 
on with a degree of cruelty which cast a 
deep shade over tlic Roman clergy, as 
their real object appeared to be to derive 
the count of Toulouse of his possessions, 
on aocowit of his tolerating tne heretics. 
It was in vain that this powerful prince 
had sufiered adisgracefiil penance and fla- 
gellation from the legate Milo^ and obtain- 
ed the papal absolution by great sacrifices. 
The legates, Arnold, abbot of Citeaux, and 
Milo, took Bezien, the capital of his neph- 
ew Rooer, by storm, and put all the inhab- 
itanlB ^dbout 60,000), without any distinc- 
tion of creed, to the sword. Simon de 
Mont&rt, the military leader of the cru- 
sade, uiuler the legates, was equally severe 
towards other places in the territory of 
Raymond and his allies, of whom Roger 
died in a prison, and Peter I, king of Ara- 
gon, in bottle. The lands taken were pre- 
sented by the church, as a reward for his 
services, to te count of Montfort, who, 
however, on account of the changing 
fiwtune of war, never obtained the quiet 
povesBion of them ; he was killed by a 
Mne, at the siege of Touk>use, in 12ia 
ilie legates prevailed on his son, Amal- 
ri«| to cede his daims to the long of 
France. The papal indulgences attracted 
from dB provinces of France new crusa^ 
ders, who continued the war, and, even 
after the death of Raymond VI, in 1222, 



under excommunication, his son, Ray- 
mond VII, W9B obliged, notwithstanding 
his readiness to dopenance, to defend his 
inheritance, till 1229, against the legates, 
and Louis VIII of France, who feU, in 
1226^ in a campaign against the heretics. 
Aiier hundreds of thousands had fallen 
on both sides, and the most beautifiil 
parts of Provence and Upper Languedoc 
nad been laid waste, a peace was made, 

Sthe terms of which Raymond was 
liged to purchase his absolution with a 
large sum of money, to cede Narbonne, 
witn several estates, to Louis IX, and 
make his son-in-law, a brother of Louis, 
heir of his other lands. The pope suffered 
these provinces to come into tne posses- 
sion or the kinff of France, in order to 
bind him more nrmly to his interests, and 
force him to receive his inquisitors. The 
heretics were now delivered up to the 
proselyting zeal of the Dominicans, and 
to the courts of the inquisition ; and these 
new auxiliaries^ which priestcraft had ac- 
quired during the war (see Dommc dt 
ihjamany and hujuxaiiifm), employed their 
whole power to bring the remainder of 
the A. to the stake, and made even the 
converts feel the irreconcilable anger of 
the church, by heavy fines and personal 
punifiJmientB. Tlie name of the A. disap- 
peared after the middle of the 13th cen- 
tuiy ; but fugitives of their party formed, 
in the mountains of Piedmont and in 
LombardVy what is called the Frmdi 
cfcurefc, which was continued, through the 
Waldenses, to the times of the Hussites 
and the refonnation. 

Albinos (white Necroes, Blafards, 
LeuciBthiops, Dondos), who were former- 
ly found on die isthmus of Panama and 
at the mouths of the Ganges^ and have 
been described as a distinct race of men, 
have been likewise discovered, by mod- 
em naturalists, in various countries of 
Europe, e. g. in Switzerland, among the 
Savoyards in the valley of Chamouni, in 
France, in the tract of the Rhine, in Ty- 
rol, &c. The characteristics of the A. 
are now said to be owing to a disease 
which may attack men in every climate, 
and to which even animals are subject, 
such as white mice, rabbits, &c The A. 
have a milky or cadaverous look, and are 
diEAinguished finom the genuine whites, 
not only by their wrinkled skin, but also 
by their red eyes, which want the black 
mucus, and cannot, dierefore, endure the 
bright liffht of day. By moon-hght, and 
in the dark, they can see pretty well, 
fi>r whkh reason they are accustomed to 
go abroad only in the night, and, by Lin- 



196 



-ALBINOS— NEW ALBION. 



IUBU8 and ot||ter nsturalutSy are termed 
nocturnal men. Their hair is woolly, when 
they ore dagfESM, frpni actual Negroes, 
and sommk&t leflg wl f, when they are 
the chiwen of East Indiaps; but it is al- 
ways m an unpleasing milk-color, like 
their skin/ Tbf^are weak in body and 
mind, and ve^farely attain the common 
size of the nations to which they belong. 
They are generally incap«dt>le of begetting 
children, but when th^ c^se is otherwise, 
the ofi&pring resemble the parents. There 
are instances of A. poesesaed of the com- 
mon . faculties of mind, and capable of 
literary accomplishments. (See, likewise, 
t)retin,) The Germans use the word 
MnM jfbr all individuals afflicted with 
this disease of the skin, but Kakerlake for 
varieties, whose akin is only sprinkled 
with white spots. — ^The East Indians give 
the name of albino to a species of beetle, 
(hlaUa\ especially tlie blaUa giganUa of 
the Indian forests^ which grows 3 inches 
long, and forms an ornament of entomolo- 
gical collections. It is dark-brown and 
shining; the feathery of its wings are ^x- 
colored and yellow. After this beetle the 
Indians have named the Albinos.-7-Blu- 
meabach, Saussure, Buzzi, suigeon to the 
hospital at Milan, Soemmering, aiid many 
others, have made interesting observations 
on Albinos, and the causes which pro- 
duce -their peculiar color. 

AxBunrs, Bernard Siegfried, whose 
tniemme was Weiss (White^ a distin- 
guished anatomist, bom Feb. 94^ 1696, at 
Frankfort on the Oder, died Sept 9, 
1770, at Leyden, where he was 50 years 
professor of anatomy. Instructed by his 
mther, Bernard, who enjoyed a good rep- 
utation as a professor of medicine, and by 
the famous professors of the Leyden 
school, Rau, Bidloo, Boerhaave, he went 
to France in 1718, where he formed an 
intimacy with Winslow and Senac, with 
whom he afterwards carried on a conre- 
spondenoe highly advantageous to anato* 
my, their &vorite science- He entered 
upon his office as lecturer, in Leyden, 

1719, with an oration, De ^natonUa Com- 
panda. The medical &cultv there confer* 
red on him the degree of doctor, without 
either examination or di^utation. A few 
weeks after, professor Rau died, and, in 

1720, A. succeeded him in the professor- 
ship of anatomy and surgery. He was 
one of the first who felt the impulse 
which Boerhaave gave to anatomy, by 
explaining the phenomena of the animal 
economy, not chemically, but mechani- 
cally, — a system which rendered a more 
accurate study of the single parts of the 



boiy, ftnd of tb^ f(»Tnatifii,ittcea8ar^ ^ 
for the least deviation in the form of any 
part, according to him, neoessariiy pro- 
duces differences in its action. Thiasya- 
tem rendered it necessary to doacnbe 
with more accuracy what Vesalius, Fal- 
lopius and Eustachius had explained on- 
ly in a general manner. A. labored in 
this spirit ; we are indebted to him for t^a 
most exact anatomical deschptions and 
prints, especially of the muscles and 
fionea While he held the office of pro- 
fessor, at Leyden, he wrote hdex iS^pe<- 
lecHUs Anaiondca RavianiBj likewise De 
Ombus CofporiB Hymami^ also Haiona 
Muactdortan Hondnu^ and other works, 
which fill an honorable place in the his- 
toiy of science. He edited, also, several 
wntmgs of Harvey, Vesalius, Fabricius 
ah Aquapendente and Eustachius. His 
brother. Christian Bernard, professor at 
Utrecht, distinguished himselfin the same 
science, and was likewise an esteemed 
anatomicj^ writer : he died May 23» 1778. 

Alb]ip^^ the former name of the island 
of Great Biitain, called by the Romans 
BriUmnia Mc^, from which they distin- 
guished Britannia Minor, the French 
province of Bretagne. A|»themerus (lib. 
xiy c« 4), speaking of the British isianda, 
uses 4ie names iSbemia anAjSbion for the 
"ti^Hiaeeest-, Ptoleniy (lib. ii, c 3) calls A. 
a i^r^Hiland ; ^d Pliny (H. N. tib. iv, 
c 16) says, that thfijsland of Great Bntain 
was fe^KDMrly^ooled j^ZUon, the name of 
Britaiii b6uD|£^common^ all the islands 
around it hk po«tty, k. is still used for 
Great Britain, take etymology of the 
name is uncertaifi - Some waters derive 
it from the Greqk^iuitphv (whiteL in refer- 
ence to the chilky chffii on tne coasts; 
others, from 4 Shmt, the son of Nep- 
tune, mentioned by several ancient wri- 
ters: some, fix)m the Hebrew albcn 
(whitej; others, from the Phoenician d^ 
or ahm (high, and high mountaui), from 
the height of the coast. Spren|fel, in hm 
Univcrral History of Great Britam, thioka 
it of Gallic origin, the same with Myn^ 
the name of the Scotch Higlilanda It 
appears t<v him the plural of alp^ or aUpj 
which sigmQea rockg moiiiitom#,^and to 
have becX given to the island, because 
the shore, which lo<^s towards France, 
appears 4ike a long row of rocks. The 
ancient British poets call Britain AifS 
fVetit i* c- the white iidand.*^ -^^^^ ' 

A1.B10N, New. This name is given to 
an extensive tract of land on the N. W. 
coast of America. It was originally ap- 
plied by sir Francis Drake, in 157B, to 
the whole of California, but is now, by 

.y,u...oy Google 



NEW ALBIOH^ALBUHERA. 



137 



foeent geeignipherB) e. g.. Humboldt, con- 
fined to that part of the coast which ex- 
leiMfe between 4,1P and 48° N. hit Cook 
diaeoTered it March 7, 1778. In 1792, 
VaaoouYer Tisited this coast, made a very 
diligent inspection of all its parts, and 
fave a most interestine accoum of them. 
The country is described as very fertile ; 
die quadrujpeds seem not to be very nu- 
merous. Toe inhabitants are not numer- 
ous, and resemble the other savages of 
the north-west coast of N. A. Vancou- 
ver^ chart of this region is still the best 
The most audientic account of a part of 
Kew A. is to be found in Lewis and. 
Clarke Expedition to the Sources of the 
MisBomi, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1814. The 
citizens of the U. States, and others who 
have frequented the north-western coast 
of America for commercial purposes, have 
had but little, if any, intercourse with the 
Datives, who inhabit that part of the coast 
which lies between the entrance of Co- 
lombia river, in lat 4ff* 15^, and the Rus- 
sian settlement at Port Bodega, in lat 38°, 
21', because no hartwr, capable of admit- 
ting sueh vessels ae are usuaUy employed 
in the north-west trade, has yetrbeen dis- 
covered within these limits. It has been 
affinned by the Russiatia, that they have 
discovered several small rivers, but they 
are not probably of sufficient importance 
to flve any value to the country, until the 
semements of civilized nations have be- 
come much more extensive than at pres- 
ent The appearance of the country, as 
seen from the ocean, is by no means in- 
viting; but some hunters, who have pen- 
eoated into the interior, give a favorable 
repiesentation of it, piuticularly of that 
portion which lies near the Muhnomah, 
a branch of the Columbia river, that runs 
from the south. (See Mrtk-Wut CooH^ 
trade to.) 

Alboin, king of the Lombards, suc- 
ceeded hiis father, Audoin, in 561. He 
reigned in Noricum and Pannonia, while 
Ciinimund, king of the Gepid», ruled in 
Dacia and Sirmia, and Baian or Cha- 
gan, king of the Avars, was completing 
the conquest of Moldavia and Walachia. 
Narses, the general of Justinian, sought 
his alliance, and received his aid, in the 
war against Totila. A., in connexion with 
the Avars, made war against the Qepidte, 
and slew their king, Cunimund, with his 
own hand, in a great battle fought in 566. 
This victory eswlished his &me. After 
the death of his wife, Ctodoswinda, he 
married Rosamond, the daughter of Cun- 
imundy who was among the cq[ytives. 
He afterwards undertook the conquest of 
12* 



Italy, where Narses, who had subjected 
this country to Justinian, ofiTended by an 
unffiatefiQ court, sought an avenger in A., 
and offered him his cooperation. Every 
^ear witnessed the increase of A.'s power 
m Italy, in reducing which he met with 
no resistance, except the l»«ve defence 
of nngle cities. Pa via fell into his hands 
after a siege of 3 years. After reigning 
2i years in Italy, he was slain at Verona, 
in 574, by an assassin, instiled by his 
wife, Rosamond. He had mcurred her 
hatred by sending her, during one of his 
fits of intoxication, a cup, wrou^t from 
the skull of her fether, filled with wine, 
and forcing her, according to his own 
words, to drink with her fiither. This 
incident has been introduced by Ruccel- 
lai and Alfieri, into their tragedies, called 
Rosmtrndoj in a very pathetic manner. 

Albobak ; amongst the Mahometan 
writers, the beast on which Mahomet 
rode in his journeys to heaven. The 
Arab commentators report many febles 
concerning this extraordinary animal. It 
is represented as of an intermediate shape 
and size between an ass and a mule. A 
place, it seems, was secured for it in par- 
adise, at the intercession of Mahomet, 
which, however, was in some measure 
extorted fit>m the prophet by AIlK>rak 
refusing to carry him upon any other 
terms, when the angel Gabriel was come . 
to conduct him to heaven. 

Albufera ; a considerable salt-water 
lake, lying north of the city of Valencia, • 
in Spain, near the sea, with which it is 
connected by sluices. It abounds in fish, 
but dries in summer so much as, in some 
parts, to become a mere marsh. The 
F*rench general Suchet received the title 
of duke of Albufera on account of the 
blockade and capture of the Spanish gen- 
eral Blake, in Valencia. The water-birds 
and eels, which are taken here, yield 
l!i!,000 dollars annually. 

AiiBUHERA ; a village in E^stremadnraf 
on the Albuhera, 12 miles S. S. £. Bada- 
joz. A battle was fought here, May 16, 
1811, between the army of marahal Be- 
resibrd, consisting of about 30,000 British, 
Spanish and Portuguese, and that of the 
French marshal Soult, amounting to 
about 35,000 men, but considerably supe^ 
rior in artilleiy. The object of the French 
was to raise the siege of Badajoz, which 
was invested by the English. Soult was 
obliged to retreat to Seville, with a loss 
stated at 8000 men. The allies lost about 
7000 men, and gained the victory by a 
cool, well-directed and opportune fire on 
the columns of French in&ntry. Badajoz, 



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ALBUHERA— ALBUQUERaUE. 



a few days after, fell into the hands of 
the allieB. 

AuiUM ; among the Romans, a white 
board for official publications. These 
boards received their appellations from 
the various magistrates ; the a26ufn pcntif- 
icum served as a state chronicle.T-wf2&um 
is also used to denote a kind of table or 
pocket-book, wherein the men of letters, 
with whom a person has convened, in- 
scribe their names, with some sentence 
or motto. The famous Algernon Sydney, 
being in Denmark, was presented by the 
university of Copenhagen with their al- 
bum, whereupon he wrote these words ; 

Manus hec inimica tyrannis 

Eiiae petit placidam sub libertate quietem. 

Albums are at present in fashion among 
ladies. In Germany, where the fiish- 
ion is said to have originated, they are 
now almost out of use, excepting such 
as are kept on interesting spots, hi^. tow- 
ers, mountains, fields of battle, &c. — 
Gdthe, being once asked by a tedious 
visitor to write something in his album, 
wrote G, the initial of his name. The 
name of this letter, in German, signifies 
go- 

Albumen, in physiology, exists nearly 
pure in the white of eggs. As thus pro- 
cured, it is a fflareous fluid, with very 
httle taste. When kept for some time 
exposed to the air, it putrefies, but when 
spread in thin layers and dried, it does 
not undergo any change. When heated 
to about 165^ Fahr., it coagulates, and its 
properties are entirely changed. It is 
soluble in cold water, and is separated, in 
its coagulated state, by hot water, if the 
quantity of fluid be not great ; but if tlic 
water be about 10 times as much in 
amount as the albumen, there is no coagu- 
lation. Hence we cannot dissolve it in 
warm water, for, when put into it (as when 
a litde of the white of eggs is thrown into 
a glass of boiling water), it is instantly 
coagulated. It is also coagulated by acids. 
A. exists in diflerent parts of animals, as 
cartilage, bones, horns, hoo&, flesh, the 
membranous parts, and in considerable 
quantity in blood, from which it is usual- 
ly procured, when reqpred in the aits. 
From the property which it possesses of 
being coa^kied by heat, it is employed 
for clarifying fluids, as in the refining 
of sugar, and in many other processes. 
When required in a large quantity, bul- 
lock's blood is used. When this or the 
white of eggs is put into a warm fluid, its 
A. is coacuutedt ai^ entang^ the impu- 
rities, and, as the scum rises, it is removed. 



A. acts in the same way, also, in clariiyhi|i; 
spirituous fluids. When, for instance, thi^ 
white of an egg is added to wine, or t» 
any cordial, flie alcohol coagulates it, and 
the coagulum entangles the impurities, 
and carries them to the bottom. Both 
ffekdn and A. exiA in flesh, and, as the 
former is soluble in warm water, hence 
the difierence in the nutritious quality of 
butcher's meat, according to the mode of 
cooking it; when, for instance, meat is 
boiled, the greater jMUt of the gelatin is 
extracted, and retained by the soup ; 
when^ on the contrary, it is roasted, the 
gelatinous matter is not removed ; so that 
roasted meat contains both gelatin and A., 
and should, therefore, be more nutritious 
than the other. By the analysis of Gay- 
Lussac and Thenard, 100 ^rts of A. are 
fonned of 52,883 cariion, 23,872 oxygen, 
7,540 hydrogen, 15,705 nitrogen. The 
negative pole of a voltaic pile in high ac- 
tivity coagukites A. Orfila has found the 
white of eggs to be the best antidote to 
the poisonous effects of corromve subli- 
mate on the human stomach. (See Egg.\ 
Albuquerque, Alfonso de, viceroy or 
India, sumamed the Great, and the Porhi- 
guese Mar8j was bom at Lisbon, 1452, of 
a frimily that derived its origin fix)m kings. 
A heroic and enterprinng spirit at that 
time distinguished his nation. They had 
become acquainted with, and had sub> 
jected to their power, a large part of the 
western coast of Africa, and began to 
extend their sway over the seas and na- 
tions of India. A. was appointed viceroy 
of their acquisitions in this quarter, and 
arrived, Sept. 26, 1503, with a fleet and 
some troops, on the coast 6f Malabar; 
took possession of €roa, which he made 
the centre of the Portuguese power and 
commerce in Asia; subdued the whole 
of Malabar, Ceylon, the Sunda islands, 
and the peninsula of Malacca. In 1507, 
he made himself master of the island of 
Ormus, at the entrance of the Persian 
gulf. When the king of Persia demanded 
the tribute which tlie princes of this island 
liad formerly paid him, A. laid before the 
ambassadors a bullet and a sword, saying, 
** This is the coin in which Portugal pays 
her tribute.'* He made the Portuguese 
name highly respected by all the nations 
and princes of India, and several, as the 
kings of Siam and Pegu, courted his 
fiiendship and protection. All his enter- 
prites were extraordinary. His discipline 
was strict ; he was active, cautious, wise, 
humane and just ; respected and feared 
by his neighbors, beloved l^' his inferiors. 
His viitues made such an impreasion on 



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' ALBUQUERQUE— ALCANTARA. 



139 



the IndittiiB, that they, for a long time 
afler his death, made pilgrimages to hia 
winh^ and beecwght him to protect them 
against the tyranny of hia sucoeason. 
Notwithstanding hia mat merits, he did 
sot escape the eny^ of the courden, and 
the aumcions of king Emanuel, who sent 
Lopez Soaiez, the personal enemy of A^ 
to till his place. The ingratitude of his 
aovereisn severely afflict^ him, and he 
died, a few days after receiving the intelli- 
gence, at Goa, in 1515, having reoom- 
mended his only son to the king's tfvor, 
in a letter written a short time l^fore his 
death. Emanuel honored his memoiy 
by a long repentance, and raised his son 
to the fdghest dignities of the kingdom. 

ALBuwruM; the soft, white suoetance 
which, intrees, is found between the liber, 
or inner Jfezk, and the wood, and, in pro- 
gress of time acquiring solidity, becomes 
itself the wood. A new la^^er of wood, 
or rather of A„ is added annually to the 
tree in every pert, just under the baric. 

AI.CXUS, Jpe of the greatest Grecian 
lyric poets, w^ bom at.Mitylene, in Les- 
boe, and ilouivhed thdie at the close of 
the 7th and thiheginmng of the 6th centu- 
ries K C. SoAiewhat older than Si^pho, 
he paid homage to the charms of his re- 
nowned countrywoman^'^but, as it seems, 
unsucceasftdly. Beipg of a fieiy temper- 
ament, he sought at Sie same time the 
laurel of war and of the muses. - His 
misfbrtune in loong his shield, in 4^?ar 
between Mitylene and Athens, has been 
ftlsely attributed to co^wardice. He en- 
giged in the civil war which convulsed his 
eountry at the time of the^xpulsion of 
the tyrants, and used both the lyre and 
the swmd in the cause of liberty. In the 
beginning, he took part with Pittacus; 
subsequently against him, when he took 
the reins of government into liis own hands, 
after the overthrow of the petty mants, 
in order to unite and quiet the divided 
people. A., expelled from Mitylene by 
the change of circumstances, wandered 
about for a lonff time, and at last fell into 
the hands of Pittacus, in an attempt to 
force his way into his native city, at the 
head of a body of exiles. The latter nutf- 
aanimously restored him to liberty. His 
songs breathe the same spirit with his 
life. A strong, manly enthusiasm for 
fieedom and justice pervades even those 
in which he sings the pleasures of love 
and wine. But the sublimity of his nature 
shines brightest when he praises valor, 
chastises tyrants, describes the bkssinxB 
of liberty and the misery of exile. His 
lyric muse was versed m all the forms 



and 8u%]|ael8 of poetry, and antiooity at- 
tributes to him hjrmna, odea and songs. 
A few fragments only are left of all of 
them, and a distant echo of his poetry 
reachea ns in aome odes of Horace. He 
vniote in. the Mohc dialect, and was the 
inventor of the metre that bears his lumie, 
one of the most beautiftil and melodious 
of all the lyric meires. Horace has em- 
ployed it in many of his odes. German 
poets, too, have imitated it, as Klopatock. 
Jani has collected the fiagments of his 
works. Some of them are in the Analeeta 
of Brunck, and in the Anihologia of Jacobs. 
There were two other poets of the same 
name, but of less reputation. 

Alcala de Hsnarbz ; a beautiftil and 
extensive city of Spain, in New Castile, 
seated upon the river Henarez, 11 milea 
3. W. of Guadalaxara, and 15 £. N. £. 
of Madrid. The ancient name was Com- 
fhthOHj when it was a Roman colony, and 
nere was printed the celebrated BibUa 
C&n^uteniia, or Comj^tensian Polygloti 
at an expense of 250,000 ducats to cardi- 
nal Ximenes. It was the first polyglot 
Bible ever printed. 600 copies were 
struck ofl^ three on vellum. One of these 
three was deposited in the royal library 
at Madrid, a second in the royal library 
at Turin ; a third, supposed to have be- 
longed to the cardinal himself^ after pass^ 
ing throuffh various hands, w9b purchased 
at the sale of signor Pinelli's library, in 
1739, for the late count McCarthy, of 
Toulouse, for £48a On the sale of his 
library, at Paris, 1817, it was sold for over 
£676 sterling. 

AxcALns (;^Nmtf&), or Alcaide (Par- 
lugwse) ; the name of a magistrate in the 
Spanish and Portuguese towns, to whom 
die administration of justice and the reg- 
ulation of the police is committed. His 
office nearly corresponds to that of justice 
of the peace. The name and the ofiice 
are of Moorish origin. 
Alcali. (See JSkali,) 
AxcAMENEs. (See Sadpture,) 
AitCANTARA ; an ancient town and fron- 
tier fortress in the Spanish province Es- 
tremadura, with 3000 inhabitants, built by 
the Moors, on the T^s, over which is 
a splendid bridge, erected bv the Romans. 
One of the three ancient Spanish ordem 
of knighthood, which derives its origin 
ftom the brethren of St Julian del Parens 
(of the pear-tree), in the 12th century, and 
fought bravely against the Moors, receiv- 
ed, m 1207, from the order of Calatrava, 
the town of Alcantara, of which it took 
the name, and was united with the Span- 
ish crown, after the grand master, doB 



940 



ALCANTARA— ALCHEMY. 



Juan de Zuiiiga, had debverod up 'die 
town to FerdJauaad the Catholic^ in 1494. 
The knightSy'since 1540, have been allow- 
ed to many. The order waa veiy rich. 
The badae is a gold and green eroas, 
flewrdtlu; the coat of arma^a pear-troe, 
with two chevrona. 

AlcavaIsA is the name of a tax or 
excise imposed in Spain and the Spanish 
colonies upon sales of property, whether 
movable or immovable. The rate of 
this tax has varied, heretofore, in Spain, 
from 14 to 6 per cent It differs firom the 
ordinaiy excise in this, that an exciae is 
moat generally intended to be levied upon 
, consumption, so that each one shall pay 
in proportion to the eoods he may con- 
sume ; and it is, therefore, founded upon 
one of the legitimate principles of taxa- 
tion. But the alcavala, being levied upon 
all sales, is, in fact, a tax upon internal 
commerce; it is a forfeit paid by the 
vender for selling a thing to be used or 
consumed by another, instead of using or 
consuming it himself which he mifht do 
free of any such tax. It is, accortungly, 
one of the most une<]ual and pNBmicious 
taxes that could possibly be levied, since 
its amount is not governed by the amount 
of property which the party paying it is 
worth, nor by the amount that he con- 
sumes. It is, to all intent^ and purposes, 
an arbitrary tax, and Uharitz attributes to 
it the ruin of the Spanish manu&ctures. 
The alcavala was introduced under Al- 
phonso XI, and was borrowed fiom the 
Arabians. It was imposed at firsL in 1343, 
only for a specified period. In 1349, it was 
made perpetual, and fixed at 10 per cent 

AI.CEA. (See Holiyhoek.) 

Alcedo. (See Kingfishar,) 

Ajlceste ; the daughter of Pelias, and 
wife of Admetus, king of Thessaly. Her 
husband was sick, and, according to an 
oracle, would die, unless some one else 
made a vow to meet death in his stead. 
This was secredv done by A. She be- 
came sick, and Admetus recovered. After 
her decease, Hercules visited Admetus, 
with whom he was connected by the ties 
of hosmtality, and promised his friend to 
bring iNick his wifo from the infernal 
regions. He made good his word, com- 
pemn^ Pluto to restore A. to her husband. 
Euripides has made this stoiy the subject 
of a tragedy. 

AiiCHEMT ; the art of changing, by 
meadb of a secret chemical process, base 
metals into precious. Probably the an- 
cient nations, in their furst attempts to 
melt mebils, observing that the composi- 
tion of different metals produced masses 



of a color unlike either,— for inetanee, that 
a mixture like gold resulted from the 
mehing together of copper and zinc, — ar- 
rived at the conclusion, that one metal 
could be changed into another. At an 
early period, the desire of gold and silver 
grew strong, as luxury increased, and 
men indulged the hope of obtaining these 
rarer meuSa from the more common. At 
the same time, the love of Ufo led to the 
idea of finding a remedy asainst all dis- 
eases, a means of lessening the infirmitiea 
of ace, of renewing youth, and repelling 
death. The hope of realizing these ideas 
prompted the enbrts of several men, who 
taught their doctrinea through mystical 
images and symbols. To transmute met- 
als, they thought it necessary to find a 
substance which, containinff the original 
principle of all matter, shoiud possess the 
power of dissolving all into its elements. 
This general solvent, or mautrtaan tmt- 
varwaUj which, at the same time, was to 
possess the power of removing all the 
seeds of disease out of the human body, 
and renewing life, was called the phUoBo- 
fka's tUmCj lap%9 phSoaophonmii and its 
pretended possessors ad^. The more 
obscure the ideas which the alchemiats 
themselves had of the iq>pearancee occur- 
ring in their experiments, the more they 
endeavored to express themselves in sym- 
bolical language. Afterwards, they re- 
tained this phraseology, to conceal their 
secrets from the uninitiated. In Egypt, 
in the earliest times, Hermes, the son of 
Anubis, was ranked amonff the heroes, 
and many books of chemicaJ, magical and 
alchemical learning are said to have been 
left by him. These, hoT^ver, are of a 
later date. (See Herme$ THniuapwtia.) 
For this reason, chemistry and afohemy 
received the name of the Hermetic art. 
It is certain that the ancient B^yptiana 
possessed particular chemical and metal- 
luigical knowledge, although the origin 
of alchemy cannot, with certainty, be 
attributed to them. Several Grecians 
became acquainted with the writings of 
the Egvptians, and initiated in the.ir 
chemical knowledge. The fondness for 
magic, and for alchemy more particu- 
lariy, spread afterwards among the Ro- 
mans also. When true science was per- 
secuted under the Roman mants, super- 
stition and false philosophy nourished the 
more. The prodiffality of the Romans 
excited the desire for gold, and led them 
to pursue the art which promised it in- 
stantaneously and abundantly. Caligula 
made experiments .with a view of obtain- 
ing gold fit>m oipiment On the odier 



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ALCHEMY— ALCIBIABES. 



141 



hazid, Dioclfitian ordered all books to be 
burned that taught to manu&cture sold 
and ailver by dchemy. At that time, 
many books on alchemv were written, 
and filsely inscribed with the names of 
renowned men , of antiquity. Thus a 
number of writings were ascribed to 
Demociitus^ and more to Heimes, which 
were written by Egyptian monks and 
hermits, and which, as the FcAvia Sma- 
ragdma^ taught, in allegories, with mys- 
ti<^ and symbolical fi^^ues, the wav to 
discover the philosopher's stone. At a 
later period, chemistry and alchemy were 
cultivated among the Arabians. In the 
8th century, the first chemist, commonly 
called Ge&Tj flourished amone them, in 
whose works rules are given mr prepar- 
ing (quicksilver and omer metals. In 
the middle ages, the monks devoted them- 
selves to alchemy, although they were 
afterwards prohibited fix>m studying it by 
die popes. 0ut there was one, even amonff 
these^ John XXII, who was fond of 
alchemy. Raymond LuUy, or Lullius, was 
one of the most famous alchemists in the 
13th and 14th centuries. A story is vM 
of him, that, during his stay in Lcmdon. 
he changed for king Edward I a mass or 
50,000 pounds of quicksilver into gold, of 
which the first rose-nobles were coined. 
The study of alchemy was pn^bited at 
Vttiiee in 1488. Paracdsus, who was 
highly celebrated about 1525, belongs to 
the renowned alchemists, as do Iu>ger 
Bacon, Besilius, Valentinus and many 
odiersL. When, however, more rational 
principles of chemistry and philosophy 
began to be difiused, and'to shed light on 
chemical phenomena, the rage for alche- 
my grBdiudly decreased, though many 
persons, including some nobles, still re- 
mained devoted to it. Alchemy has, how- 
ever, afifbrded some service to chemtstiy, 
and even medicine. Chemistry was fiist 
carefully studied by the alchemists, to 
whose labor and patience we are indebted 
ftr several usefiil discoveries ; e. f. va- 
rious preparations of quicksilver, nuneral 
kermes, of porcelain, &c. — ^Nothing can 
be asserted with cemdnty about the trans- 
mutation of metals. Modem chemistry, 
indeed, places metals in the class of 
elonents, and denies the possibility of 
changing an inferior metal into gold. 
Moawf the accounts of siich^ransmuta- 
tio^mest on fraud or deluaon, although 
some of them are accompanied with eif- 
ciimstances inoid testimcmy which render 
tltem probable. Hj means of the galvanic 
bsttery, even the alkalies have been dis- 
eoreiid to have a metallic baso. The 



r 



/ 



poeabifity of obtaining metal fi:om other 
substances which contain the ingredients 
composing it, and of changing one meti^ 
into anothei^ or rather of refinmg it, must, 
therefore, be left undecided. Nor are all 
alchemists to be considered impostors. 
Many have labored, under the conviction 
of the poesibilinr of obtaining their object, 
with indefiitigable patience and purity of 
heart (which is earnestly recommended 
by sound alchemists as the principal 
requisite fi»r the success of their labors). 
Ikaigninff men have often used alchemy 
as a mask for their covetousness^ and as 
a means of defirauding silly people of/ 
their money. Many persons, even in ova 
days, destitute of sound chemkal knowl^ 
edse, have been led by old books on 
alchemy, which they did not understand, 
into long, expensive and firuidees labors. 
Hitherto chemistry has not succeeded 'm 
unfolding the principles by which metals 
are ft>mied, the laws of their production, 
their growdi and refinement, and in aid- 
ing or imitating this process of nature ; 
consequently the labor of the akhemistai 
m search of the phikMsopher^ stone, is 
but a gro|»ng in the dark. 

Ai.ciBiAi>B8. Tills flunoos Greek, son 
of Clinias and Dinomache, was bom at 
Athens^ in the 82d Olympiad, about 450 
B. C. He lost his fiither m the battle of 
Cheronea, and was afterwaids educated 
in the house of Pericles, his grandfiufaer 
by his mother's side. Pericles was too 
much engaged in afbirs of state to bestow 
that care upon him, which the impetuosi^ 
of his disposition required. In ms child- 
hood, A. showed the germ of his future 
character. One day, when he was play- 
ing at dice with some companions in the 
street, a wagon canie up; he requested 
the driver to pftop, and, the latter refusings 
A. threw himself before the wbee^ ex- 
claiming, " Drive ;6n, if thou dfifest" He 
excelled alike ip mental and bodily ex^- 
cises. His be^ty and birth, and the hL^ 
station of Pepcles, procured him a muip-' 
tude of fiiends and admirers, and his rep- 
utation was affected by the dissipation m 
which he became invcMved.. He was for- 
tunate in acquiring the fiiendahip of 9oc- 
sates, who endeavored to lead Moi to 
virtue, and undoubtedly obtained a great 
ascendency over him, so that A. pflen 
quitted his gay associates for the coiQpany 
of the pfaiioeopher. He bore arms, for 
the first time, in the expedition against 
Potideea, and was wounded. Socrates 
who fought at his ode, defended him, and 
led him out of danger. In the bottle of 
Pelium, he was among the cav^Ary who 

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149 



ALOIBIADES. 



ivere Tietoriond, Imt, tbe irifimtry being 
beaten, he was obliged to flee, na ^ell as 
therost. HeoTertookSoerateSpWhoMras 
retreating on ibot, accompanied bim, and 
protectea him. As long as the dema- 
gogue Cleon lived, A. was principally 
distinguished ibr luxury and prodigality, 
and did not mingle in the aflans of state. 
On the death of Cleon, 4^2 B. C, Niclas 
succeeded in making a peace for 50 yeats 
between the Atiienians and Lacedeemo- 
nians. A., jealous of the influence of 
Nicias, and ofiehded because the Lace- 
diemonians, with whom he was connected 
by the ties of hospitality, had not applied 
to him, fomented some disagreement be- 
tween the two nations into an occasion 
for breaking the peace. The Lacedemo- 
nians sent ambassadors to Athens; A. 
received them with apparent good will, 
and advised them to conceal their cre- 
dentials, lest the Athenians should pre- 
scribe conditions to them. Theysuflered 
themselves to be duped, and, when called 
into the assembly, declared that they were 
widiout credentials. A. rose immedi- 
ately, accused them of ill &ith, and indu- 
ced the Athenians to form an alliance 
with the Aigives. A breach with the 
Lacednmonians was the consequence. 
A. conomanded several times the Atheni- 
an fleets, which devastated the Pelopon- 
jDfiBus; but even then he did not retrain 
from luxury and dissipation, to which he 

Sve himself up entirely after his return. 
1 one occasion, after leaving a noctur- 
nal revel, in the company of some fnends, 
he laid a wager that he would give the 
rich Hipponicus a box on the ear, and bo 
he did. This act made a great noise in 
the city, but A. went to the mjured party, 
threw pflT his garment, and called upon 
him to reveiige himself by whipping him 
with rods. This open repentance recon- 
ciled Hipponicus ; he not only pardoned 
him, but gave him aftenvards his daujBfh- 
ter, Hipparete, in marriage, ^th a portion 
of 10 talents ($10,500). A., however, still 
continued lus levity and prodigality. His 
extravagance was conspicuous at the 
Olympic games, where he entered the 
stadiuni, not like other rich men, with one 
chariot, but with 7 at a time, and gained 
the 3 fiist prizes. He seems to have been 
victor, also, in the Pythian and Nemaean 
games. All this together drew upon him 
the hatred of many of his foUow-citizens, 
and he would have ftlleu a sacrifice to the 
ostracism (q. v.), if he had not, in connex- 
ion with Nicias and Phaeax, who feared 
a similar ikte, artfully contrived to procure 
the banishment of his most fonnidaUe 



enemy. Soon afterwards, the Athenians, 
at the instance of A., resolved on an ex- 
pedition aguoist Sicify, and elected him 
commander-in-chief^ together with Nicias 
and Lamachus. But, during the prepara- 
tiona, it happened, one night, that all the 
statues of Mereuiy were broken. The 
enemies of A. charsed him with the act, 
but postpcmed a public accusation till ho 
had set sail, when they stirred up the 
people against him to such a degree, that 
he was recalled, in order to be tried. A. 
had been very successful in Sici^, when 
he received the order to return. He 
obeyed, and embarked, but, on reaching 
Thurium, disembarked, and concealed 
himself Some one asking him, ''How 
is this, Alcibiades? have you no confi- 
dence in your country?^ he answered, 
**I would not trust my mother, when my 
hfo is concerned ; for she might, by mis- 
take, take a black stone instenS of a white 
one." He was condemned to death in 
Athens, and said, when the news reached 
him, ^I shall show the Athenians that I 
am yet alive." He now went to Argos, 
thence to Sparta, where he made himself 
a fiivorite, by conforming closely to the 
prevailing strictness of manners. Here 
he succeeded in inducing the Lacedsemo- 
nians to fonn an alliance with the Persian 
king, and, after the unfortunate issue of 
the Athenian expedition a^nst Sicilv, 
he prevailed on them to assist the inhab- 
itants of Chios in throwing off the yoke 
of Athens. He went himself thither, and, 
on his a^val in Asia Minor, roused the 
whole of Ionia to insurrection against the 
Athenians, and did them considerable in- 
juiy. But Agis and the principal leaders 
of the Spartans became jealous of him, 
on account of his success, and ordered 
their commanders in Asia to cause him to 
be assassinated. A. suspected their plan, 
and went to Tissapheroes, a Persian sa- 
trap^ who was ordered to act in concert 
with the Lacedeemonians. Here he 
changed his manners once more, adopted 
the luxurious habits of Ana, and under- 
stood how to make himself indispensable 
to the satrap. As he could no longer 
tmst the Lacedssmonians, he undertook 
to serve his country, and showed Tissa- 
phernes that it was against the interest of 
the Persian king to weaken the Athenians 
entirely. On the contraiy, Sparta and 
Athens ought to be preserved for their 
mutual injury. Tissaphemes followed this 
advice, and aflbrded the Athenians somo 
relief. The latter had, at that time, e6n- 
sideraUe forces at Samoa. .. A. sent word 
to thebr commanders, that^ if the ficen- 



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ALCmiADEB— ALCBL£ON. 



143 



tioaaMflB of the people was Bupp roooo d, 
and tiie goTenunent put into tfae hands 
of the nobles, he would procure for them 
the friendship of TisBapnemes, and pre- 
vent the junction of the PhoBnidan and 
Lacedaemonian fleets. This demand was 
gnmtied, and Pisander sent to Athens ; by 
whose means the government of the city 
was pat into the hands of a council con- 
flifldiig of 400 persons. As, however, the 
council showed no intention to recall A., 
the army of Samos chose him their com- 
mander, and exhorted him to go directly 
to Athens^ and overthrow the power of 
^Mb tyrants. He wished, however, not to 
retnm to his country before he had done 
it some services, and therefore attacked 
and totally defeated the fleet of the Lace- 
demonians. When he returned to Tis- 
gapbemee, the latter, in order not to appear 
a participator in the act, caused him to be 
arrested in Sardis. But A. found means 
to escffiie ; placed himself at the head of 
the Atncauan armv ; conquered th^ Lace- 
dasmonians and Persians^ at Cyzicus, by 
sea and land; took Oyzicus, Chalcedon 
and Byzantium ; restored the sovereignty 
of the sea to the Athenians, and returned 
to his country, whither he had been re- 
called, on the motion of Critias. He was 
received v^th genera] enthusiasm ; for the 
Athenians considered his exile the cause 
of aU their misfortunea But this triumph 
was of short duration. He was sent with 
100 ships to Ana ; but, not being supplied 
with money to pay his soldiers, he saw 
himself under tne necessity of seeking 
help in Caria, and committed the com- 
mand to Antiochus, who vras drewn into 
a snare by L}rsander, and lost his lifo, 
and a part of ms ships. The enemies of 
A. im{Moved this opportunity to accuse 
him, and procure his removal firom office. 
A went to Pactyie in Thrace, collected 
troops, and vraged war against the Thra- 
cians. He obtained considerable booty, 
and secured the quiet of the nei^boring 
Greek cities. The Athenian fleet vnis, at 
that time, lying at .£gos Potamos. He 
pointed out to the generals the danger 
which threatened them, advised them to 

g> to Sestos, and offered his assistance to 
rce the Lacedemonian ceneral, Lysan- 
der, either to fight, or to miike peace. But 
tfaey did not listen to him, and socm after 
were totally defeated. A., fearing the 
power of the Lacednmonians^ betook 
himeelf to Bithynia, and was about to jko 
10 Artazerxee to procure his assistance for 
his oountiy. In the meantime, the 90 
tyrants, whom Lysander, after the capture 
of Athens, had set up there, requested the 



latter to cause A. to be assassinated. But 
Lysander declined, until he received an 
order to the same eflect from his own govr 
emment He then charged Phamabazes 
with the execution of it A. was at that 
time with Tlmandra, his mistress, in a 
castle in Pbrygia. The assistants of 
Phamabazes set fire to his house, and 
killed him with their arrows, when he had 
already escaped the conflagration. Ti- 
mandra buried the body wim due honor. 
Thus A. ended his life, 404 B. C, about 
45 years old. He was endowed by nature 
with distinguished qualities, a rare talent 
to captivate and rule men, and uncommon 
eloquence, although he could not pro- 
nounce r, and stuttered ; but he had no 
fixed principles, and was governed only by 
external circumstances. He was without 
that elevation of soul, which steadily pur- 
sues the path of virtue ; on the other hand, 
he possessed that boldness which arises 
fix>m consciousness of superiority, and 
which shrinks fix>m no difficulty, because 
always confident of success. Plutarch 
and Cornelius Nepoe, among the ancients, 
have wiitten his life. 

Alcides ; a surname of Hercules, usual- 
W derived firom the name of his |prand- 
rather, AiciBUS, the fether of Amphitryon. 

Ai.cmou8 ; said to have been & king oi* 
the Phseacians, in the island now called 
Corfu. His gardens have immortalized 
his memoiy. The passages in which 
Homer describes his ho^itality toward 
Ulysses, and the ardent desire of the lat- 
ter to reach his home, are most beautifiiL 
He was a grandson of Neptune. 

Ai<ci]^HR02v ; the most distinguished of 
the Grecian epistolary writers. Notfaing 
is known of his life, and even his age is 
uncertain. It is probable that he belongs 
to the second century after Christ. We 
have 116 fictitious letters by him ; the ob- 
ject of which seems to be, to represent 
the maimers, thoughts and feehngs of 
certain strongly-marked classes in the 
fiee communication of epistolary inter- 
course. These letters are distinguished 
by purity, clearness and simplicity of 
language and style. Principal editioiis, 
Geneva, 1606 ; IJeipsic, 1715, and one in 
1798, at the same place, by T. A. Wag- 
ner. 

Alcmjbon ; the son of Amphiaraus and 
Edl^yle (q* v.) of Argos ; chosen chief of 
the seven Epigoni, in which cimacity he 
took and destroyed Thebes. His father, 
goinff to war, charged A. to put to death 
Erip&yle, who had betrayed hmi. He did 
so, and was pursued by the ftnies. An 
oracle infimned him, that, to escape their 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



144 



ALCMifiON—ALCOHOL. 



vengeanoe, he must reside in aland which 
was not in eziatence when he was cursed 
by his mother. He at last found rest, for 
a sAiort time, on an island in the river 
Achelous, whei9 he mairied CallirrhoC, 
the daughter of the god of the river, 
after rspudiatinff his former wife, Arsinoe. 
But he did not T<me enjoy peace. At the 
request of his wife, he attempted to re- 
cover the fatal necklace of Hermione 
from his former fother-in-Iaw, the priest 
Phlefleus, who caused him to be mur- 
dered by his sons. 

Ai«cKAN ; a Grecian poet, son of a Spar- 
tan slave, bom at Sardis, in Lydia, about 
670 years B. C. He seems to have lived, 
for the most part, in Sparta, where he ob« 
tained the rights of citizenship. He sang 
hymns, peans and other lyrical poems, in 
the Done dialect, and gave their polished 
form to these higher kinds of^ poetry. 
Hie remaining woiks were collected by 
P. Th. Wdcker (Giessen, 1815, 4to). 

AifCHENA ; the daughter of Electryon, 
and wife of Amphitryon. Jupiter loved 
her, and deceived her l^ assuming the 
form of her husband. From this con- 
nexion, which continued for 3 nights, 
sprang Hercules. 

Alcohol; the purely spirituous part 
of all liquors that have undergone the 
vinous fonnentation, and derived from 
none but such as are susceptible of it. 
As a chemical asent, it is of the highest 
importance, involving in its various com- 
binations all the grand principles of chem- 
istry. — It has been found that spirit of 
wine, of sp. gr. ,867, when enclosed in a 
bladder, and exposed for some time in the 
air, is converted into alcohol of sp. gr. 
,817, the water only escaping through 
the coats of the bladder. — ^Alcohol, (h>- 
tained by slow and careful distillation, is 
a limpid, colorless liquid, of an agreeable 
sraeU, and a strong, pungent flavor. Its 
specific gravity varies wim its purity, the 
purest obtained by rectification over chlo- 
ride of calcium being ,791 ; as it usually 
occurs, it is ,820 at 60^. If rendered as 
pure as possible by simple distillation, it 
can scarcely be obtained of a lower spe- 
cific gravity than ,825 at 60°.— Mr. Hut- 
ton is said to have succeeded in fineezing 
alcohol, but the &ct is regarded as doubt- 
ful, as the means by whidi he efifected its 
conflelation were never disclosed. Mr. 
Walker exposed it to a temperature of 
— 9P, but no congelation took place ; it 
has, therefore, been much used in the con- 
struction of thennometers. Even when 
diluted with an equal weif^t of water, it 
lequires a cold of^ 6^ below to congeal 



it When of a specific gravity of ,825, it 
boils at the temperature of 176°, the bar- 
ometrical pleasure being 90 inches. In 
the vacuum of an air-pump it boils at 
corajnon temperatures. The specific grav- 
ity of the vapor of alcohol, compared with 
atmospheric air, is 4,613. — ^Alcohol may 
be mixed in all proportions with water, 
and the specific gravity of the mixture is 
greater than the mean of the two liquids, 
m consequence of a diminution of bulk 
that occurs on mixture. — ^The strength 
of such spirituous liquors as consist of 
little else than water and alcohol, is of 
course ascertained by their specific gmri- 
ty ; and, for the purpose of levying duties 
upon them, this is ascertained by the hy- 
drometer. But the only correct mode of 
ascertaining the specific gravity of liquids, 
is b^ weighing them in a delicate balance 
agauist an equal volume of pure water, 
01 a similar temperature. — ^Alcohol is ex- 
tremelv inflammable, and bums with a 
pale-blue flame, scarcely visible in bright 
day-Ught It occasions no fuliginous de- 
position upon substances held over it, and 
the products of its combustion are carbonic 
acid and water, the weight of the water 
considerably exceeding mat of the alco- 
hol consumed. According to Saussure, 
jun. 100 parts of alcohol afford, when 
burned, 136 parts of water. The steady 
and uniform heat, which it gives during 
combustion, makes it a valuable materisu 
for lamps. — ^The action between alcohol 
and some of the metals, particularly pla- 
tinum, is remariuible. When a small 
piece of thin platinum leaf, suspended by 
a wire, is heated by a spirit lamp, and 
then quickly put into a glass, in which 
tliere is a little alcohol, so that it shall re- 
main just over the surface, and of course 
in the vapor arising from the alcohol, it 
continues red-hot, as long as there is any 
fluid in the jar ; which is owing to the va- 
por imdergoing a sort of combustion, and 
generating heat sufiicient to keep the 
metal in that state. This action afifords 
the means of making a lamp without 
flame. — ^There are some substances which 
communicate color to the flame of alco- 
hol ; from boracic acid, it acquires a green- 
ish-yellow tint ; nitre and the soluble salts 
of baryta cause it to bum yeUow, and 
those of strontia give it a beautiful rose 
color ; cupreous ^ts impart a fine green 
tinge. — ^Alcohol dissolves pure sckla and 
potassa, but it does not act upon their 
carbonates; consequendy, if the latter be 
mixed "vrnth alcohol containing water, the 
liquor separates into two portions, the up- 
per being alcohol deprived, to a consider- 



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ALCOHOL-ALDENHOVEN* 



145 



•bte extent, of water, and tbe lower the 
aqueous solution of the carbonate. The 
alcoholic solution of caustic potassa was 
known in old pharmacy under the name 
of Vwti HehumCs fmcfure of tartar. It 
is uaed for purifying potassa. — ^AlcohoI 
disBohres die greater number of the acids. 
It absorbs many caseous bodies. It dis- 
solves the vegetalue adds, the yolatile oils, 
the reons, tan and extractive matter, and 
many of the soaps ; the greater number 
of tlie fixed oils are taken up by it in small 
quantities only, but some are dissolved 
largely. — ^The composition of alcohol was 
investimted by Saussure and Gay-Lus- 
sac The result was, that lOO parts of 
pure akohol consist of 

Hydrogen 13,70) 

Carbon 51,98 V 100,00. 

Oxygen 34,32) 

These numbers approach to 3 propor- 
tionals of hydrogen, =3; 2 of carbon, 
= 12 ; and 1 of oxygen, = 8. Or it may 
be regarded as composed of 1 voL carbu- 
reted hydrogen, and 1 vol. of the vapor 
of water ; the 2 volumes beinc condensed 
into 1, the specific gravity of 3ie vapor of 
alcohol, compered with common air, will 
be 1,589, or, nf^cordhig to Gay-Lussac, 
1,61SL When aIrx)hol is submitted to dis- 
tillation with certain acids, a peculiar 
compound is formed, called ether (q. v.), 
tbe di^rent ethers being distinguished by 
the names of the acids employed in their 
preparation. 
Alcoran. (See Koran,) 
AiAJUDiA. (See Godoy.) 
Alcuinus, or Albinus, Flaccus; an 
Engfishnian, renowned, in his age, for 
learning; the confidant, instructer and ad- 
viser of Charlemagne. He was bom in 
York (according to some, near London] 
lo 732, was educated imder the care ot 
the venerable Bede and bishop Egbert, 
and was made abbot of Canterbury. 
Charlemagne became acquainted with 
him in Parma, on his return fix>m Rome, 
whence he had brought the pallium for a 
fnend ; invited him, ui 782, to his court, 
and made use of his services in his en- 
deavors to civilize his subjects. In the 
royal academy, he was called Flaccus 
Awmus. To seciue tlie benefit of his in- 
structions, Charlemagne established at his 
court a school, called Palatina, and in- 
trusted hixn with the superintendence of 
several monasteries, in which A. exerte<l 
himself to difiiise a knowledge of the sci- 
ences. Most of the schools in France 
were either founded or improved by him ; 
thvts he founded the school in the abbey 
of St. Martin of Tours, in 796, after the 
vox*. I. 13 



plan of the school in Yoik. He himself 
mstnicted a large number of scholai^ in 
this school, who afterwards spread the 
light of learning through the empire of 
the Franks. A. took his leave of the court 
in 801, and retired to the abbey of St. 
Martin of Tours, Irat kept up a constant 
correspondence 'with Charles to the time 
of his death, in 804. He left, besides 
many theological writings, several ele- 
mentaiy works in the branches of philos- 
ophy, rhetoric and philology; also poems, 
and a large number of letters, the style of 
which, however, is not pleasing, and plain- 
ly betrays the uncultivated character of 
the age; nevertheless, he is acknoi/dedged 
as the most learned and pohahed man of 
his time. He understood Latin, Gieek 
and Hebrew. His works appeared in 
Paris, 1617, fbl., and, in a more complete 
fbrm, in Ratisbon, 1777, 2 vols., fbl. 

ALnEBARAN, or the butPa tyty in astron. ; 
a star of the fiist magnitude in the south- 
ern eye of the constellation Taurus. 

AtnEooKDE, St Philip, of Mamix, lord 
of mount St Aldegonde, was bom in Brus- 
sels, 1538, and studied in Geneva. He 
drew up, in the beginning of Dec. 1565, 
tiie act of compromise for the preserva- 
tion of the privileges of the Netherlands, 
which was signed by coimt Louis of Nas- 
sau, Henry of Brederode and himself. The 
act was directed chiefi^ against the intro- 
duction of the inquisition into the Neth- 
erlands, and the members promised to 
assist each other with their persons and 
property. It was rejected, however, by 
the regent Maivaret In 1566, Alva ar- 
rived. St A. fled, with the fiiends of 
the prince of Orange, to Germany, and 
returned with them as their leading coun- 
sellor. In 1573, he fell into the hands of 
the Spaniards, at Maesluys, was afterwards 
exchanged, and conducted many diplo- 
matic negotiations of the young republic 
abroad. He defended Antwerp a long 
time, though not successfully. He as- 
sisted in establishing the imiversity of 
Leyden, and died there, professor of the- 
olocy, in 1598. 

Aldenhoven, battle at, March 1, 1793. 
The engagement near this town, situated 
between Juliers and Aix la Chapelle, 
opened the campaign of 1793. The year 
previous, the Austnans had been obliged, 
after the battle of Jemappe, to evacuate 
Belgium^ and retire beJund the Roer. 
Dumounez, at tlie b^inning of the year 
1793, threatened HoUand with an inva- 
sion. To prevent this, and to rsise tiie 
siege of Maestricht, the prince of Cobuiv 
dr^ together his army, consisting of 



-i 



I 



146 



ALDENHOVEN-^ALDERNEY. 



40,000 men, behind the Roer, and forded 
this river, March 1« in 2 columns, at Duren 
and Juliers. In uie engagement which 
ensued, the French lost aim>ut 6000 men 
killed and wounded, and 4000 prisoners. 
On the following day, Aix la Chapelle 
and Lieffe were occupied, the siege of 
Maestricht raised, and the French active- 
ly pursued. At Neerwinden the Frendi 
halted, and received a reinforcement, con- 
sistinff of the corps destined to invade Hol- 
land, but were beaten here, March 18, a 
second time. 

Ai<DEiu The alder or owler (hehda 
dnus) is a tree which srows in wet situ- 
ations, and is distinffuimed by its flower- 
stalks being branched, its leaves being 
roundish, waved, serrated and downy at 
the foranchingof the veins beneath. It is 
common in Europe and Asia, and xhe 
United States of America. There are few 
means of better employing swampy and 
morassy grounds, than bv planting them 
with alders ; for, although the growth of 
these trees is not rapid, the uses to which 
they are ^plicable are such as amply to 
compensate for the slowness with which 
they come to perfection. The wood of 
the alder, which is in creat demand fi>r 
machinery, is fi:equently wrought into 
cogs for xnill-wheels, as it is peculiarly 
adapted for all kinds of work which are 
to be kept constantiy in water. It is con- 
soquendy used for pumps, sluices, pipes, 
drains and conduits of different descrip- 
tions, and for the foundation of buildings 
idtuated in swamps. For these purposes, 
it has been much cultivated in Fkuiders 
and Holland. It is commonly used for 
bobbins, women's shoe-heels, plough- 
men's clogs, and numerous articles of 
turnery ware. This wood also serves for 
many domestic and rural uses, for spin- 
nins-virheels, trouglis, the handles of tools, 
ladaers, cartwheels, &c The roots and 
knots ftimiah a beautifully -veined wood, 
neariy of the color of mahogany, and well 
adapted for cabinet-work. The baric may 
be advantageously used in the operations 
of tanning and leather-dressing, and by 
fishermen for staining their nets. This and 
the young twigs are sometimes employ- 
ed in dyeing, and yield difiereiit shades 
of yellow and red. The Laplanders chew 
the berk of the alder, and dye their leather 
garments red with the saiiva thus pro- 
duced. With the addition of coppenus, it 
yields a black dye, used to a considerable 
extent in coloring cotton. In the High- 
lands of ScoUand, we are informed £at 
young branches of the alder, cut down in 
the summer, spread over the fields, and 



left duiiaf the winter to decay, are fbnnd 
to answer the purpose of manure. The 
firesh-^athered leaves, being covered witii 
a glutinous moisture, are said to be some- 
times strewed upon floors to destroy fleaa^ 
which become entangled in it, as birds are 
with bird-lime. 

Alderhan (aldoTy elder, and man); 
among the ancient Saxons, the second 
order of nobility. It was synonymous 
with the Latin corner, the eorla otjcai of 
the Danes (which after the Danish times 
superseded itj, and the senior and nu^or 
of^ the FranKs. The aldermen were at 
first governors of counties, and were ad- 
mitt^ into the unttmagtmoi, or great 
council of the nation ; save their consent 
to tiie public statutes ; kept order among 
the fr^holders at the county courts; in 
times of war, appeared at the head of the 
military forces of their shires, and were 
called dukeSf or herdogenj (the Germ. Aer- 
zog). They were at first appointed by 
the king, and were afterwards elected l^ 
the fireeholders of the shire ; at first the 
office was during good behavior, but final- 
ly became hereditary. Aldermen, at pres- 
ent, are ofiicers associated with the mayor 
of a city, for the administration of the 
municipiid government, both in England 
and the United States. In some places, 
they act as judges in certain civil and 
criminal cases. In Ijondon, there are 
26 aldermen, who preside over the 26 
wards of the city, and from whose num- 
ber the mayor is elected annually. 

Aldhelm. (See Adhdm.) 

Alderhet ; an ishmd on the coast of 
Normandy, d£>out 8 miles in circumfer- 
ence. Though within 7 miles of c^ la 
Hogue, it is subject to the crown of Great 
Britain. With Guernsey, Jereey and Sark, 
it' forms the only part of the possessions 
of William the Conqueror that now re- 
main under the government of England. 
A. is about 80 miles from the nearest 
part of the English coast, and about 18 
fix)m Guernsey. The race of A* ib n. 
name eiven to the strait running be- 
tween the coast of France and this island. 
The town of this name, about 2 miles 
fit)m the harbor, is but poorly built, and con- 
tains about 1000 inhabitants. In stormy 
weather, the whole coast is dangerous*, 
particulariy from a ridge of rocks, caHed 
the Caskets^ which form numerous eddies 
that have often proved fatal to marinera. 
The air is salubrious, die soil fertile and 
much cultivated ; but the custom of gav- 
elkind dividing the lands into small parts, 
keeps the people in a state of poverty. 
They send grain to England. In llll). 



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ALDERNEY— ALDINL 



147 



Hflnry, diike of Noimandyy ikmi of hmg 
Henry I, with many nohlesywas lost near 
diiB island ; and in 1744, the Victory, of 
llGcuns, adminl sir John Balchen, with 
llOO marines and sailoia, was lost near 
the coast of A. 

Alduib Editions; the name given 
«> the works which proceeded from the 
presB of the fiimily of Aldus Manutius. 
(See MeawHus.) Recommended bv their 
intiiDsic Talue, as well as by a splendid 
exterior^ they have gained the respect of 
flcfaolan, and the attention of b(K>k-col- 
lectoiB. Many of them are the first 
e£tioDB of Greek and Roman classics, 
and stNne have not been printed again ; 
as Rkdans Gfrcect, JUexanMr a^Arodui- 
enm. The text of the. modem classical 
anthon printed by them, as Petrarca, 
Dante, Boccaccio and others, was criti- 
cally revised fiom manuscripn. Gener- 
ally speaking, their editions are distin- 
nuriied for correctness, though their 
Greek classics are inferior, in this respect, 
to their Latin and Italian. These edi- 
tions, especially those of Aldus Manutius, 
the ftdier, are of importance in the his- 
tory of printing. Aldus deserves much 
credit for his beautiful types. He had 
nine kinds of Greek types, and no one 
heSan him printed so much and so beau- 
tifiilly in this language. Of the Latin 
character he procured 14 kinds of type. 
Among the latter is the antiquoy with 
which Bemhui de JS^nOj 1495j 4to^i8 
printed; a very beautifUl character. The 
Italic characters, invented and cut by 
FVancesco of Bologna, and brought into 
we by Aldus, who employed them for 
the collection of editions of ancient and 
modem classics, in 8vo. (the first of which, 
Viigil, appeared in 1501), are less hand- 
some ; tney are too stiff and angular, and 
ftuky in a technical respect, on account 
of the many letters connected together. 
He had even three kinds of Hebrew types. 
He was no fiiend to ornaments of the 
opitals, roses, vignettes and the like. 
The E^ptiantamaMi PoUfMi^ 1499, fbL, 
is his only woric furnished with orna- 
ments of that kind and wood-cuts. His 
pqter is invariably stronff and white. He 
mMduoed the custom of striking off some 
copies of an edition on better, finer and 
whiter paper than the rest ; first, in the 
EpMtt OraaBjl499, He also first pub- 
fisbed single copies on lane paper, in the 
edition ofPhilostrBtus, 1501. He printed 
also the first impressions on blue pa[>er, 
banning vrith some copies of the LSbri de 
RtRuttiea and Quinctilian, both in 1514. 
His impressionfl on parchment were em- 



inently beautifuL His ink is of excellent 
Quality. At the same time, his prices were 
lair. His Aristotle, 5 vols. foL, cost only 
11 ducats. The press supk in reputation 
under the care of his son Paul, and his 
grandson Aldus. When it was broken 
up, in 1597, afler a duration of 100 years, 
and after producing 908 editions, it was 
distinguished in nothing from other 
presses in the country. The Aldine edi- 
tions, especially those of the fiither, were 
early sought fbr. The printers in Lvons, 
and the (Sunti in Florence, in 1508, found 
it advantageous to publish inftrior and 
spurious reprints. In modem times, they 
have been nigfaly prized by scientific col- 
lectors. The HoriB h. Mar, virg^ of 
1497 (lately sold for 100 ducats), the Vu*- 
gil of 1501, and the Rhdores Qraeiy not to 
mention the very rare editions between 
1494 and 1497, are particularly scarce and 
valuable. The bookseller and bibliogra- 
^er Renouard, in Paris, and the grand 
duke of Tuscany, possess the most com- 

£lete collections. Of the formei^s excel- 
nt woik on the press of Aldus, a sup- 
plementaiy volume wpeared in 1812. A 
list of all genuine Aloine editions is given 
in the appendix to the 1st voL of Ebert's 
Biblioffraphical Lexicon.— ^-See, also, An^ 
naUs de vhnprvnerie desMUs, cu lEtioire 
desiroia Mcmuce, d de leun edSHom; par 
AnL Aug. Remniard ; second edit, Paris, 
1825, 3 yob. 8vo.; and Repertarium Bib- 
liogriq>hic%tmf in quo Ubri oamet a& JtU 
l^jMgraphiea tnoento uBtpat ad Jhmum 
AGD. bfpis expressif crdtne Mhabdito 
enumeraniur vel adewratius redudeniur; 
Opera L. Ham; Stuttgard. The second 
part of the fiist voL of this work has been 
published quite recently. 

AiJ>iin, Antony, was bom in 1756, in 
Bologna ; pursued there, and afterwards 
in Rome, tne study of law ; became jno- 
fessor of law in Bologna; was sent to 
Paris by his fellow-citizens, when his na- 
tive town, in the days of the revolution, 
withdrew from the pope's dominion ; and 
was afterwards a member of the council 
of eUers who presided over the Cisalpine 
republic In 1801, he became a member 
of^the eofuuUa of Lyons, and afterwards 
president of the council of state, fiom 
which he was excluded, at the instance 
of the vice-president, count MelzL Na- 
poleon appointed him, in 1805, secretary 
of state for the kingdom of Italy, with the 
title of count He gained, in 1819, the 
confidence of the Austrian government, 
and now lives in Milan. He had built, 
with great expense, one of the most 
beantinil palaces in the paric of Montmo- 



digitized by 



Google 



148 



ALDINJ-ALEMANNL 



rency,near PariB, and adomed hiHth the 
finecic productiozifl of Italian uit It was 
injured so much at the second occupation 
of Paris, in 1815, that nothing could be 
done with it, except to sell it to the hande 
noire, (q. v.) 

ALDOBEAifDiNi ; the name of a princely 
fiunily at Rome, celebrated in the histoiy 
of art on account of an antique fifeaco, in 
their villa, representing a wedding, and 
called by the name of the Miobrandine 
tBedding. It was discovered in the time 
of Clement VIII, not far from the church 
Santa Maria Maggiore, in the district 
where, foimerly, were the gardens of 
Mfficenas, and carried thence into diat 
villa. Winckelmann supposed it to be 
the wedding of Peleus and Thetis ; the 
count Bondy, that of Manl^us end Julia. — 
Several scholars, also, of this name have 
distinguished themselves, especially Syl- 
vester A., fiunous for his knowled{;e of 
law, and his brother Thomas, both m the 
16th century. 

Aldebd ; abbot of Tavistock, and after- 
wards bishop of Worcester, 1046. He 
was the fbrst English bishop who visited 
Jerusalem, and after his return was raised 
to the see of York, an elevatioiij which, 
when he appeared at Rome, the pope re- 
ftised to ratUy, on account of his imoranee 
and simony. A^'s solicitations, however, 
]M«vailed, and he received the pallium 
^m the pontiff On the death of Ed- 
ward the Confessor, he crowned Harold, 
and afterwards the Conqueror, whose es- 
teem he ^oyed, and whose power he 
made subservient to the views of the 
church. When he had received some 
indignities from a governor of York, he 
flew to London, and, vrith all the indigo 
nation and haughtiness of an oftendi^ 
prelate, demanded vengeance, and pro- 
nounced a curse on the liead of William. 
His wrath was vrith difficulty pacified hj 
the entreaties of the sovereign and his 
nobles, and the curse was rMalled, and 
changed into a blessing. It is said that 
he died with grie^ on seeing the north of 
England desolated by the ravages of 
Harold and Canute, sons of Sweyn, Sept. 
11, 1068. 

AxDUs. (See MmuHus,] 

Ale ; a ^rmented liquor obtained from 
an infusioh of malt ; dlfiering fixim beer 
chiefly in havins a less proportioD of 
hops. (See Breunng.) We first hear of 
ale in Egypt The natives of Spain, the 
inhabitants of France, the aborigines of 
Britain and Germany, all used an infiision 
of barley ; and it was called by the various 
names of adia and ceria In the first 



countiT, tarwUia in the second^ and etir* 
mi in me two last ; all literally signifying 
stromtwder. Tacitus^ Diodorus Sicuhis 
and Pliny spedc of this beverage as com-^ 
mon among the nations just mentioned. 
Henry's I&tory of England (8vo. vc4. ii. 
p. 961), Hume's Hist. (voL iL p. 224), and 
Finkerton's Geognq>hy (vol. L p. 65), give 
the history of this Uquor in England. 
Dr. Stubbe (Phil. Trans. No. 27) says that 
ale may be preserved fi^im turning sour 
on long voyages, by putting in eveiy 
rundlet of five gaUona, after teing placed 
in a cask on board the ship, not to be 
moved again, two new-laid eggs whole. 
The value of this receipt, however, has 
been disputed. The duties on «le and 
beer make a coivnderable branch of the 
revenue of England. Tbey were firtt 
imposed in 16^ and again during the 
reign of Charies II. 

Alscto. (See Ariet.) 

A-I.EB $ the situation of the helm when 
it is pushed down to the lee side of the 
ship, m order to put the ship about» or to 
lay her head to the vrindwazd. 

AiiSOAMBE, Philip; an author whose 
vrritings afiToid a great amount of inft>r- 
mation respecfiiig the order of the Jesuits. 
He was a Jegui^ bom at Brussels, 1502. 
His BmUoih^que de$ aukun JcswUm was 
published at Antwe^ 1643; VUaP^^cm- 
mt CVvtIm. iMnteuM er iSboKt Jbti, l»n0b, 
Rome, 16^; Hardei tt Vidima Cati^ 
Uai8 Soda. Jesu, 4ta Rome, 1658; Mar- 
te$ Hhutreg d geita tmvm de Soeitt^ 
Jeau, qui m Odium Fidd ab HatrdiciB vd 
tdus occigi «ifnt, fi»L Rome, 1657. A. 
dic^ at Rome, 1652. He was for some 
time confessor of the emperor Ferdinand, 
and afterwards retained at Rome by the 
general of his order as secretanr, to pre- 
pare the Latin despatches to Germany. 
The BOUMiqwij his chief work, was 
also published in Latin, Rome, 1675. 

AjLEXAirm ; that is, off men, or varioug 
9ort8 of mm; the name of a rnilitaiy con- 
federacy of several German tribes, which^ 
at the commencement of the 3d century, 
approached the Roman territory. Their 
setdements extended, on the east side of 
the Rhine, fipom lake Constance, the Elbe 
and the Danube, to the Maine and the 
Lahn. Their neighbors on the east were 
the Suevi, and, fiuther on, the Buigun- 
dians. The principal tribes composing 
the Alemannic league were the Teucten, 
Usipetes, Cbatti and Vangiones. Can- 
cal& first Ibught with them, on the south- 
em part of the Rhine, in 211, but did not 
conquer them; Severus vras likewise un- 
suooessfiil. Maxirain was the first wfaa 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ALEMANNI--D'ALEHBERT. 



149 



coiiquered aiid drove them beyond the 
Rhine, in 236. After his death, they 
again invaded Gaul ; but Posthnmius de- 
feated them, puimied them into Oerma- 
njy and fbrtmed the boundary with ram- 
parts and ditclies ; of which the mounds 
near Pboring, on the Danube, the rampart 
extending tluough Hohenlohe to Jaxthau- 
sen, and the ditch with palisadoea on the 
]M»th aide of the Maine, are remnants. 
(See DemPs WaU.) But the A. did not 
from their incursions, and were 
>ely repulsed by Lollianus, the 
' of Posthumius, by the emperor 
Pkobus, in 382, and aftei^^ards by Con- 
stantius Chlorus. Nevertheless, during 
the distuifaiances in the empire, and untu 
Coostantine became its sole master, they 
occupied the tract from Mentz to Stros- 
bwg. At last, Julian was aent^ when 
C«nr,toGau],in357. He again repulsed 
the A-9 <md forced their princes, of whom 
there were then eight, to sue for peace. 
Tiieir whole force, in the chief battle 
acunst Juliui, amounted to 35,000 men. 
When the mif^ation of the northern tribes 
began, the .£ were among the hordes 
tliat ovenan GauL They spread along 
the whole western side of the Rhine, and, 
in the latter half of the dth century, over 
an Helvetia. At last, Clovis broke their 
power in 496, subdued them, and de- 
prived them of a larse portion of their 
peaBessions. Many of them fled to The- 
odfHic, king of the Ostrogoths, into Italy 
aod the Alps ; the greater part, however, 
returned to their own country. 

AuuKBEKT, Jean le Rond d', one of 
the most distinguished mathematicians 
and hterary characters of the 18th cen- 
tury, was bom in Paris, in 1717, but was 
exposed by his parents, madame de Ten- 
cin and the poet Destouches, provincial 
commissary of artUlery. The child ap- 
peared so weak, that the police officer, in- 
steaad of canying it to the foundling hofspi- 
tal, committed it to the care of the wife of a 
poor glazier. Perhaps he had secret in- 
structions to do so ; tor, although his pa- 
rents never publichr acknowledged him, 
they did not withdraw their care from 
him ; on the contrary, his ftther after- 
wards settled upon him an income of 
120O livres, a sum which was then suffi- 
cient to procure the necessaries of lifo. 
He showed much ftciiity in leaniing,and 
at the age of 4 years, was sent to a board- 
ina^-school. He was but 10 years oM, 
wEen the principal, a man of merit, de- 
clared that he could teach him no more. 
He entered the college Mazarin at the 
ace of 12. His talents surimed his in- 
^ 13* 



structers, who thought they had found in 
him a second Pascal to support the cause 
of the Jansenists, with whom they were 
closely connected. He wrote, in the iiist 
years of his philosophical studies, a com- 
mentary on the epistle of Paul to the 
Romans. Bu^ when he began to study 
mathematics, tnis science captivated him 
so much, that he renoimced all theologi- 
cal disputes. He left college, studied 
law, became an advocate, but did not 
cease to occupy himself witli mathemat- 
ics, though he was almost entirely desti- 
tute of property. A pamphlet on the 
motion of sohd bodies in a nuid, and an- 
other on the integral calculus, which he 
laid before the academy of sciences m 
1739 and 1740^ showed him in so favora- 
ble a light, that the academy received 
him, in 1/41, into the number of its mem- 
bers. He soon after published his ftmous 
woiks on dynamics, TraiU de (fyncanique, 
and on fluids, ThdU des JIuides. In 
1746, his Theory of the Winds obtamed 
the prize oflered by the academy of Ber- 
lin, of which he was chosen a member. 
Among his communications to diis acade- 
my, two are highly distinguished — tliat on 
pure analysis, and the one which treats of 
the vibrations of strings. He also took a 
part in the investigations which completed 
the discoveries of Newton respecting the 
motion of the heavenly bodies. Whilst 
Eulerand Glairaut were engaged in these, 
he dehvered, in 1747, to the ac^iemy of sci- 
ences, a solution of the problem proposed 
to determine what disturiwnees are occa- 
sioned by the mutual attraction of the plan 
ets, in their ellipdcal revolutions round thn 
sun, and what their motion would be, if 
they were acted on only by the attractive 
power of the sun. He continued tficse 
labors for several years, and published, at 
intervals, various important astronomical 
treatises, including one on the precession 
of the equinoxes ; also his experiment on 
the resistance of fluid bodies, and a num- 
ber of dissertations on otlier subjects; 
works, of the value of which there is but 
one opinion among scholars, but which 
produced a coldness on the part of Euler 
and others. — ^In the first tervor of liis 
fondness for mathematics, he had, for a 
time, become indifferent to belles-lettres; 
but his eariy love of them soon revived, 
after his most important discoveries, 
when mathematical mvestigations ceased 
to affi>rd him so rich a harvest of new 
truths, or he felt the necessity of relaxa- 
tion. He entered on this new career, 
with his introduction to the EneydopidiiR^ 
and it will always be a pattern of sQrie in 



130 



D'ALEMBERT-ALEPPO. 



treating of flcientific subjects, uniting, as 
it does, ele^nce and precision. D'A. 
comprised, m this introduction, the es- 
sence of all liis knowledge of mathemat- 
ics, philosophy and literature, acquired in 
a study of 20 years, and this was all that 
wa9 known at that time, in France, on 
these subjects. He undertook to prepare 
the mathematical part of the Emcydopi- 
dic^ and wrote a great number of excel- 
lent articles. His name being prefixed 
to this work, he shared its fate, and ex- 

g)9ed himself to numberless quarrels. 
'A. soon after entered the French acad- 
emy, and continued to cuitivate the belles- 
lettres, together with mathematics. His 
litenuy works, on account of their pro- 
foundness and accuracy, met with the 
approbation of all sound minds ; they are 
distinguished by purity of language, clear- 
ness of style, and iotce of thought Al- 
tjiough he experienced much persecution 
on account of his connexion with the 
Encydopedie^ and "was neglected bv the 
government of his countrv, he would not 
accept the invitations of Frederic II to 
settle in Berlin, nor the offers of the 
Russian empress, who desired him to take 
charge of the education of her son, with 
a i)ension of 1,00,000 hvres. His eountry 
learned his worth from foreigners; and 
the king of Prussia gave him a pension, 
when the academy of sciences, at Paris, 
refused him the salary to which he was 
justly entitled. Though his income was 
always moderate, his beneficence was 
jjreaL He lived above 30 years, in the 
plainest manner, in the house of the 
woman who had brought him up, and 
left these lodgmgs only when his health 
compelled him. His long attachment to 
Mile, de FEspinasse shows that he was 
not destitute of a feeling heart. Valu- 
ing independence more than any thing 
else, he avoided the society of the great, 
and sought only that into which he could 
enter with cheerfulness and finankness. 
The reputation which he enjoyed, the 
intimate friendship between liim and 
Voltaire, and his great merits, procured 
him many^ enemies. He had a Uterary 
contest with J. J. Rousseau, on account 
of an article on Geneva, intended for the 
Encydopidit. Hil religious character 
seems to have been that of a sober deist 
He died of the stone, being unwillmg to 
submit to an operation, in 1783, in the 
66th year of his age. Frederic II, who 
had, in 1763, become personally acquaint- 
ed with d'A., maintamed a correspond- 
rnoe with him, which was published 
rUter the death of both, and is very inter- 



eflting. The enemies of d'A^ with a view 
of depreciating his merits, called him a 
good geometrician among the literati, 
and a good beUes-lettres scholar among 
the geometricians. The truth is, that h» 
rank is somewhat fairer in geometry 
than in belles-lettres ; but, ovring to the 
influence of snrle upon the ftte of writ- 
ings, his wons in the department of 
bdles-lettres, vrill continue ^ to interest 
longer than his mathematical treatiaeB. 
The former are collected in the (Evmrts 
phUoaopkiqueSf kutoriquta d WUndres 
<ie <fwStem£eri, 18 Yob. Paris, 1809. Con- 
dorcet has drawn his chaiacter in hia 

ALEiTQoif, capital of the French depart- 
ment of the Ome, on the Saithe, contains 
1528 houses, and 13,500 jnhahitantB, a 
college, a sociiU d^hmdationy a Ubrary, 
and considerable manufactories of bone- 
lace, etamine, woollen stockings, leathec, 
6lc, The diamonds of A., so called, are 
found in the neighboring quarries. 3000 
women are employed here in manuftc- 
turing point-lace. Also a kind of linen, 
UnU d^M^kntoUy enjoys much reputation. 
The neighboring country has become 
richer by the division of the large estates, 
and the town itself more industrious. 

Aleftio, Julius ; a Jesuit, bom at Brea- 
oia, in the territory of Venice. He was a 
missionary in China, arrived, in 1610, at 
Macao, and left several works in the 
Chinese language. He died 1649. 

Aleppo, or Halep ; capital of the Asi- 
atic pashalie of tlie same name, which is 
the second in the Turkish empire, and 
comprises the northern part of Syria, 
including mount Lebanon. It contains 
9,800 square miles, and 450,000 inliabit- 
ants. The Orontes, abounding in fish, is 
the only river of the peshahc, which, 
under any other government, would Ions 
since have been connected, by a canal 
running through a level pkun, with the 
Euphrates. Th e countiy produces chief- 
ly wheat, barley, cotton, mdigo, sesamum, 
&^c., and, in the mountains, mulberry, 
olive and fig-trees. Halep, the seat of a 
pasha of three tails, a Greek patriarch, an 
Armenian, a Jacobite, and a Maronite 
bishop, is, within the walls, about 3| 
miles in circumference; including the 
suburbs, however, about 7 or 8. It contains 
14,137 houses, 200,000 inhabitants (24^000 
of whom are Christians), 100 mosques, 3 
Catholic churches, 1 Protestant church, a 
synagogue, many manufactories of siUc, 
cotton, &c. It carries on considerable 
trade, forming the centre of the inter- 
course between the Persian gulf and the 



ALEPPO--ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 



ISl 



Hediteiranean sea. Most of the inhabit' 
ants ajne Mohammedans, the rest Jews, 
oriental Chriadans, and Europeans. The 
city loat two thirds of its houses, and 8000 
inhabitants, by the earthquakes in 1833 
and 1822a Lon. ST 10" E. ; lat 96° 1 V N. 
A1.ESIA, the capital of the Mandubii, 
a Gallic people, who dwelt in what is 
now Bui^[undy, was an important foi- 
treas, the siege and taking of which was, 
ondoubtedly, the greatest military exploit 
of Caesar. All Gaul had risen against the 
Romans, even the iEdui, the (4d allies of 
the oppreasors; but Cassar conquered 
them under Vercinfletoriz, and besieffed 
them in Alesia. 80,000 men were shut 
up in the town; Caesar, with 60,000 troops, 
lay before it He erected, immediately, 
a Une of contravallation, extending 4 
leagues, in order to reduce the place by 
ftjmne, since its situation on a hill, 1500 
feet high, and on all sides abrupt, between 
the riven Ope and Operain, rendered an 
attack impossible. Vercingetorix, ailer 
wMtfc^'ng several furious but unsuccessful 
salhes, called all the Gauls to arms, and, 
in a shoit time, 250,000 men appeared 
before the place. Ceesar had, m the 
mean time, completed his line of circum- 
vallation, protecting himself against any 
attack from without by a breast-work, 
a ditch with jpalisadoes, and several rows 
of pit'ialls. These defences enabled him 
to repel the desperate attack of 390,000 
Gauls against the 60,000 Romans under 
his command, though he was assailed 
both in front and rear. The Gauls were 
unable to force his lines at any point. 
Vercingetorix, reduced to extremity by 
' hunger, was compelled to surrender, with- 
out having carried into execution his 
design of murdering all the persons in 
the town who were unqualifiecl for battle. 
But the whole tribe of the Mandubii, 
wUchhad been expelled from the city by 
the Gauls, and were not allowed by the 
Romans to pass into the open country, 
died of famine between the two camps. 
Afterwards, A. rose again to u flouiishinff 
condition, until it was destroyed, in 864, 
by the Normans. Vestiges of wells, 
aqueducts, broken tiles, coins and the 
like, found in the fields where A. once 
stood, prove the former existence of the 
city. At the foot of the ancient citadel 
(now mount Auxoisl is a village called 
M$e (depart. Cdte d' Or), with several 
hundred mhabitants. 
Albssanbru. (See Mexandria,) 
AuEUTiAit IsLAifDS ; a ^up belong- 
ing to Russia, and separating tne sea of 
Kamtachatka from tlie noithem part of 



the Pacific ocean, extending neariy 700 
miles fi^m E. to W., fi^m Ion . 169^ to 183^ 
E.;lat53^N. They form a chain coimect- 
ing Asia and America, and iuclude what 
have generally been called, in Eiu^h 
geographical worio^ the Ihx idands, Bek- 
ring's and Copper tslandsy and the group 
formerly divined into the .^UeiiKan and 
Jindrenoman ides^ altogether above 100, 
comprising about 10,0(X) square miles, all 
rocl^, some containing volcanoes and hot 
springs. The most known and largest 
are the Oonalaahka, Behrins's idand and 
Kodiak. The principal place is Alex- 
andria, the seat of the governor, and the 
chief emporium. No tree grows on these 
islands, and no domestic animal thrives 
there ; but they afford an abundance of 
valuable fiir and of fish. The inhaltontB 
belong to the same stock with the natives 
of Kiuntschatka; they are a hannless race 
of hunters and fishers. Their number has 
been reduced by the smallpox and the 
venereal disease to 1000. Tne Russians, 
to whom they pay tribute, visit these in- 
ho^itable iuands only for the sake of 
fur. The officers of the Russian- Ameri- 
can company treat the inhabitants so 
cruelly, that Krusenstem made a report 
about it to the Russian ffovemraent. — 
Miiller^s SamnUung RussitSur Gtschichiey 
voL iii. ; Coxe's Accowd of ike Rustian D%»- 
coveries; Tooke's View of the Russimi 
Umpirt ; Krusenstem's Voyage round the 
fVokd; Cooke, &c. 

Alexaudbr thb Great, son of Philip 
of Macedon, was bom in Pella, B. C. 356. 
His mother was Olympias, the daughter 
of Neoptolemus of Epirus. In his eariy 
youth, he showed the marks of a ^reat 
character. When he heard of the victo- 
ries of Philip, he exclaimed, ''My fother 
will .not leave any thing for me to do.** 
Phitip confided the chs^e of his educa< 
tion first to Leonidas, a relation of his 
mother, and to Lysimachus ; afterwards 
to Aristotle. At a distance fit>m the court, 
this great philosopher instructed him in 
all the branches of human knowledge, 
especially those necessary for a ruler, 
and wrote for lus benefit a work on the 
art of government, which is unfortunaSely 
lost As Macedon was surrounded by 
danaerous neighbors, Aristotle sought to 
cultivate in his pupil the talents and vir- 
tues of a military commander. With 
this view he recommended to him the 
readmg of the Iliad, ahd revised this po- 
em himself The copy revised by Aiis- 
totle was the favorite book of A., who 
never lay down without having read some 
pages in it At the same time he formec' 



159 



ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 



hiB body by gymnastic exercises. When 
very young, as every body knows, he 
tamed the horse Bucephalus, which no one 
ebe dared to mount When he was 16 
years old, Philip, setting out on an expe- 
dition against Byzantium, delegated the 
S>veinment to him during his absence, 
e pei^rmed prodigies of valor, two 
yeais later (338), in the battle at Ch»ronea, 
where he obtained great reputation by 
conqueiine the sacred band of the The- 
bans. '^Afyson," said Phihp, after the 
battle, embracing him, ^*seek another 
ernpu^, fi)r that which I shall leave you 
is not worthy of you." The &ther and 
son, however, quarrelled when Philip 
repudiated Olympias. A., who took the 
part of his mother, was obliged to flee to 
Epirus, to escape the vengeance of his 
father ; but he soon obtained pardon, and 
returned* He afterwards accompanied 
Philip on an expedition against the Tri- 
balli, and saved his life in a battle. Phil- 
ip, havinff been elected chief commander 
of the G&eeks, was preparing for a war 
against Persia, when he was aflsaasinated, 
B. C. 336. A., not yet 20 years of age, 
ascended the throne, punished the mur- 
derer, went into the Peloponnesus, and 
received, in the general assembly of the 
Greeks, the chief command in the war 
against Persia. After his return, he found 
the Illyrii and Triballi in arms, went to 
meet them, forced a passage through 
Thrace, and was eveij where successful. 
But the Thebans, havmg heard a rumor 
of his death, had taken up arms, and the 
Athenians, urged by Demosthenes, were 
about to join them, A. hastened to 
mnevent this junction, appeared before 
Thebes, and, having summoned it in vain 
to surrender, took and destroyed the city. 
GOOO of the inhabitants were put to the 
sword, and 30.000 oanied into captivity. 
The house and family of the poet Pindar 
alone were spared. This severity terri- 
fied all Greece. The Athenians suffered 
less. A. demanded only the banishment 
of Chamiides, who had spoken most 
bitterly against him. Leaving Antipater 
to govern in his stead in Europe, and be- 
ing confirmed as conunander m chief of 
the Greek forces, in the general assembly 
of the Greeks, he crossed over Into Asia, 
in the spring of 334, with 30,000 foot and 
5,000 horse. To secure the protection of 
Minerva, he sacrificed to her, on the fields 
of Bium, crowned the tomb of Achilles, 
and coneratulated this hero, from whom 
he was descended through his mother, on 
his good fortune in having had such a 
friend as Patroclus, and such a poet as 



Homer. When he approached the 
Granicus, he learned that several Persian 
satraps, vrith 20,000 foot, and as many 
horse, awaited him on the other side. A., 
without delay, led his army throup^h the 
river, and obtained a complete victory; 
having overthrown, with his lance, Mitn- 
rjdates, the son-in-law of Darius, and 
exposed himself to every danger. The 
Macedoniansi encouraged by his example, 
bore down every thing before them, and 
the whole army cro»ed the river. The 
Greek auxiliaries of the Pernans, who 
were formed in phalanxes, resisted longer, 
and were all destroyed, except 2000, who 
were taken priscmers. A. performed 
splendid funerfld ceremonies in honor of 
those of his army who had fallen, and 
granted privileges to their &therB and 
children. Most of the cities of Asia Mi- 
nor, even Sardis, opened their gates to 
the victor. Miletus and Halicamaasus 
resisted longer. A. restored democracv 
in all the Greek citiea In pasrang through 
Gordium, he cut the Gordian knot, and 
conquered Lycia, Ionia, Caria, Pamphylia 
and Cappadocia. But a dangerous sick- 
ness, brought on by bathing in the Cydnus, 
checked his course. On this occasion 
he showed the elevation of his character. 
He received a letter fit>m Parmenio, say- 
inf that Philip, his phyracian, had been 
bnbed by Darius to poison him. A. gave 
the letter to the physician, and at the 
same time drank the potion which he 
had prepared for him. Scarcely was he 
restorea to health, when he advanced 
towards the defiles of Cilicia, whither 
Darius had imprudently betaken himself^ 
with an immense army, instead of await- 
ing his adversary an the plains of Assyria. 
The second battle took place near Issus, 
between the sea and the mountains. The 
disorderly masses of the Persians were 
broken by the charge of the Macedoni- 
ans, and fled in wild confusion. On the 
left wing, 30,000 Greeks, in the pay of 
the Persian king, resisted lonser; but 
they also were obliged to yield. The 
treasures and fimiily of Darius fell into 
the hands of the conqueror. The latter 
were treated most magnanimoudy. A. 
did not pursue Darius, who fled towards 
the Euphrates, but, in order to cut him 
off fit>m the sea, turned towards CobIo- 
yria and Phcenicia. Here he received a 
letter finom Darius, proposing peace. A. 
answered, that, if he would come to him, 
he would restore to him not only has 
mother, wife and children without ran- 
som, but also his enimre. This answer 
produced noeSecL The victcny at Isbus 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 



153 



had opened the whole countiy to the 
Macedonians. A. took possession of 
Damascus, which contained a lai^ por^ 
tion of the rojral treasures, and secured 
all the towns along the Mediterranean 
aea. TVre, imboldened by the strength 
of its situation, resisted, Imt was taken, 
ailer seven months of incredible exer- 
tionBy and destroyed. A. continued his 
Tictorious march through Palestine, where 
all the towns surrendered, except Gaza, 
whieh shared the &te of Tyre. E^t, 
weary of the Persian voke, received him 
aa a deliverer. In oraer to confirm his 
powar, he restored the former customs 
and reli^us f&tes, and founded Alexan- 
dria, which became one of the first cities 
of ancient times. Hence he went through 
the desert of Libya, to consuh the oracle 
of Jupiter Ammon. Some historians 
aaaeit that the god recognised him as his 
son, but others reject all that has been 
related respecting this journey. At the 
return of epiing. A* marched against Da- 
rius, who, in the meantime, had collected 
an aimy in Assyria, and rejected the pro- ' 
poaab of A. ror peace. A battle was 
KHig^t at Gaugamela, not fer fix>m Aii>e- 
la, in 33L Justin estimates the forces of 
Darius at 500,000 men ; Diodorus, Arrian 
and Plutarch at more than double that 
nunober. Notwithstanding the immense 
numerical superiority of his enemy, A. was 
not a moment doubtful of victory. At the 
Iftead of his cavaby, he attacked the Per- 
aiana, and routed them immediately ; he 
then hastened to the aid of his left wing, 
which had been, in the mean time, se- 
verely {Hessed. His wish was to take, or 
kill, the king of Persia. The latter was 
on an elevated chariot, in the midst of his 
body-guards. These, when they saw how 
A. overthrew every thing, fied. Darius 
then mounted a horse, and fled likewise, 
leaving his army, baggage and immense 
creamres to the victor. Ballon and Su- 
sa, where the riches of the East lay accu- 
mulated, opened their gates to A^ who 
directed his march towards Peraepolis, 
the capital of Persia. The onW passage 
thitber, Pyle Perndis, was defended by 
40,000 men under Ariobarzanes. A. at- 
tacked diem in the rear, routed them, and 
entered Persepolis triumphant From 
this time the glory of A« began to decline. 
Master of the greatest empire in the 
world, he became a slave to his own pas- 
sionB ; gave himself up to arrogance and 
disaipetion; showed himself ungratefiil 
and cruel, and, in the anns of pleasure, 
slied the blood of his bravest generals. 
Hitherto sober and moderate, this hero, 



who strove to equal the gods, and called 
himself a god, sunk to the level of vulgar 
men. Persepolis, the wonder of me 
worid, he burned in a fit of intoxication 
Ashamed of this act, he set out with his 
cavalry to pursue Darius. Learning diat 
BesBUS, satrap of Bactriana, kept the king 
prisoner, he nastened his march with the 
hope of saving him. But Bessus, wheu 
he saw himself closely pursued, caused 
Darius to be essassinatea (B. C. 3301 be- 
cause he was an impedimenUo his &ght. 
A. b^eld, on the nontiers of Bactriana, 
a dying man, covered with wounds, lying 
on a chariot. It was Darius. The Mace- 
donian hero could not restram his tears. 
AAer interring him with all the hon<Mrs 
usual among the Persians, he took pos- 
session of Hyrcania, the land of the Blarsii 
and Bactriana, and caused himself to be 
proclaimed kin^.of Ana. He was ftrm- 
mg stiU more gigandc plans, when a con- 
spiracy broke out in his own camp. Pbi- 
lotaa^ the son of Parmenio, was inmlicated. 
A., not satisfied with the blood ofthe son, 
caused the fiither also to be secretly mur- 
dered. This act of injustice excited 
general displeasure. At Uie same time, 
bis power in Greece waa threatened. 
Agis, kinff of Sparta, had collected 30,000 
men to shake off the Macedonian yoke ; 
but Antipater, at the head of a numerous 
army, overcame the Spartans, and dia* 
solved the league of the Greeks. In the 
mean time, A. marched, in the winter, 
through the north of Asia, as far as it 
was men known, checked neither by 
mount Caucasus nor the Oxus, and 
reached the Cajspum sea, hitherto un- 
known to the Greeks. Insatiable of 
glory, and thirsting for conquest, he ^Mur- 
ed not even the hordes of the Scythians. 
Returning to Bactriana, he hoped to gain 
the affections of the Persians, by assum- 
ing their dress and manners, but this 
hope was not realized. The discon- 
tent of the army gjive occasion to the 
scene which ended in the death of Clitus. 
A., whose pride he had offended, killed 
him with his own hand at a banquet 
Chtus had been one of his most fiiithfid 
fiiends and bravest generals, and A. was 
afterwards a prey to the keenest remorae. 
In the following year, he subdued the 
whole of Sogdiana. Oxyantes, one of 
the leaders of the enemy, had secured 
his fiiraily in a castle built on lofW rocks. 
The Macedonians stormed it. Boxana, 
the daughter of Oxyantes^ one of the 
most beautifiil virgins of Asia, was among 
the prisoners. A. fell in love with and 
mamed her. Upon the news of this. 



154 



ALEXANDER. 



Oxyante8 thought it best to submit, and 
came to Bactra, where A. received him 
with disdnctioD. Here a new conspiracy 
was discovered, at the head of which was 
Hermoiaus, and, among the accomplices, 
Callisthenes. All the conspirators were 
condemned to death, except Callisthenes, 
who was mutilated, and carried about 
with the army in an iron cage, until he 
terminated his torments by poison. A. 
now formed the idea of conquering India, 
the name of which was scarcely Known. 
He passed the Indus, and fbrm^ an alli- 
ance with Taxilus, the niler of the region 
beyond this river, who assisted him with 
troops and 130 elephants. Conducted 
by Taxilus, he marched towards the 
river Hydaspes, the passage of which, 
Poms, another king, defended at the 
head of his army. A. conquered him in 
a bloody battle, took him prisoner, but 
restored him to his kingdom. He then 
marched victoriously through India, 
established Greek colonies, and built 
according to Plutarch, 70 towns, one of 
which he called Bue^haUif after his 
horse, which had been killed on the Hy- 
daspes. Intoxicated by success, he in- 
tended to advance as fiur as the Ganges, 
when the murmurs of his army com- 
peUed him to return, in doing which he 
was exposed to great dangers. When 
he had reached the Hydaspes, he built a 
fleet, in which he sent a part of his army 
down the river, whDe the rest proceeded 
along the banks. On his march, he en- 
countered several Indian princes, and, 
durinff the siege of a town belonging to 
the Aiallii, was severely wounded. Hav- 
inff recoveredi he continued his march, 
SBUed down the Indus, and thus reached 
the sea. Nearchus, his admiral, sailed 
hence to the Persian fful^ while A. di- 
rected his inarch by umd to Babylon. 
He had to wander through immense 
deserts, in which the greater part of his 
army, destitute of water and food, per- 
ished in the sand. Only the fourth part 
of the troops, with which he had set out, 
ivtumed to Persia. On his route, he 
quelled several mutinies, and placed 
governors over various provinces. In 
Susa, he married two Persun princesses, 
and rewarded those of his Macedonians 
who had married Persian women, be- 
cause it was his intention to unite the 
two nations as doselv as possible. He 
distributed rich rewards among his troops. 
At Opis, on the Tigris, he declared his 
intention of sending the invalids home 
with presents. The rest of the army mu- 
tiaied ; but he persisted, and effected his 



purpose. Soon after, his fiivorite, He- 
phflBstion, died. His grief was unbounded, 
and he buried his body with roval splen- 
dor. On his return from Ecbatana to 
Babvlon, the ma^cians are said to have 
predicted that this city would be fatal \o 
nim. The npresentations of his fiiends 
induced him to despise these warnings. 
He went to Babylon, where many foreign 
ambassadors waited for him, and was 
engaged in extensive plans for the future, 
when he became suadeuly siclLafter a 
banquet, and died in a few days, 323 B. C. 
Such was the end of this conqueror, in 
his 33d year, afier a reign of 12 years and 
8 months. He left behind* him an im- 
mense empire, which became the scene 
of continual wars. He had desiirnated 
no heir, and, beinff asked by his friends 
to whom he left me empire, answered, 
** To the worthiest.*' After man v disturb- 
ances, the generals acknowled^^ed Ar- 
idaeus, a man of a very weak mmd, the 
son of Philip and the dancer Philinna, 
and Alexander, the posthumous son of 
A. and Roxana, as kings, and divided 
the provinces among themselves, under 
the name of tatrt^pies. They appointed 
Perdiccas, to whom A. on his death-bed 
had given his ring, mime minister of the 
infant kings. The body of A. was inter- 
red, by Ptolemy, in Alexandria, in a 
golden coffin, and divine honors were paid 
to him, not only in Egypt, but also iik 
other countries. His sarcophagus, since 
1802, has been in the British museum. 
Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch and Curtiua 
are the sources from whence the history 
ofA. is drawn. (See also iSL Chnlx^ JEInim. 
criHjue des Hidoirient d^Muc^ 4toi, Paris^ 
1804.) Stcwnder is the oriental name of A. 

ALxxAimER Balas, king of Syria, was, 
accordinff to some, the namral son of An- 
tiochus Epiphanes, but, according to oth- 
ers, a young man of mean extraction at 
Rhodes, subprned by Heraclides, at the in- 
stigation of Ptolemv, Attains and Ariar- 
thes, to personate the son of Antiochua, 
and under that title to lay claim to the 
crown of Syria,in oppomtion to Demetrius. 
In a war between the two competitors, A. 
was slain, B. C. 145. 

AiiEXAimxR Jannaus, king of the Jews, 
succeeded to the thrcme R C. lOa His 
fourth brother endeavored to deprive him 
of the crown, and was put to death. A. 
began his rei|p by leadmc an army 
against Ptolemais, but was obliged to re- 
turn to defend his own dominions against 
Ptolemv Lathyrus, and was defeated on 
the banKs of the Jordan. He subsequently 
conquered Gaza, made war on the Ara- 



ALEXANDER. 



155 



faiuMy and tvafi 



in quambwith 



his own BubjectB. Alter reducing them to 
order, he extended his conqueets tbroturii 
Syria, Idunueay Arabia and Phoenicia. On 
recnniing to Jerusalem, he devoted him- 
self to drinking and debaucheiy, and died 

ac.79. 

AxfXAHDBii Savsaus, a Roman em- 
peror, was bom at Acre, in Phcsnicia, in 
the year 205. He was the son of Gene- 
aius M arcianos and of Mamnuea, niece to 
the emperor Sevenis. He was admirably 
educated fay his mother, and was adopted 
and made Geesar by his cousin Heliogab- 
alua, then but a few years older Sian 
liiDtiseIC at the prudent instigation of 
their common grandmother, Measa. That 
eontempcible emperor, however, soon 

SBW i^ous of his cousin, and would 
ve destroyed him, but for the interfer- 
ence of the praetorian guards, who soon 
after put Hetiogabaius himself to death, 
and raised Alexander to the imperial 
dignity in his 17th vear. Alexander 
adopted the noble model of Trajan and 
the Antonines ; and the mode in which 
he admiiufltered the afiaira of the empire, 
and otherwise occupied himself in pbetir, 
philosophy and literature, is eloquently 
deacrihed by Gibbon. On the whole, he 
governed ably both in peace and war; 
but, whatever he might owe to the good 
education given him by his mother, he 
allowed her a degree of influence in the 
govenunent, which threw a cloud over 
the latter part of his reign, as is usually 
the case with the indirect exercise of m- 
male political influence. Aj. behaved with 
freat majrnanimity in one of the fiequent 
msurrections of the pnetorian guards; 
but, either flnom fear or necessity, he al- 
lowed man^ of their seditious mutinies to 
pass unpunished, although, in one of them, 
they murdered their prefect, die learned 
lawyer Ulpun, and, in another, compelled 
0ioo Caaaius, the historian, then consul, 
to retire into Bithynia. At length, imder- 
takmg an ezpediuon into Gaul, to repress 
an incursion of the Germans, he was 
murdered, with his mother, in an insur- 
rection of his Gallic troops, headed by the 
brutal and gigantic Thracian, Maximin, 
who took advantage of their discontent at 
the emperor's attempts to restore disci- 
^ine. This event happened in the year 
2351, after a reign of li years. A. was 
&vorable to Christianity, following the 
predilections of his mother, Mammiea ; and 
he is Bind to have placed the statue of 
Jesus Christ in his private temple, in 
company with those of Orpheusana ApKd- 
loDiua 'fyaneus. In return, the Christian 



writers all speak veiy favorably of him. 
Herodian, on the contrsiy, accuses him 
of ^reat timidity, weakness, and undue 
subjection to his mother ; but exhibits a 
disposition todetractfitnn his good charac- 
ter on all occasions, in a way that renders 
his evidence veiy sus|nciou8. He was 
thrice married, but left no children, ^lius 
Lampridius teUs the folk>wing singular 
story of A. : — Ovinius Camillus, a Roman 
senator, conspired against him. A., learn- 
ing the feet, sent for Ovinius, thanked him 
for his willingness to relieve him ftom the 
burden of government, and then pro- 
claimed him his colleague. A. now gave 
him BO much to do, that he had hiutUy 
time to breathe, and, on the breaking out 
of a war vrith Artaxeixes, the fatigues to 
which A. exposed himself and wluch 
Ovinius was compelled to share, so over- 
whelmed the latter, that, at last, he be- 
sought A. to permit him to return to a 
private station. He was accordingly al- 
lowed to resign the imperial dignity. 

Alexander ; the name of several popea. 
— Alexander I reigned ftom 109 to 119, 
and is known only as having introduced 
the use of holy water. — ^A. IT, Ansehn of 
Milan, preidously bishop of Lucca, was, in 
1061, raised to the papal throne by the 
party of Hildebrand, luterwards Gregory 
Vll, while the adherents of the Geiman 
king, and of the nobility of Rome, chose 
Honorius U at Basle. This antipope 
expelled A. ftom Rome, but Hildebrand, 
then the soul of tl^e pcuMl government, 
supported him; a synod at Cologne ac- 
knowledged him in 1062, and the Ro- 
mans themselves revolted, in 1063, from 
Honorius. Thus A. attained quiet pos- 
session of Rome, and of the papal power, 
which, however, Hildebrand administered 
in his name, llie papal bulls, therefore, 
against lay investiture, a{;ainst the mar- 
riage of priests, and the divorce of Henry 
IV, and the haughty summons of thu 
king to appear before the papal chair, 
must be ascribed to the influence of Hil- 
debrand, who used the weak A. II as his 
tool A. died in 107a (See Ongory VIL] 
—A. Ill reined ftom 1159 lo 1181, and 
struggled with various fortune, but un- 
daunted courage, agamst the party of 
the emperor Frederic I, and the antipopes 
Victor III, Paschal IH, and Calixtus III, 
who rose, one after the other, against him. 
He was obliged to flee to France in 1161, 
where he lived in Sens, until the dissatis- 
faction of the Lombards with the govern- 
ment of Frederic, the assisumee of the 
German ecclesiastical princes, and the 
deaueof the Romans, opened a way for hia 



156 



ALfiXANDElL 



roturn, in 1165. He now stren j^thened hte 
powtsr by a league with the cities of Lorn- 
tiardy, but was obliged to retire, in 1167, 
before the imperial army, and resided in 
Benerento, Anagni and Venice, until after 
the Tictorv of the Lombards over the em- 
peror at LegnanO) foUowed by thejpeace 
of Venice (so humiliating to the pnde of 
the emperor Frederic, who was compelled 
to kiss the fbet and hold the stimip of A., 
in 1177), the abdication of #ie third anti- 
pope, and the return of the victor to Rome. 
A. humbled, also, Henry II, kinfr of Eng- 
land, who had exposed himself to the 
papal vengeance by the assassination of 
Becket. The terms, on which the Ger- 
man and English sovereigns were restored 
to &vor, were such as to increase the power 
of the pope in both countries. He placed 
Alfonso II on the throne of Portugal, 
and laid Scotland under an interdict on 
account of the disobedience of the king. 
The rest of his labors to aufpient the pa- 
pal power, and his persevering efforts, in 
the spirit of Gregory VII, till the period 
of his death, are related in the article 
Popery.— A. IV, count of Segni and bishop 
of Ostia, ascended the y^sl throne in 
1954, at a very un&vorable time. Con- 
C|Uered by ManlQned of Sicily, imphcated 
in the quarrels of the Guelphs and Ghib- 
ellines, des{Hsed in Italy, tnis pope, with 
good intentions, and a peaceable dispo- 
sition, was not able to prevent, either by 
his prayers or his excommunications 
' (which were only laughed at), the disturb- 
ances prevailing over the whole country. 
At his death, m 1261, he left the papal 
power in a state of great weakness.^ — A, V~ 
a Greek from Candia, under the name of 
Peter Philargi, a mendicant friar, rose to 
the dignity of cardinal, and was chosen 
poi>e in 1409, at the same time with the 
antipopes -Gregory XII and Benedict 
XIII. He was considered by the greater 
part of Christendom legitimate pope, but 
earned his prodigality and luxuiy in 
Bologna, where he constantly resided, to 
on extent injurious to the interests of the 
chureh. At the council of Pisa, he prom- 
ised to reform the abuses prevailing m the 
chureh, but took no steps towards it 
While occupied in the condemnation of 
the doctrines of WicMiffe, and in prepa- 
rations for the trial of the Bohemian re- 
former, Huss, he died in 1410, probably 
b^ poison.— A. VI. (Seeihefoa<wingat' 
hde.y-A. VII, who was employed, when 
cardinal Chigi, as papal nimcio, in nego- 
tiations of peace at Munater and Oana« 
bruck, and was revered on account of his 
pious zeal for the chureh and holy Ufo, 



hid aside the m^ak of sanctity after his 
elevation to the pima] throne, April 8, 1655, 
and gave hncnselt openly up to luxury 
and voluptuousness. Heaurreundedliim- 
self with show and splendor, and appeared 
in the character of an intriguing pohtician. 
For an account of his condemnation of 
the 5 points of Jensen's AuguMMu, and 
the quarrels in which he was consequent- 
ly involved in France, see Jangen. He 
quarrelled not only with the Sorbonne, 
and the parliament, but even with fednf 
Louis XlV ; so that the latter declared 
war against him, took Avignon and Ve- 
naissin, and forced him, in 1663, to make a 
disgraceful peace at Pisa. His improve- 
ments In the city of Rome, lus attempts 
at poetry, and encouragement of learned 
men, could not indemnify the Roman 
court for the loss of authority in France, 
and he died without gloir, Mi^ 22, 1667. 
— ^A. VIII, an Ottoboni nt>m Venice, be- 
came pope in 1689. By artful negotia- 
tions, he mduced Louis Al V to deliver up 
Avignon and Venaissin, and to renounce 
the privileges belonnng to the quarter of 
his ambassador in Rome. He supplied 
the Venetians with men, money and ships 
to carry on a war against the Turks. Lees 
intent upon the weal of the church than 
on enricuii^ his own fomily, he delayed 
the condemnation of the 4 articles of the 
Gallican church, in order to gain advan- 
tages for his relations. He was hostile to- 
wards the Jesuits, and condemned their 
doctrine of the philosophical sin ; at tho 
same time, however, fH theses of the Jan- 
senists. (See Janaen.) The library of the 
Vatican is indebted to him for the pur- 
chase of the excellent library of the queen 
Chrisdna of Sweden. He died in 1691, 
81 years old. 

Alexander VI, a notorious pope, 
was bom at Valencia, in Spain, in 14^, 
and ascended the papal throne in 1492* 
His name was Rodrigo Lenzuoh ; but be 
took the ancient and renowned name of 
his mother's family, Borgia. In his youth 
he was noted for disinpation, though not 
destitute of talent. He had 5 children, 
bv a woman famous for her beauty, Rosa 
Vanozza. Coesar Borffia and I^ucrctia are 
the most known ; the latter was four times 
married, and was suspected of incestuous 
intercourse with her father and brothers. 
A. was made a cardinal by pope CaGx- 
tus III, his uncle. By bnbing the car- 
dinals Sforza, Riario and Cibo, he pre- 
pared his way to the papal throne, afler 
the death of Innocent VIII. The long 
residence of the popes in Avigoon, at a 
distance from their dominions in Italy, had 



ALEXANDER. 



157 



diminished both then* authority and rev- 
cDues. To make up for this loss, A. VI 
endeavored to impair the power of the 
Italian princes, and seize upon their pos- 
eeanonSj for the benefit of his own family. 
To effect this end, he employed the most 
execrable means. His policy, foreign as 
well as domestic, was faithless and base, 
particuiariy in the case of France, whose 
kinqr, Cbaries VIII, was his enemy. He 
understood how to extract immense sums 
of money from all Christian countries. 
He dedded the dispute between the Idngs 
of Portucal and Castile concerning Amer- 
iea, dividing their conquests, in 1494, by 
a Ibae running from pole to pole, 370 miles 
west of the Azores. A. died, 74 years 
old, in 1503. Machiavelli abhorred this 
detestable miscreant, and says of him, 

Mal6 valenza. e per aver riposo 

Portato fu nra rauime beaie 
Lo apirito d' Alessandro giortoso 3 

Del quai se^iro le tante pedate 
Tn we iamiliari e care ancelie, 

Lussuria, siiDonia e crudeitad«B. 

Ai.EXA!n>ER Newskoi, a Russian hero 
and saint, the son of the grand-duke 
JaroslaY, was bom in 1219. In order to 
defend the empire, which was attacked 
on all sides, but especially by the Mon- 
0>ls, Jaroslav quitted Novgorod, and left 
the charge of the government to his sons, 
Fedor and Alexander, the former of 
whom soon afterwards died. A. repulsed 
the assailants. Russia, nevertheless, came 
under the Mongolian dominion, in 1238. 
A., when prince of Novgorod, defended 
the western frontier agamst the Danes, 
Swedes, and knjghts of the Teutonic 
order. He gained, in 1240, a splendid 
vi<5torjr, on the Neva, over the Swedes, 
and thence received his surname. He 
overcame, in 1242, the knights of the 
sword, on the ice of lake Peipus. After 
the death of his father, in 1245, A. became 
mnd-duke of Wladimir. He died in 
1263. The gratitude of his countrymen 
baa commemorated the hero in popular 
songs, and raised him to the digmty of a 
saint. Peter the Great honored his mem- 
ory by the erection of a splendid monas- 
tery m Petersburg, on the spot where A. 
gained his victoir, and by establishing the 
order of Alexander Newskoi. 

AxEXAifBER. Several kinss of Scotland 
were so named. — ^A. I, son of Malcohn UI, 
soeceeded his brother Edgar in 1 107. He 
was called the Fierce, from his vigor and 
impetnooty. A con^iracy was formed 
aninst his life, and the traitors obtained 
admission into his bed-chamber at night. 
A^ having lulled six of them, made his 

VOL. L 14 



escape. He died in the 17th year of his 
reign.-i-A. II succeeded his father, Wil- 
liam the lion, 1214, in his 1^ year, and 
died in his 51st year.— His son, A. Ill, 
succeeded him in 1249. He married 
Margaret, dauditer of Henry III of Eng- 
land. In 12^ he defeated, at Largs, 
Haquin, kinff of Norway, who had landed 
an army in his kingdom. He was killed 
in hunting, by his horse rushing down a 
high precipice. He was a prince of an 
excellent character, introduced many good 
regulations of government, and greatly 
contributed to diminish the burdens of the 
feudal system, and to restrain the license 
and oppressions of the nobih^-. His 
death makes an sra in Scottish h^or}% 

Alexaivder I, Paulowitsch (that is, 
the son of Paul), emperor and autocrat 
of all the Russias, and king of Poland, 
was bom Dec. 23, 1777; ascended the 
throne March 24, 1801 ; was crowned 27tli 
Sept of the same year, in Moscow ; mar- 
ried, 9th Oct, 179^ Elizabeth (previously 
called Lotdaa Maria Augusta), third 
daughter of Charles Louis, hereditary 
prince of Baden; and died 1st Dec, 1825. 
A. was one of the most important men of 
modem times. He was a great benefac- 
tor of his own country, and did some 
good and a great deal of evil to Europe. 
Nature had endowed him with great 
talents, which were judiciously cultivated 
by his mother and his instmcters. He 
recosnised the spirit of the a^e ; irequendy 
acted in accordance with liberal princi- 
ples ; had sense enough to know that a 
monarch, to play an important part, must 
have respect to the wishes of the people, 
whatever his ultimate object may be; 
loved justice, if it did not militate with 
his love of power, which was indeed of a 
higher order than that of a common 
tyrant ; and sought to make himself, like 
Napoleon, master of Purope, tliough witli 
different means. In many respects he 
resembled the great pope Gregory VIL 
He was, whether from policy or convic- 
tion of its necessity, in a religious point 
of view, the principal contriver and the 
chief support of the ** Holy Alliance" 
(q, V.),— a league which history will de- 
nounce as the origin of infinite evil. His 
father did not take any part in his educa- 
tion, which was directed by the empress 
Catharine II and colonel Laharpe. (q. v.) 
His mother, Maria, the daughter of the 
duke Eugene of Wirtemberg, always 
pogpsessed his love and confidence, and 
retained a great influence over him 
throughout ms reign. She died in the 
year 1828. Laharpe educated him in the 



156 



ALEXANDER. 



priDciples of an enlightened 808. His&vt 
governor, count Nwhu Soltikofl^ receiv- 
ed orders fix>m Catharine not to give the 
young prince any instruction in poetry 
and lousic, as requiring too much time 
for the attainment of proficiency. Pro- 
fessor Kraft instructed him in natural 
philosophy, and Pallas, a short time, in 
Dotany« — ^He took part, it is probable, in 
the conspiracv acainst his &ther, thou^ 
it is not likely that he had the most dis- 
tant thou^t against his life. He wished 
to save himself and many nobles of the 
empire from the mad persecution of the 
emperor, and nothing short of dethroning 
him could idSbrd them safety. He is oflen 
said, therefore, to have acted in selfnle- 
fence. — ^The history of his government 
may be divided into 3 periods : The first 
was peaceful and entirely devoted to the 
execution of^ the schemes of Peter the 
Great and Catharine H, reelecting the in- 
ternal administration. The secoujd, ex- 
tending from 1805 to 1814, was a time of 
warvnth France, Sweden, the Porte and 
Persia, and developed the resources and 
the national feeling of the people. In the 
third period, be used the experience ac- 
quired in the two preceding, to cany into 
effect the declaration of Peter the Great, 
made 100 years before, in 1714, after a 
victory over the Swedish fleet, near the 
Aland islands : — ^ Nature has but one Rus- 
sia, and it shall have no rival.** — A. was 
distin^ished for moderation, activity and 
attention to bunness, personally superin- 
tending the multiplied concerns of his 
vast empire, while nis simple and amiable 
manners gained him the love and confi- 
dence of his subjects. He understood 
and was zealous in promoting the welfare 
of his people. Great attention was paid, 
during his reign, te education and intel- 
lectual culture, and many improvements 
were introduced into the internal admin- 
istration of t^e empire; e. g. the establish- 
ment of the senate by the ukase of 1802, 
of the imperial council and the ministry 
of 8 divisions by the ukaae of 1810, of 
the provincial admintstratioa in the gov- 
ernments, &c. The shackles which hung 
on the industry of the nation were re- 
moved, and its commerce increased, — ^A. 
has likewise advanced the military estab- 
lishments of Russia to a hifh de^peee of 
perfection ; -he has developed in his peo- 
ple the sentiments of union, courage and 
IMUriotism ; and, lasdy, he has raised Rus- 
sia to k high rank in the political system 
of Europe^ and has made its importance 
fek even m Asia. It must be aJso ac- 
knowledged that, during his reigUy taste 



and intdQiffsnoe began to be diflKised 
among the ni^^r duses, as well as emi- 
nent and even liberal statesmen to be 
formed, though it is in this, as in so many 
other things, difficult to distinguish what 
is owinff to the prince, and what to the 
spirit of the age^— Among the most inti- 
mate associates of the emperor were gen- 
eral Jermolofi^ afierwanis Wofehoimky, 
Araktschejeff and Diebtiseh. In the ear- 
Uer part of his reign, some Greeks stood 
high in his fiivor, as did the French am- 
bassador, count Caulaincourt, finom 1807 
to 1812. — ^Among the merits of A. are to 
be reckoned his exertions for the im- 
provement of the Sclavonian nations, and 
the cultivation of their language and liter- 
ature. He founded or new-modelled 7 
universities, at Dorpat, Kazan, Charkov, 
Moscow, Wilna, Warsaw and &L Peters- 
burg; 204 academies, many seminaries 
for me education of instructers, and above 
2000 conunon schools, pardv after the 
system of Lancaster. He did much for 
the distribution of the Bible, by the aid 
which he rendered to the Bible socie- 
ties (abolished in 1826). He granted im- 
portant privileges, by a ukase of 1817, to 
Jews becoming Christians. He appropri- 
ated larse sums for the printing of unpor- 
tant wonu, as the Yoyaie of &usenstem, 
the History of Russia By Karamsin, &c. 
He esteemed and rewarded literary merit, 
both in and out of Russia. He purchased 
rare and valuable collections. In 1818, 
he invited two orientalists, I>emange and 
Charmoy, fit>m Paris to Petersbuii^, to 
advance the studyof the Arabic, Arme- 
nian, Persian and Turkish languages. He 
attended particularly to the education of 
younff men of talent, whom he sent to 
travel through foreign countries. He en- 
deavored, at the same time, by moderate 
measures, to relieve his subjects from the 
tyranny of their lords, the nobles, the bo- 
yar8,Btarost8^c. Servitude was abolished 
m 1816, in Esthonia, Livonia and Cour- 
land ; and A. declared, that he would no 
longer transfer vrith the crovm-lands the 
boon who cultivated theriL He forbade 
the advertising of human beings for sale, 
and gave leave to a number of boors, a part 
of the bondmen of the late chancellor 
Romanzofi^ to ransom themselves from 
thehr master. He endeavored, with much 
earnestness, to give to his people a cood 
sj^stem of law, but the civil code of Rus- 
sia fidll requires many iinprovements. 
The law-school, opened in 1807, ceased 
in 1810^-The custom of slitting the nose 
and branding, hitherto connoted with 
whipping with the knout, was abolished 



ALEXANDER. 



159 



byA. in 1817. He likewise abofiBfaed, in 
1801, die secret court, as it was called, 
before which political criminals, chiefly, 
were brou^t, and compelled, by hunger 
and thirst (not, however, bv instru- 
ments of torture), to confess. lie checked 
the abuse of power in the hands of gov- 
ernors, by preventive laws. The privi- 
l^e of the nobles, that their estates could 
not be confiscated as a punishment for 
their crimes, was extended by A. to all 
hie subjects. He also rendered efficient 
aid to manu&ctures and commerce in 
his empire, by the introduction of a bet- 
ter tarin ; the improvement of the finan- 
ces and cuirenev of the country, ailer the 
estabyshment or a sinking fund ; the erec- 
ti<Hi of the bank of the imperial chamber, 
May 19, 1817 ; by providing continually 
for the construction of roads and canals ; 
by msldng Odessa a free port, and grant- 
ing it other privileges, m 1817. The 
ecmdition of manuii^tures in Russia has 
greatly improved since 1804, when it be- 
eame known from the report of the min- 
ister of the interior. The greatest projf- 
ress has been made in manuftctures m 
wool The whole foreign policy of Rus- 
sia ; the voyages round the world, imder 
the patronage of her government; the 
embusy to Persia, in 1817, to which was 
attached a Frenchman, Gardanne, who 
was acquainted with all the plans of Na- 
poleon respecting India and Persia; the 
mission to Cochin China and Khiwa; the 
fektioBs of Russia with the U. States, 
Brazil and Spain ; the treaties of com- 
merce and navigation with the Porte; the 
settlements on the westeni coast of North 
America, all prove the enlightened com- 
mereial policy of the Russian cabinet 
The travels of A. in foreign countries, 
even his short stay in England, his inter- 
course with well-inform^ and sensible 
men, but, principally, his frequent jour- 
n^ through the provinces of his empire, 
amNnded the materials of his numerous 
projects for the benefit of his country. 
On this his attention was continually fixed. 
— ^The peace of Tilsit, in 1807, makes an 
epoch in the Russian military system. It 
not only opened the way to the conquest 
of Finland, in 1809, and of two or the 
mouths of the Danube, in 1812, but af- 
forded A. time to remove the defects of 
the military system hitherto in use. The 
armies of Russia, during the war with 
Napoleon, were remarkable for their 
equipment and discipline. The active 
interest which A. took in the proper or- 
dering of all the branches of the admin- 
istration, is the reason why the nation 



was attached to him with fhll confidence, 
which he experienced in time of danger. 
A. never showed a timid, unenterprising 
spirit ifis decision fiustrated the plans 
of Napoleon at Moscow. He gave his 
word to his people, that he would never 
negotiate with Napoleon, as long as an 
armed enemy was in the country. The 
activity which prevailed in the militaiy 
department of the Rusrian adnoinistration 
is proved by the army which appeared, in 
1813, in Germany, and that which was kept 
ready, in 1815, to march against France, 
comprising 300,000 men and 2000 pieces 
of cannon. The peaceful character of A.'8 
policy is remarkable. His personal friend- 
ship for the kinff of Pnissia, Frederic 
William III, which was confirmed at die 
tomb of Frederic II, in 1805, led to im- 
portant consequence& The queen, Lou*' 
isa, was the living tie of this union. Ad- 
miration for the dazzling qualities of 
Napoleon drew him over to his side. He 
behoved, too, that he might, in connexion 
with the emperor of France, decide the 
fate of Europe. This was the purpose 
of his femous meeting with Napoleon at 
Erfurt, in Sept^ 1806. But when he saw 
that the ambitious conqueror wished to 
involve him in political contradictions, 
and prescribe laws to him injurious to 
the welfiu« of his empire, he resolutely 
maintained his independence. He suc- 
ceeded, at an interview with the prince^ 
royal of Sweden, at Abo, Aug., 1812^ in 
ferming an alliance with that country, 
after having induced the Porte, in May 
of the same year, to conclude the peace 
of Bucharest After 1812, a kind of i^li- 
gious character appears in the policy 
of A., and be ^ve himself up, more 
and more, to rehgious influence. This 
character is remarkably manifest in the 
proclamation which he addressed fit>m 
Warsaw, on the 10th (23d) Feb., 1813, to 
the nations of Europe, andf the proclama- 
tion of Kalitz, 25th March, 1813, directed 
to the C^ermans, in which he promised a 
great improvement in theu" condition, by 
means of a proper constitution, the object 
of which should be, to promote their lib- 
erty, security and prosperity. The mem- 
oraole manifesto of 27th Jan., 1816, con- 
tained an exposition of the political prin- 
ciples of the emperor. In the war of 
1813 — 14, A. exposed himself to dan- 
ger, in order to inflame the courage of 
his troops. He undoubtedly exercised a 
great influence upon the course of the 
war in France. Hts openness gained the 
confidence of the French, and it is said 
that he was secretly applied to firom Parir 



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160 



ALEXANDER. 



He also principally directed the march of 
Schwartzenbeii;, on the 29th March, 1814, 
to this capital, which put a glorious ter- 
mination to the war. The magnanimity 
with which he treated Paris and all the 
French, the strict discipline of his troops, 
and tlie assurances which tlio allies, at 
his instance, tendered to the nation, facil- 
itated the settlement of peace ; and it is 
asserted that he acted from the behef 
tliat he was complyiuK with the wishes 
of the French, and not &om adherence to 
the principles of leffitimacy, in recalling 
tlie Bourbons. He did not treat the con- 
quered and dethroned emperor meanly, 
but respected in him the former sove- 
reign and distributor of crowns, regard- 
less of his birth. He called upon the 
empress Josephine, and dined with her at 
Malmaison ; he interceded in &vor of the 
prince Eugene Beauhamois; he visited 
Ney. The enthusiasm of the Parisians 
for him was unlimited. June 1, 1814, he 
went to Eneland, where he was joyfully 
received. Several things, however, seem 
to have made an unfavorable impression 
upon him. He was not at ease among 
free Britons. He rose from his seat, how- 
ever, at the banquet in Guildhall, in hon- 
or of the national song, Rule^ Britanma, 
He lefl Enffland 28th June, and reached 
Petersburg S5th July, where he declined 
the name of (he EUued, offered to him 
by the senate. A later ukase, of 27th 
Nov., 1617, forbade the praises which the 
clergy were accustomed to bestow pn him 
from the pulpit His- presence in Vienna, 
during the congress, had a great influ- 
ence upon the policy of Europe, occa- 
sioned the admission of some Uberal 
views into the acts of the assembly, and 
added the kingdom of Poland to tlie 

S'gantic power of Russia. The drafl of 
e Polish constimtion, prepared at the 
instance of A., was the first symptom of 
a disposition in the European rulers to 
perform the promises made to their sub- 
jects during the wars with Napoleon. 
A. again visited Paris, July, 1815, and 
from that period the great influence 
of Russia upon the French cabinet, in 
opposition to the influence of England, 
was apparent, especially when Richelieu, 
who had foimerly been in the Russian 
service, was placed at the head of the 
ministry of Louis XVIII. In Spain, 
also, the same influence manifested itself. 
Even the court of Rio Janeiro showed a 
dedre of allying itself with Russia ; and 
the kingdom of the Netherlands, as well 
ns Prussia, Wirtemberg and other states, 
entered into a closer union with tlie Rus- 



sian court A., toge Aer with the powers 
that had concluded the treaty of Chau- 
mont, took an active part in the genenl 
concerns of Europe ; for instance, the re- 
volt of the Spanish colonies, and the dis- 
pute of Spain with Portugal, on account of 
Monte Video. He took measures against 
the piracy of the African states. Very 
soon, nothing occurred, of importance to 
the pohtical afiairs of the European con- 
tinent, in which this ambitions monarch 
did not appear as leader, mediator or par- 
taker. From the formation of the holy 
aUiance (q. v.), in Paris, 26th Sept, 1815, 
to his deatli, A. was actively engaged in 
politics, and kept his emissaries aU over 
Europe, who reported to him every im- 
portant occurrence. Among these was 
Kotzebue, tlie Geiinan author, who was 
assassinated by the student Sand. The 
memoir, directed to all the Russian am- 
bassadors, concerning the aflairs of Spain, 
the answer of the Russian cabinet to the 
Spanish minister, the chevaher Zea Ber- 
mudez, and the declaration of the con- 
gress of Aix-la-Chapelle, 15th Nov., 1818, 
are mteresting documents in the history 
of A. He took part, in 1820, in the con- 
gresses held at Troppau and Laybach, to 
settle the af&irs of Italy, and ordered his 
amiy to advance towards this country, to 
suppress the revolt of the Caiiwnari. As 
its presence was found to be unnecessary, 
it returned to Russia, when the afBurs of 
Greece (q. v.) occupied the attention of 
the Russian cabinet, in J.821. A. jpub- 
Hcly expressed his disapprobation or the 
enterprise of prince Alexander Ypsilanti 
rq. v.), but interceded, however, with the 
rorte, for the cause of hunoanity and 
Christianity. (See Stroganoff. ) It is pos- 
sible, that, from a sincere love of peace, he 
suffered the best opportunity to escape of 
liberating Greece, and increasing las em- 
pire. His letter to the viceroy of Poland, 
prince Zajonczeck [A'lx-la-Chapelle, 7 
(19) Oct., 1818], is a proof that he was not a 
stranger to liberal sentiments. He spoke 
in the same spirit, March 5, 1819, to a 
deputation of tlie Livonian nobihty, re- 
questing his ratification of the new con- 
stitution, which had been made for the 
benefit of the Livonian peasantry, when 
he used the memorable words, — "You 
have acted in the spirit of our age, in 
which Uberal ideas aflbrd tlie true iMisis 
of the happiness of nations.-' His remark 
to madame de Stael, several years before, 
was characteristic : " You will be offended 
with the sight of servitude in tliis land. 
It is not my fault ; I have set the exam- 
ple of emancipation, but I cannot employ 



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ALEXANDER. 



161 



force ; I must respect the rights of others 
as much as if ther were protected by a 
constitution, which, unhappily, does not 
exisL** Madame de Staei answered — 
^ Strty voire earadh^ est xtne consHMion^ 
(^le, your character is a constitution). 
He had, at the beginning of his reign, 
abobahed the secret police of state and 



other kind. Schools and universities have 
been established ; the system of Bell and 
Lancaster introduced: the ecclesiastical 
affidn of the Protestants and the Catholics 
arranged; the conversion of the Jews, or 
CknttUm bradUef, as they are called, 
encouraged ; th^ activity of all public 
institutions for instruction increased, and 



the censorship of books (the latter of the 17 scientzdc institutions in Petersburg 



which, however, he introduced again at a 
later period], and declared, April 7, 1801, 
** I acknowledge no power to be lawful 
wiiich does not emanate from the laws." 
In the same spirit he banished the Jesuits, 
Ist Jan^ 1816, from Petersburg and Mos- 
cow, and at last, 25th March, 1820, from 
the empire, because they dared co inter- 



and Moscow much improved. The ex^ 
pulsion of the Jesuits, indeed,, disturbed a 
htde the relations of the emperor with the 
see of itome, but satis&ctory explanations 
were made by A. to the pope at Laybach. 
Lastly, the emperor nominated a bishop, 
and established a ceneral conostory for 
the Lutheran church throughout die em- 



iere with the afiiiirs of the government, pire, in 1820, which was to maintain, in 

and disturb the peace of femiiies. He bad ♦**-*•- -"-♦«' ♦»»- ^—- :~ ^f.u^ » . 

prohibited proselytism, and promoted the 
instruction of the Jews. A. developed, in 
the same spirit, the internal resources and 
the external power of his immense em- 
pire. The addition of Georgia, Bialystock, 
naland, Waisaw, Schirvan and Bessara- 
bia has rendered its frontieis ahnost every 
where impenetrable, and increased the 
number ofits inhabitants from 36 millions 
to more than 43, for the most part Euro- 
peans. The speedr rebuilding of Mos- 
cow, the progress ot cultivation in Siberia 
and the Crimea, the number of inhabit- 
ants in the ^vemments of Tobolsk, 
Tomsk and Irkutsk increased by 800,000, 
and similar proois of the advancing pros- 
perity of the empire, have immortalized 
the rei^ of A. Whether the gigantic 
plan of unitinff the supporters of the po< 
nuctd power of Russia, the classes of peas- 
ants and soldiers, will prove to be good, 
experience must decide. (See Jmlitcay 
CMordes of Russia.) A., by the edict 
of ^th Dec, 1818, granted to all peasants 
in his empire the right of establishing 
manu&ctories, — a right confined, hitherto, 
to the nobility, and uie merchants of the 
inst and second classes. A better dispo- 
sition of the national debt, and a sinking 
froid, permitted an alleviation of taxes. 
A ukase of 1st Jan., 1819, therefore, abol- 
ished the tax upon income from land- 
ed property, established 11th Feb., 1812, 
but the expenses attending the support of 
a numerous army prevented any further 
remission. — ^The population of southern 
Russia has been greatly increased by the 
admiflsion of German emigrants ; and the 
same i^ was extended to Poland, where, 
by a decree of A., Warsaw, 10th Aug., 
1816, the new settlers received deserted 
houses and lands, belongmg to the na- 
tioul domains, or assistance of some 
14* 



their purity, the doctrines of the Protest- 
ant church. A. showed great respect ibr 
all Christian sects, and protected them 
equally. His endeavors to elevate the 
condition of the boors, and the general 
tendency of his policy to introduce the 
principles and manners of western Eu- 
rope, offended the old Muscovite nobility, 
and, towards the conclusion of his reign, 
in spite of the vigilance of the police, a 
fearful and widely-spread conspiracy was 
formed against him, the discovery and 
punishment of which was reserved fbr 
his successor. Perhaps A. was aware of 
the existence of treasonable projects when 
he followed his sick wife to the Crimea. 
His intention may have been to choose a 
place of retirement from the cares of gov- 
ernment ; but he fell sick at Taganrock 
(cuy.) of a bilious fever, and died, Ist Dec., 
1825, in the arms of his wife. The news 
of his death had scarcely reached Peters- 
burg, 8th Dec, O. S., when his eldest 
brother, Constantino, then in Warsaw, was 
proclaimed emperor; and all the civil offi- 
cers and the guards took the oath of aUe- 
giance 9th Dec O. S. But the grand duke 
declined accepting the crown, having re- 
signed his right of succession, during the 
li^-time of A., in a letter addressed to the 
emperor, Peteraburg, 14th Jan., 1822, to 
which an answer was sent, Feb. 2, 1822, 
by A., expressing his approbation, and 
that <^ the empress mother. Before the 
arrival at Petereburff of the letter of 
Constantine, dated Nov., 26th, O. S. in 
which he announced to his mother and 
brother, the grand duke Nicholas, that he 
recognised the latter as emperor, the sen- 
ate &d opened the testament of A., and 
found in it the document containing the 
resignation of Constantine, together with 
a manifesto of the emperor (dated Zars- 
kojeselo, 16th Aug., 1823), declaring his 



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ALEXANDER— ALEXANDRIA. 



aecond brother, Nicholas, his successor. 
This prince, therefore, ascended the 
tlirone, made Ib^own these documents in 
his proclamation of the 12th Dec, O. S. 
1825, and declare^ at the same time, that 
the day of the deatK yf A. was the begin- 
ning of his reign (lai Dec, N. S., 19th 
Nov.,0. S.) Then the cwnh of allegiance 
to the emperor Nicholas l^ was taken, 
13th Dec, O. S., 25th, N. S., in Petere- 
bnrg. The death of A. was a fortunate 
event for Europe; for the infiiience of 
Russia was growing continually stxonger 
in aU the cabmets of the European conti- 
nent, and even England could not k«ep 
entirely exempt from it. No other empiie 
has united, on so great a scale, the pow- 
er of masses, yet rude and vigorous, with 
experience and the advantages of culture, 
~-a union the more dangerous, as it was 
under the control of one absolute master. 
With A., moreover, perished the princi- 
pal support of the holy alliance,—* suffi- 
cient reason for Europe to reioice a^ (lis 
decease. Russia, however, laments in 
him a great benefactor. He had the good 
fortune to ascend the throne at a time 
when the empire was prepared for the 
greatest improvements, and his ambition 
was of a lund to be gratiHed by promo- 
tion the welfare of his people. 

Alexaiwer, William, a major-general 
in the service of the U. States dunng the 
revolutionary war, was bom in the city 
of New Yonc, but passed a portion of his 
life in New Jersey. He was generally 
styled, through courtesy, lord Stirling, 
in consequence of being considered by 
many as the rightful heur to the utle and 
estates of an earldom in Scotland, from 
which country his father came, though 
the government refused to acknowledge 
the son's claim, when he repaired to 
Great Britain in pursuit of this inherit- 
ance. He was early remarkable for his 
fondness for mathematics and astronomy, 
in wliich sciences he made considerable 
progress. — ^Throughout the revolution, he 
acted an important part, and distinguish- 
ed hunself particuku-ly in the battles of 
Long Island, Germantown and Mon- 
mouth. In the first, he was taken pris- 
oner, after haviiig, by a bold attack upon 
a corps commandea by Comwallis, ef- 
fected the escape a£ a large part of his 
detachmenL tn the second, his division, 
with the brigades of generals Nash ana 
Maxwell, formed the corps de reserve ; and, 
in the last, he commanded the left wing 
of the American army. He was always 
warmly attached to general Washington, 
and the cause which he had espoused. 



He died at Albany, Jan.. 15, 1783, aged 
57 years, leaving behind him the reputa- 
tion of a brave, disceminff and intrepid 
officer, and an honest and learned man. 

ALEXAirnRiA (in Turkish, Scandena) ; 
the capital of Lower Esypt, and the ancient 
residence of the Ptokmies, built 332 B. 
C, by Alexander the Great, who destined 
it to be the capital of his empire, and the 
centre of the commerce of the world. Its 
natural situation is strong, and it has five 
harbors. The Ptolemies, especiaUy P. 
Soter, or Lagus, and P. Philadelphus, in>- 
proved it much, and made it the seat of 
learning. (See Mexaiidrian School.y-Tty& 
first inhabitants of Alexandria were a 
mixture of Egyptians and Greeks, to 
whom must be added numerous colonies 
of Jews, uransplanted thither in 336, 320 
an& 312 B. C., to increase the population 
of thie city and countxy, who, becoming 
familiac with the Greek language and 
leaming„were called ifeflwisto. (q.v.) It 
was they who made the well-known 
Greek translation of the Old Testament, 
under the nai^e of the SeptuaguUa, (q. v.) 
— The most be&utifiil part of tne city, near 
tlie great harix>ry^ where stood the royal 
palaces, magnificently built, was called 
Bruction. There waa the large and splen- 
did edifice, belonging to the academy and 
nmseum, where the greater portion of 
the royal library (400,000 volumes) was 
placed ; tlie rest, amountii^ to 300,000, 
was in the Serapion, the temple of Jupi- 
ter Serapis. The larger portion was 
burned durmg the siege of Alex^dJria by 
JuHus Cffisar, but was afterwards rq;)laced 
by the hbrary of Pergamus, which Anto- 
ny presented to Cleopatra. The museom, 
where many scholars lived and were sup- 
ported, ate together, smdied and instruct- 
ed others, remahied unhurt till the reign 
of Aurelian, when it was destroyed in a 
period of civil coumiotion. The library 
in the Serapion was preserved to the time 
of Theodosius the Great. He caused all 
the heatlien temples, throughout the 
Roman empire, to be destroyed ; and even 
the splendid temple of Jupiter Serapis 
was not spared. A crowd of fanatic 
Christians, headed by their archbishop, 
Theodosius, stormed and destroyed it. 
At that time, the library, it is said, was 
partly burned, pardy d^)eFsed; and the 
historian Orosius, towanls the close of 
the 4th centuiy, saw only the empty 
shelves. Christian barbarians, therefore^ 
and not Arabs under Omar, as is usually 
asserted, were the cause of this irrepar- 
able loss to science. The Alexandrian 
library, called, by Livy, EUganHx regun^ 



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ALEXANDRIA-ALEXANDRIAN COPY. 



IG? 



txntmu egrwwn omtSf embraced the 
whole GreeK and Latm literature, of 
which we poeeees but eingle fragmentB. — 
In the division of the Roman dominions, 
Alexandria, with the rest of Egypt, was 
comprehended in tlie Eastern Empire. 
The Arabs possessed themselves of it in 
640 ; the caliph Motawakel, in 845, restor- 
ed the libraiy and academy ; but the Turks 
took the city in 868, and it declined more 
and more, retaining, however, a flourish- 
ing commerce, until the Portuguese, at 
the end of the 15th century, discovered a 
way to the East Indies by sea. — ^The 
modem A., situated N. kit 31° 11', £. 
k>n. 90^ 16^, does not occup3r the place 
of the old town, of which notmng remains 
except a portico in the vicinity of the 
gate leading to Rosetta, the south-western 
amphitheatre, the obelisk, or needle of 
Cleopatra (presented to the king of Eng- 
land by the pacha — but a mass of 400,000 
pounds is too heavy to be transported), 
and Pompey's pillar, 88 feet 6 inches hifffa, 
which, according to an English traveUer 
{Memoirs relating to Europe and ,Matic 
Turkey, by Robert Walpole, 1817), was 
erected by a governor of Egypt, named 
PompoL in honor of the emperor Diocle- 
tian. The equestrian statue on the top is 
no longer standing.— The town has now 2 
citadels and harboi?, of which the western, 
which is the best, is closed against Chris- 
tian ships. Before both haroors are the 
peninsijja Farillon and the island Pharos, 
with the ruins of the lighthouse of Ptole- 
my. (See Phaaroa,) — ^The population, for- 
meriy amounting to 300,000, is now 
12,600 ; the houses, 3132. A. is the seat 
of a patriarch. The canal of Ramanieh, 
from Cairo to Alexandria, 40 miles, 
was restored by the viceroy, Mohammed 
All Pacha, and first navisated 26th Jan., 
1S20. In consequence of this, the com- 
merce of Alexandria has been much im- 
proved. In the year 1824, 1290 ships, 
among them 606 Austrian, arrived, and 
1199 departed. — ^A peculiarity of modem 
A. is the great number of dogs, which 
here, as well as in Cairo and Constanti- 
nople, run about in a very wild state. — 
According to the latest accounts, tlie tra- 
ding pacha of Egypt has appointed an 
Itahan renegade, to collect all the remains 
of ancient art, which are capable of trans- 
portation, in his dominions, in order to 
sell them, in a bazar to be built for this 
purpose in A., to the Europeans. 

Ai^EXAVDRiA, with the surname dtUa 
Pogiia ; a considerable town and fortress 
in Piedmont, situated in a marsh v country, 
near the junction of the Bormida and the 



Tanaro. It was built in 1178, 1^ the Cre- 
moncse and Milanese, and at mat called 
CiE»area ; afterwards, in honor of the pope 
Alexander III, who established there a 
bi^opric, ^^lUsscmdria, Its magnitude 
and opulence increased from century to 
century; it now contains 30,000 inhab- 
itants, and may be considered flourishing, 
since it is the capital of the province of 
the same name,aii(d has two fiurs annual- 
ly, which are much frequented. Intended, 
originally, for a fortress to ffuard the pas- 
sage over the Tanaro andlBormida, and 
constantly kept in good order, as the 
point where several roads meet, Alexan- 
dria has firequently been the object of 
long contention. It was taken and pluiv 
dered, in 1522, by duke Sforza ; besieged, 
without success, by the French, under 
prince Conti, in 1657 ; and taken, after an 
obstinate defence, by prince Eugene, in 
1707. On the 16th of June, 1800, after 
the battle of Marengo, the Austrian gen- 
eral, Melas, agreed upon an armistice 
with Buonaparte, at Alexandria, by which 
he ceded to the latter Upper Italy, as &r 
as the Mincio, and 12 fortresses. The 
fortifications of A. consist now of a sur- 
rounding wall and bastions, a strong cita- 
del, formed by 6 basticms and many out- 
works, on the left bank of the Tanaro, and 
a redoubt protecting the bridge on the 
right bank of the Bormida. A bridge of 
stone connects the town and citadeL — ^For 
an account of the revolt of the garrison 
of A., see Piedmont^ Revolution of. 

Alexandkia; a city and port of entr>% 
in the district of Columbia, and county of 
Alexandria, on the S. bank of the Po- 
tomac, 6 miles S. Washington, 115 N. 
Richmond; Ion. 77* 4' W. ; lat 38^ 49^ N. : 
pop., in 1800, 4,196; in 1810, 7,227; in 
1820, 8,218; blacks, 2,603: houses, in 
1817, 1,f385. Among the public buildings 
are a court-house, a jail, an alms-house, a 
theatre, a market-house, and 8 houses of 
public worship. — ^The situation of Alex- 
andria is considerably elevated, with easv 
and gradual descents to the river, which 
is neatly wharfed for about half the length 
of the city, vnth water sufficient for the 
largest merchant-ships. The streets in- 
tetsect each other at right angles, and a 
great part ofthem are neatly paved. The 
city is favorably situated for commerce, 
nearly at the head of the tide-water of the 
Potomac, having an extensive and fertile 
back oountiy, and carries on a considor- 
able trade, chiefly in flour. A. expects 
to derive much benefit fit)m the intended 
canal firom Ohio to Washington. 
Alexandrun Copy, or Codex Alex- 



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ALEXANDRIAN COPY— ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL. 



AKDRiNUs ; a manuBcript, now in the Brit- 
iBh museiun, of great importance in bibli- 
cal criticism. It is on parchment, witli 
uncial letters, without breathings and ac- 
cents, written, probably, in the latter half 
of the 6th centuiy, and contains, in 4 vols, 
folio, the whole Greek Bible (the Old 
Testament according to the Septuagint), 
together with the letters of the buhop 
Clement, of Rome. A laige part of the 
Gospel of St Matthew and of the Second 
Epistle to the Corinthians, as well as a 
portion of the Gospel of St John, are 
wantinj^. The text of the Gospels is dif- 
ferent nom that of the other books. The 
patriarch of Constantinople, Cyrillus Lu- 
caris,' who, in 1628, sent this manuscript 
as a present to Charles I, said he had 
received it firom Egypt ; and it is evident, 
from other circumstances, that it was 
written there. But it cannot be decided, 
with certainty, whether it came from Al- 
exandria (whence its name). John Er- 
nest Grabe follows it in his edition of the 
Septua^nt (Oxford, 1707—20, foL, 4 vols.) 
Dr. Woide published the New Testament 
from this copy, (London, foL, 1786), with 
types cast for the purpose, line for line, 
with intervals between the words, as in 
the manuscript itself. The copy is so 
perfect a resemblance of the origmal, that 
it may supply its place. Henry Hervey 
Baher undertook a similar edition of the 
Old Testament, London, 1816, fol. This 
femous manuscript belonged, in 1098, to 
the library of the patriarch of Alexandria. 
The text of this manuscript is of the 
greatest importance in the criticism of 
the Epistles of the New Testament ; in the 
Gospels it is evidently worse. The 3 first 
divisions contain the Alexandrian transla- 
tion of the Old Testament ; the 4th, the 
New Testament in the original language. 
Alexanbrian School. When the 
flourishing period* of Greek poetry vi^as 
past, study was called in to supply what 
nature no longer furnished. Alexandria 
in Egypt was made the seat of learning, 
by the Ptolemies, admirers of the arts, 
from whence this age of literature took the 
name of the ,Mexandrian, Ptolemy Phil- 
odelphus founded the famous Ubrary of 
Alexandria, the largest and most valuable 
one of antiqui^, which attracted many 
scholars from all countries ; and also the 
museum, which may justly be considered 
the first academy of sciences and arts. (See 
w^Uxandna,) The grammarians and poets 
are the most important among the schol- 
ars of Alexandria. These grammarians 
were philologists and literati, who ex- 
plained things as well as words, and may 



be considered a kind of encyclopedists. 
Such were Zenodotus the Ephesiai^ who 
established the first granmiar school in 
Alexandria, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, Aris- 
tophanes of Byzantium, Aristarchus of 
Samothrace, Crates of Mallus, Dionysius 
the Thracian, Apollonius the sophist, and 
ZoUub. Their merit is to have collected, 
examined, reviewed and preserved the 
existing monuments of intellectual cul- 
ture.^-To the poets belong Apollonius 
the Rhodian, Lycophron, Aratus, Nican- 
der, Euphorion, Callimachus, Theocritus, 
Philetas, Phanocles, Timon the Phliasian, 
Scyranus, Dionvsius, and 7 tragic poets, 
who were called the A. Pleiads, 'rtie A. 
age of literature difiered entirely, in »>irit 
and character, from the preceding. Great 
attention was paid to the study of lan- 
guages ; correctness, purity and elegance 
were cultivated ; and several writers of this 
period excel in these respects. But that 
which no study can give, the spirit which 
filled the earher poetry of the Greeks, is 
not to be feund in most of their works. 
Greater art in composition took its place ; 
criticism was now to perform what genius 
had accomplished before. But this was 
impossible. Genius was the gifl of onl^ 
a few, and they soared fer above their 
contemporaries. The rest did what may 
be done by criticism and study ; but their 
works are tame, vrithout soul and life, and 
those of their disciples, of course, still 
more so. Perceiving the want of origin- 
ality, but appreciating its value, and striv- 
ing afler it, they arrived the sooner at the 
point where poetry is lost Their crit- 
icism degenerated into a disposition to 
find feult, and theu- ait into subtilty. 
They seized on what was strange and 
new, and endeavored to adorn it by learn- 
ing. The larger part of the Alexandri- 
ans, commonly grammarians and poets 
at the same time, are stiff and laborious 
versifiers, vritliout genius. — Besides the 
A. school of poetry, one of philosophy is 
also spoken of^ but the expression is not 
to be understood too strictly. Their dis- 
tinguishing character arises fiom this cir- 
cumstance, that, in Alexandria, the east- 
em and western philosophy met, and an 
effort took place to unite the two systems, 
for which reason the A. philosophers 
have often been called EekcHcs, Tliis 
name, however, is not appUcable to all. 
Tlie new Platonists form a distinguished 
series of philosophers, who, renouncing 
the scepticism of the new academy, en- 
deavored to reconcile the philosophy of 
Plato witli that of the East The Jew 
Philo of Alexandria (q. v.) belongs to the 



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ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL— ALEXIS PETROVITSCH. 



165 



aaiiier new Platonists. Plato and Aiis- 
iDtle were diligently interpreted and com- 
pared in the let and 2a centuries alter 
Chnst. Animonius the Peripatetic belong 
here, the teacher of Plutarch of Chnro- 
nea. But the real new Platonic school 
of Alexandria was established at the 
dose of the 9d century after Christ, bv 
Ammonius of Alexandria (about 198 
A. D«), whose disciples were Plotinus and 
Origan. (See PUOomgtSj Mw.) Being, 
lor the most part, Orientals, formed by the 
study of Greek learning, their writings 
are strikingly characteri^d, e. g. those of 
Ammomua Saccas, Plotinus, lamUicus, 
Poiphyrius, by a strance mixture of 
Asiatic and European elements, which 
had become amalgamated id Alexandria, 
owing to the mingling of the eastern and 
western races in its population, as well as 
to its situation ana commercial inter- 
course. Their philosophy had a great 
influence on the manner in which Chris- 
tianity was received and taught in Egvpt. 
The prindpal Gnostic systems had their 
origm in Alexandria. (Bee Gnom.) The 
principal teachers of the Christian cate- 
chetical schools (q. v.), which had risen 
and flourished to^pether with the edectic 
philoeof^y, had imbibed the spirit of this 
philoaophjr. 'the most violent religious 
eontroveiaiee di8turi)ed the A. church, 
until the orthodox tenets were estaUiah- 
ed in it by Ajdianaaius, in the controversy 
with the Arians.— Among the scholars of 
Alenndiia are to be Ibund.mat mathe- 
matieians, as £uclid, thefemer ftf-soen- 
tific geometry ; Apollonius of Perga in 
Pamphylia, whose work on conic sections 
still exists; Nicomachus, the first scientific 
arithmetician ;— astronomers, who em- 
pkjyed the £^gyptian hiero|flyphic8 finr 
marking the northern hemisphere, and 
fixed the images and names (still in use) of 
the constellations, who left astronomical 
writings (e. g. the PAonomena of Amtus, 
a didactic poem, the S^thaarica of Mene- 
laus, the astronomical works of Eratos- 
thenes, and especially the Magna Synituia 
of the geognqmer Ptolemy), and made im- 
provements in the theory of the calendar, 
which were afterwards adopted into the 
Julian cakndar;— natural philosophers, 
anatomista, as Herophilus and Erasistra- 
tus; — ^physicians and surgeons, as De- 
mosthenes Philalethes, who wrote the first 
work on the diseases of the eye ; Zopyrus 
and Cratevas, who improved the art of 
pharmacy and invented antidotes; — ^in- 
siructers in the art of medicine, to whom 
Asclepiades, Soranus and Galen owed 
their education; — ^medical theorists and 



empirics, of the sect founded by Phili- 
nus. All these belonged to the numerous 
association of schokus continuing under 
the Roman dominion, and fiivored bv die 
Roman emperors, which rendered Alex- 
andria one of the most renowned and 
influential seats of science in antiquity j — 
The best work on the learning of Alex- 
andria is the prize gbb^ of Jaod> Matter ; 
jBmhi IKstonque mr fieoU (PJBesumdne, 
Paris, 1819, 2 vols. 

ALBXAin>KiNE, or ALxxANDarAN ; the 
name of a verse, which consists of six feet, 
or of six and a half^ equal to twelve or 
thirteen syllables, the pause being always 
on the sixth syllable ; e. g. the second of 
the following lines : 
A needless AlexaDdrine ends the song, 
Which, Kke a wounded aaake, <ki^ iU timr 
, length akmg. 

It corresponds, in our language, to the 
hexameters in the Greek ami Latin ; 
though, according to aonie writers, it 
rather answers to me smarii of the ancient 
tragic poets. Chapman's translation of 
Homer and Drayton's polyoibion are 
written in this messure. The concluding 
line of the Spenserian stanza is lilso an 
A. This verse becomes fittiguing fiiom 
monotony, unless the writer nas a very 
delicate ear. The French, in their epics 
and drama, are confined to this verse, 
which, for this reason, is called by them 
the> horde. The A. derives its name torn 
an old French poem, bekmging to the 
middle ^of the idlher-tfae beginning of 
1he'l8th century, the subject m ifttch is 
Alexander the Great, and in which this 
verse was first made use o£ (Seel'Vefid^ 
Poetry.) 

AuEXiAifs. (See Fkutendties.) 
Ai*bxis->Bath ; a watering-place in 
Anhalt-Berenburg, of all the German 
mineral sprinas the most strongly im- 
pregnated with iron. It is charrningly 
situated at the foot of the Harz. 
Alexis Comnenus. (See Comnmus.) 
Alexis PBTROvifscB, the eldest son of 
the czar Peter the Great and Eudoxia La> 
puchin, was bom in Moscow, 1690, and 
opposed the innovations introduced by 
his fttther, who, on this account, deter- 
mined to disinherit him. A. renounced 
the crown, and declared that he would 
become a monk ; but, when Peter set out 
on his second journey, he made his escape^ 
in 1717, to Vienna, and thence to Naples, 
under Uie pretext of going to his fiither» 
who had sent for him. At the command 
of Peter, he returned; but the enraged 
czar, regarding his flight as an act of trea- 
son, disinherited him, by a ukoae of Sa 

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166 



ALEXIS PETROVITSCH— ALFIERI. 



Peb^ 1718 ; and, when he discovered that 
A. was paving the way to succeed to the 
crown, he not only caused all the partici- 
pators in his project to be puniaheid capi- 
tally or otherwise, but had A. also con- 
demned to death, and the sentence read 
to him, as pronounced unanimously by 
144iudgeB. Although he was soon after- 
wards j^aidoned, yet the flight and anx- 
iety which he had experienced, af^cted 
him so much, that he died in the course 
of4 days, June 36, O.S.17ia He left a 
daughter, and a son, afterwards the em- 
peror Peter XL The account of B(i- 
sching, that general Weide decapitated A. 
in prison, is without any authority. 

Alfieri, Vittorio, count, was bom at 
Asti, ui Piedmont, in 1749, of a rich and 
distinguished ftnuly. His early educa- 
tion was veiy defective, like that of most 
men of his rank and country at that time. 
His uncle and guardian sent him to Tu- 
rin, whose acacfemy he left as ignorant 
and unformed as when he entered it. 
He then joined a provincial regiment, 
which was only called together for a few 
days during me year. He afterwards 
travelled over Italy, France, England and 
Holland; returned and commenced the 
study of history, but, soon disgusted with 
this pursuit, commenced his travels anew, 
and wandered for neariy 3 years, con- 
tinually restless and unsatiafied. He left 
the miUtaiy service, and led, for a long 
time, an inactive life, until ennui drove 
him to write dramatic poetzy. His first 
attempt was crowned with undeserved 
miccess ; and he determined, at the age 
of 27 years, to devote aU his efforts to the 
sangle object of becomin^^ a tragic poet 
Sellable of his deficiencies, he went to 
woric zealously to acquire the rudiments 
of knowledge. He first studied Latin and 
Tuscan, for which purpose he went to 
Tuscany. In this journey he became 
acquainted with the countess of Albany 
(q. v.), the consort of the English pre- 
tender, and a daughter of the noble fiimily 
of Stolberg, to whom he soon became 
deeply attached. From this time, he 
strove with restless zeal to acquire dis- 
tinction as a poet, in order to be worthy 
of her, whose esteem and love had such 
value in his eyes. In order to continue 
his labors wholly fi«e and independent, 
he broke the last tie which bound him to 
his country. He bestowed his fi>rtune on 
his sister, reserving onhr a moderate in- 
cobe for himself; and henceforth lived 
alternately at Floronoe and Rome. Here 
he composed 14 tragedies, to which he af- 
terwaras added some others, although con- 



trary to his own inclination. The unfor- 
tunate situation of his beloved fiiend offam 
disturbed him, but the death of her hus- 
band at lencth put an end to her troubles, 
and enabled her to many A. Henceft>rth 
A. lived with her alternately in Alsace 
and in Paris, unceasingly busied with 
compoation, and the arrangement and 
pubhcation of his works (by Didot and 
Beaumarcbais). When the disturbances 
in France began, he quitted the country, 
and went to England. Embarrassed by 
the constant fiiO of asmgnats, he went 
back to Paris, angry at seeing the cause 
of freedom dishonored by unworthy 
hands, and unable, from the state of his 
feelings, to continue his intellectual la- 
bors. This torture of mind he endured 
till the end of Aug. 179^ when be fied 
fix>m Paris, and escaped the horron of 
the ensuing September. Helosthisbooks^ 
and the greatest part of the complete 
edition of his tragedies, published by Di- 
dot, in 5 vols. Afterwaids, he lived with 
his inseparable companion at Florence, 
resumed his usual iabora, wrote his sat- 
ires and 6 comedies, and, in his last years, 
studied the Greek language ; with the 
Greek poetiy be did not become ac- 
quainted till his course was nearly fin- 
ished. He died in the midst of these la- 
bors, Oct 8, 1803. He was buried in the 
church of Santa Croce, at Florence, be- 
tween Machiavelli and Michael Angelo^ 
where a beautiful monument by Cano- 
va covers his remaina — A. has distin- 
ffuished himself as a dramatic poet in 
uiree different denartments. He has writ- 
ten 6 comedies, 21 tragedies, and a tra^ 
mdogedia, so called. AU these worics are 
to be looked upon as the efforts of a great 
spirit employed out of its proper sphen 
of action. Disgusted with idleness, and 
desirous to distinguish himself A. became 
a poet It was whoUy imposable, for one 
who seldom contented himself with per- 
fi>rminfp half of any design, to propose to 
himself a moderate degree of excellence 
in that which he had made' the business 
of his life. He expressed his hope that 
his high exertions would associate his 
name with those of all the great poets 
that Italy hod possessed. His noble ef- 
forts disarm the severity of criticism. He 
was worthy to attain what he could not 
attain. Above the de^neracy of hia 
contemporaries, cherishmg, too, a deep 
abhorrence of despotism, and poaseBsod 
of a proud, free and passionate heart, A. 
was animated with a political rather than 
a poetical spirit In the midst of a de- 
based people, he wished to inspire the 



a^^ 



ALFIERI— ALGARBI. 



W 



niiitleflB with Btrangtb, couraga and jfree- 
dom of thought ; out he diadained the 
aita of perauaaion. He piupoaely threw 
aaide all omament, and wiahed to attain 
his end by loftiness of thought, strong 
faanevityy and manly earnestness; but he 
ibrgoC, that, in doing this, he must throw 
off the peculiar characteristics of a poet 
His tragedies are abrupt and stiff; the 
idols simple, even to barrenness ; the y erae 
inrd ana unpleasing; and the language 
devoid of that attractive splendor, by 
which the poet stira the inmost soul of 
man. Nevertheless, he is the fint trasic 
writer of Italy, and has served as a model 
for thoee who have foUowed him. — J£, in 
hie youth, the genius of A. was too stiff 
for tragedy, 1^ must, of necessity, fail 
when he attempted comedy in his old 
age, long after the sweet deceptions of 
me had vanished. His comedies, like his 
fonner woiks, had a serious, and, gener- 
ally, a political aim ; they are barren of 
invention ; their plots are without interest ; 
the characters, as in his tragedies, only 
general tketches, without individuality. 
They are, therefore, ftur inferior to his 
tragedies and, indeed, are not worthy of 
his lofty spirit We consider A.'s Abel 
the most successful of aU his dramatic 
wofka. This he called a tramdt^edia, — a 
name as novel as the work itself He 
invented thisopecies of drama intermedi- 
ate between the tragedy and opera, and 
intended to have written 6 pieces in this 
fbnn. His geiiius, which was the most 
successful when least restrained, here 
found its proper sphere, and if the apecies 
can stand before the critic, then the in- 
vention and execution of Abel make it, 
without doubt, a fine poetic work. Be- 
sides his dramas, A. has written an epic 
poem in 4 cantos, several lyrical pieces, 
16 satires, and poetical translations from 
Terence, Virgil, and some portions of 
.^schylus, ^phocles, Eunpides and 
Arisiophanes. Aflerhis death appeared 
the MsagaUoy a monument of his iiatred 
towards me French ; and his autobiogra- 
phy, a striking exhibition of his character. 
His complete works appeared at Padua 
and Brescia in 1809 and 1810, 37 vols. 

ALFRsn THE Great, kins of England 
(bom 849, died 900), ascended the throne 
of England 873, at a time when the 
I>ane8, or Normans, who were formidable 
to the Saxons as eariy as the year 787, 
bad extended their conquests and devaa- 
tatioDB very widely over tnecountiy. A.'s 
efiortsagamst them were at firatunsuc- 
eeasfidiand he concluded some treaties 
whidi were not kent on their side. He 



was obliged to fly in disguise, and re* 
mained, K>r more than a year, in the ser* 
vice of a shepherd. In this situation, ho 
formed the design of freeing his countiy. 
He ordered his sul]gects to hold them- 
selves in readiness against the enemy, 
|;ave them intelligence of his retreat, and 
informed himself of the condition of the 
Danes. He went, dispiised as a harper, 
into the camp of king Guthrum, and, 
having ascertained that the Danes felt 
themselves secure, hastened back to his 
troops, led them a^^Bunst the enemy, and 
flnined such a decided victoiy, that the 
Danes begsed for peace. Those who 
were already in the countiy he allowed 
to remain there, on the condition that 
they and their king should embrace Chris- 
tianity. A. now built forts, and exer- 
cised a part of his people in arm^ while 
the rest cultivated the nound. He soon 
afler divided the kingdom into counties, 
or shires, whereby he secured the public 
tranquillity. He made London the cafn- 
tal city of his dominions, and held there, 
twice a year, a jgeneral assembly of the 
estates. From tmie to time, new swarms 
of Danes sought entrance into the land, 
but the fleets of A. drove them fit>m the 
coasts. He collected the laws of his 
predecessors, and endeavored to improve 
the condition of his subjects by an impar- 
tial administration of justice. He trans- 
lated the Psahns, the fables of .^^p, 
and other writings, into Anfflo-Saxon, 
and founded a school at Oxrord. His 
familiar aco uaintance with the most learo- 
ed men of^ his time improved his own 
mind, and enabled him to do much for 
die flood of his people. He laid the 
foundation of the English navy by caus- 
ing ships, or rather galleys, of 60 oara to 
be built, which were as strong as any 
ships at tliat time in use. He lUso made 
discoveries in the north, and m the Baltic 
sea, the results of which he has made 
known in his translation of Orosius. His 
history, considering the times in which 
he lived, presents one of the most perfect 
examples on record of the able ana patri- 
otic monarch united with the virtuous 
man. 

Alox, in botany ; one of the seven 
ftunilies of plants, into which Limueus 
distributed tne whole vegetable kingdom. 
They are defined to be plants, of which 
the roots, leaf and stem are aU one. Un- 
der diis description are comprehended 
all the searweeas, and some other aquatic 
plants. A. are also one of the T ii nn aw n 
orders of the class erypU^eama, 

Aloabdi, Alexander, a sculptor^ de- 



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168 



ALGAKm-^ALOEBRA. 



rived his orisin fix>m a ftmily of hig^ 
standing in Bolocna. He was educated 
in the academvof Lodoyico Camcci, and 
went, when w yeais old, to Mantua. 
The attempt to imitate, in sculpture, the 
famous pictures of Qiulio Romano, in the 
palaee del T, was sufficient to give his 
genius a wrong direction, since the ex- 
cellences of these pictures aie director 
opposed to those of scuh>ture. In 1625, 
he went to Venice, and thrice to Rome. 
The duke of Mantua bad reconmiended 
him to cardinal Ludovisi, nephew of pope 
Giegory XV, who was intent on renewing 
the maniificence of the ga^ens of Sal- 
lust* Here A. was employed in restoring 
mutilated antiques (e. g. a Mercury), and 
in preparing original works. Here he 
became acquaint^ with his countryman 
Domeniehino. The statue of St. Magda- 
len, for the church of St. Silyestre, on 
the Quirinal, was his first great woik. 
Cardinals and princes now availed them- 
selves of his talents, and the French court 
wished him to come to Paris ; but ^e 
prince Pamfili succeeded in retaining him 
m Rome, where he died, June 10, 1654, 
52 years old, and was buried in the church 
St Giovanni de Bolognesi. His Flie:hst of 
AtHa, a basso-relievo in marble wim fig- 
ures of the size of life, over the altar of 
St Leo, in St Peter's church, is his most 
renowned work. But, with all the excel- 
lences of this work, an inclination to give 
to sculpture the efiect of painting is ob- 
servable. This was owing to the influ- 
ence of the school of Caracci on him. 
His God of sZeep, of twro (mtiea^ in the 
villa Boighese, has oflen been taken for 
an antique. The basso-relievo of the 
Flight of AtUa has often been en^ved* 
It may be seen in Cicognara's Stona ddla 
Sedtura. 

Aloaaotti, Francesco, count ; bom at 
Venice, 1712 ; an Italian writer, who 
united the study of the sciences with a 
cultivated taste for the fine arts. He 
studied at Rome, Venice and Bologna. 
He was a distinguished connoisseur in the 
fine arts, and excelled in mathematics, 
astronomy and natural philosophy. He 
had a predilection for this last science, as 
well as for anatomy, and devoted himself 
to them. He was acquainted with the 
Latin and Greek tongues, and paid great 
attention to the Tuscan swle and lan- 
g;uage. He visited France, England, Rus- 
sia, Gemiaiiy, Switzeriand, and all the 
important towns of Italy. The last ten 
years of his lifb he spent in his own 
countiy. When 21 years old, he wrote^ 
at Paris, the greatest part of his J^hdoni' 



amwtno par U DamB^ 1737, after the model 
of Fontenelle's Plurality of Worlds, and 
thereby laid the foundation of his fame. 
Until 1739, A. hved alternately in Paris, 
at Cirey, with the marchioness du Chate- 
let, and in London. At that time he made 
a joumer to Petersburg with lord Balti- 
more. On his return, he visited Fred- 
eric II, then crown-prince, and residing 
at Rheinsbuiv. The prince was so much 
pleased with nim, that, after his ascension 
to the throne, he invited him to live with 
him, and raised him to the rank of count 
He was not less esteemed by Augustus 
III^ king of Poland, who confened on 
him the office of privy counsellor. A. 
now hved alternately at Ber^ and Dres- 
den, but particulariy in the former place, 
after receiving fipom Frederic, in 1747, the 
order of merit and the office of chamber- 
lain. In 1754, he returned to his own 
country, where he resided fint at Venice, 
afterwards at Bologna, and, after 1762, at 
PjMl Here he died of a consumption, 
1764, after suffering long from hypochon- 
dria. He himself formed the design of 
the monument, which FVederic II caused 
to be erected over hisjmve, in the court 
of the campo sardOy at Pisa. He was call- 
ed, in the inscription, with reference to 
his^ Congresso di CUerOj and his JVetdoni- 
anismo, a rival of Ovid, and a scholar of 
Newton. A.'s knowledse was extensive 
and thorough in many departments. In 
painting and architecture, he was one of 
the best critics in Europe. Many ardsts 
were formed under his direction. He 
drew and etched with much skill. In his 
worics, which embrace a great variety of 
subjects, he shows much wit and acute- 
ness. His poems, though not of a very 
high order, are pleasing, and his letters 
are considered among the finest in the 
Italian language. The latest collection 
of his woi^ appeared at Venice, from 
1791 to 1794, 17 vols. 

Algebra is a general method of re- 
solving mathematica] problems by means 
of equations, or it is a method of peribrm- 
ing the calculations of all sorts of quanti- 
ties by means of general signs or charac- 
ters. Some authors define algebra as the 
art of resolving mathematical problems ; 
but this is the id«i of analysis, or the 
analytic art in ^neral, rather than of al- 
gebra, which IS onW one species of it* 
In the application of"^ algebra to the reso- 
lution or problems^ we must futat trans- 
late the problem out of common into 
algebraic language, by expressing all the 
c(Miditions and quantities, both known 
and unknown, by tiieir proper characten^ 



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ALGEBRA. 



leo 



arranged in an eqaatiott, or several equa* 
tioaa, if neceasaiy, and treadng the un>^ 
known qnantity as if it were a known 
one ; this forms the oonipoeition. 'Dien 
the resohjtion or anidytic part is the dis- 
entangling ^e unknown quantity ttom 
the aeTeru others with whieh it is eon- 
nected, so as to retain it alone on one 
flide of the equation, while all the known 
quantities are collected on the other skle^ 
thos obtaining the value of the unknown. 
Tins pfOcesB is called onedynB^ or resolvr 
Horn; and hence algebra is a species of the 
analytic art, and is called the modem and- 
ysUy in contradistincticm to the ancient 
anabfsisj which chiefly regarded geome- 
ny and its application. The mode of 
applying algebra to the resolution of 
proUems may be seen in the following 
example : — ^Ii we wish, from the ^ven 
difference of two numbers, and the differ- 
ence of their squares, to ^nd the num- 
bers themselves, tiien the algebraist rep- 
resents, in bis language, the nrst of these 
differences by a, the second by (, the 
unknown numbers to be fbund by x and 
If, and maite the relation between the 
things given and those sought Inr'the 
expresRons x — y«= a, and r*-^y «=*^6. 
Then x* — y*, he continues to say in his 
= (a?+y) (ar^3f);tfiU8isa:+y 



-; and hence, by addition and subtrac- 
* h-^aa h — €UL 

tKm, x» 2o >andy=g ^a * which 

is then the ffeneral expression of tiiis 
propoeitibn. Forparticularcases, wehave 
only to substitute the respective numbers 
instead of a and 6, in oraer to have im- 
mediately the corre^MMiding values of 
X and y. — ^The oldest known work on 
algebra, that we possess, is by Diophan- 
tus of Alexandria. (The best edition of 
the works of this geometrician, who is 
commonly supposed to have lived in the 
4th century, is that of Toulouse, 1670, 
folio, with a commentary by Bachet, and 
notes by Ferm^) Europe, however, 
owes its first acquaintance with this 
Rcrience, not to the Alexandrian writer, 
but (as is the case with much of its 
knowledge) to the Arabians, as, indeed, 
the name itself shows. The Arabians 
brought their algebra to Spain, whence 
it found its way to Italy. The state of 
this science at that time mav be learned 
from the work of Lucas de Burgo sancti 
sepulchri, Summa Mlhmetica etGeoTne- 
fnc, Proportionumque d ProportumdtUa- 
turn, Venice, 1494. Tartaglia of Brescia, 
Ganianus of Milan, and Ferrari of Bo- 
logna, are highly distinguished names 

VOL. I. 15 



among the Italian algebraists of this early 
period. In Germany, also, the study of al- 
gebra was prosecuted in the first half of 
die 16th century, of which the work of 
Mich. Stifel, professor of natfaematics at 
Jena, ArUhmOica htUgra cum pntf, Me- 
lanehthoms^ Nureiob. 1544, 4to., mves the 
most dedsive proof In England, Recorde, 
in Fiance, Peietarius, were distinguished 
al^bnnsts about the same time ; but this 
science was afterwards greatly enriched 
by Vieta, master of requests of queen 
Manaret of France, who died in 160t3, and 
by the Enslishman Harriot, who died in 
1621, to whose labors the Flemish mnthe* 
madcian Albert Girard, who died about 
1690, added his own with splendid suc^ 
cess. Next appeared Descartes (q. v.), 
and Feimat, counsellor of the parliament 
of Toulouse, who died in 1664 ; and the 
great Newton (a. v.) published in 1707 
his AriiUimeUca Umvenaiia, At the same 
time with him, Leibnitz acquired credit 
by some algebraical propositions. Afler 
him, Maclaurin and Euler distinguished 
themselves in the most eminent manner 
by their additions to this part of mathe- 
matical knowledge. In later times, there 
have been constant efS>rts to raise alge- 
bra to a higher degree of perfection. We 
may name Lambert, d'Alembert, La- 
grange, Ozanam, Saunderson, Clairaut, 
Cousin, Tempelhof^ Kastner, B^zout, 
Gauss, &G« — ^Algebra enables us to sur- 
vey remote and highly complicated rela- 
tions. It is distinguished bjT this, that 
each of its expressions contains exactly 
die idea intended to be conveyed, while 
all otlier languages, as those oi words, of 
the arts, of symbols, only approximate 
more or less to the proposed idea. On 
this account an exact lexicon of two lan- 
guages can never be made, because every 
word in one is connected with ideas and 
associations different from those belong- 
ing to the correspondinjif word in the 
other. An algebimcal formula, on the 
contrary, can be understood equally well 
by the Frenchman and the Hindoo, if they 
are both acquainted with the ngns. In 
Rosenthal's Encyc.of Mathem. Sciences, 
i. 44, there is a list of the jirincipal works 
on algebra. The most important are, 
Wiedeburg on the Study of Algebra, 
Jena, 1775, Euler's Algebra, translated 
by Bernoulli into French, with notes by 
Lagrange. A new and good edition of 
this translation appeared at Lyons in 
1795, in 2 vols. Kaussler translated La- 
grange's additions separately (Frankfort 
on 3ie Maine, 1796). The profound 
Maclaurin's Treatise on Algebra (2d cd. 



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IW 



AL6EBRA--ALHAMRA. 



Lmidon, 1756) is dittinguiahed among 
the old elementary books for solidity and 
deameas. We find examples and expla- 
nations in Saundersbn's Elements of Al- 
gebra, Cambridge, 1740, 2 vols, 4to^ 
trandated into French by Jancourt, Am- 
steidam, 1756. Olatraut^ Algebra, which 
was first published in 17^ has been 
several times reprinted, lately in 3 yoIb^ 
by Lacroix, with notes bv La^prnge and 
Laplace. B^zout's Algebra, m the dd 
part of his excellent work, Coun du 
yiUMmaliqMB h PUme de la Marmt d 
de rJhtai^ dd ed. liy Perard, Paris, 
1800, is well written. The French have 
the most excellent elementary works in 
this as in every other branch of mathe- 
matics. The first yoI. of Vega's Lectures 
on Mathematics, dded., Vienna, 1802, 
contains a thorough introduction to com- 
mon arithmetic and algebra. An excel- 
lent collection of problems in alg[ebra and 
other branches or mathematics, is that of 
Meier Hirsch, a German, 2d ed., Beriin, 
1811, which well deserves to be trans- 
lated into other languages, because it 
contains the greatest variety of interesting 
examples arranged in the best order. 

Algisks. iSee Bttthary.) 

Algoa or ZwAKTKOP's Bat, on the 
8. coast of Afiica, where ships may lie 
in 5 fiithoms' water, a mile firom the gen- 
oral landing-place. The bay abounce in 
black whales and a variety of other fish. 
500 miles E. fix>m the Cape. Lon. of the 
landinff-place, 26» 35^ £. ; lat. 33° SO' S. 
A small river of the same name flows in- 
to it Mr. Barrow describes the adjacent 
country as very fertile, and abounding in 
usefiil animals. Fort Frederic is a recent 
establishment on the shore of the bay, 
but as yet very small. 

ALooR<iuiN8 ; North American In- 
dians on the Assiniboiu or Rainy lake, 
and Prairie de Portage; formeriy more 
numerous than at present ; their number 
amoimts only to 600. This tribe was 
once closely connected with the Iroquois 
Indians, and considered as their protec- 
tors; but tlieir allies and prot^g^ soon 
began to rival Ihcir former masters in the 
arts, of hunting and of war, and quarrels 
arose, which proved abnost fiital to the 
existence of the A., although they were 
assisted by the French. There is a church 
devoted to the Romish religion in their 
tenritory, but the exertions of the clergy 
have hitherto had little effect on their mor- 
als. They are in the general practice of 
polygamjr, and much given to the use of 
intoxicatuig liquors. The country around 
them is cultivated in miserable and de- 



tached patches, and this solely by their 
women, the men beiur engrossed vrith 
fishing and hunting. Tney are, like most 
of the other Indians, declining, and in a 
miserable state. (See JMunv.) 

AiiOVASiL ; in Spain, on officer whose 
business it is to execute the decrees of a 

AitHAKA ; the ancient ,Mig%$ JuHa; a 
t*wn of Spain, in Granada; Um^VAfSf 
W.;]aL9SP 57' N.; on the Motril, 25 
miles fifom Granada; population, 4^500. 
This place is celebrated for its warm 
medicmal baths and drinking waters, its 
romantic situation between craggy moun- 
tains, and the gallant defence of the 
Moors against the Spaniards, 1481, when 
the town was taken and sacked. The 
kings of Spain have erected a grand 
buibing for the use of invalids, with 
.baths of free-stone, regulated to dif- 
ferent degrees of heat On the sur- 
rounding mountains the Rio Frio rises, 
and forms several cascades. Waahing- 
ton Irving, in ins Chronicle of Granada, 
gives a spirited account of the taking of 
A., **the key of Granada." Bvron's 
translation of the Romance Mii^ IklUnfOj 
on the taking of A., is &miliar to every 
reader. 

AjlhaxrI, MsDiif at Alhamra, or Al- 
HAMBRA, i. e. the Red Cit^ ; a splendid 
portion or suburb of ancient Granada, 
when it was one of die principal seats of 
the empire of the Moons m Spain. It 
was the Alcazar, or royal palace of (he 
kin|[B of Granada, but grew, by numero js 
additions, at last, into another city. Ib- 
nO-1 Khatib, or Alkatib, describes It in his 
account of this kingdom and capital 
(which ispreserved in Casiri's B3)liotkeea 
ArMc^-Etcvrialensia) as a most splendid 
place, where art ana nature rival eacli 
other in magnificence. Seated on the 
northern brow of a lofty eminence, which 
commands a full view of the city of Gra- 
nada on the one side, and of a charming 
country on the other, A. encloses in its 
ruined walls many monuments of ancient 
art, and traces of its former splendor. 
Our limited room does not allow us ta 
give a description of the Arabian palac(>, 
commenced oy Muhammad Aba Abdil- 
lali Ben Nasr, the second of the Moorish 
kings of Granada, and completed under 
Aba*l llajjai, in the year or the Hegira 
749, or A. D. 1348 ; nor of the Spanish 
palace commenced by Charies V, on a 
portion of the ruins of the Moorish edh- 
nces. It is a place equally interesting 
for the artist, the antiquarian, and tlic 
historian. Mr. Murphy^ i^lendid work 



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ALHABfRA— ALL 



171 



on the Anbitn AntiquitieB of SiMin oon- 
tuBB maay views of these nuiMk — See 
tkn Hutary jf the MahomeUm Ea^^ m 
Sbmm, 4ta, LoBdoD, 1816» with the sup- 
ptement; a ColUeiUmofhidonudMfiiuw 
md PaemB on tte Mamrd qf Qranada ; 
and Swinburne's JVaoda tkniigh Spedn, 
Au ; the son of Abu Taleb^ who was 
uncle of Mahomet When the latter 
anenMed his kmsmen, and declared his 
propiketBe mission, he asked which among 
them would be his vizier. ** I am the 
atti,'* exclaimed Ali, then but 14 years 
old. ** Whoever rises against thee, I will 
daah out his teeth, tear out bis eyes, break 
his legB^ rip up his bell^. O pn^het, I 
wiO be thy vizier." Ah kept his word; 
diatiDguished both by eloquence and val- 
or, he became one of the main piUam of 
die new fiuth, and obtained the name of 
the Xabn ^ €iod^ aiwnfi mckniouB. He 
aho received Fatima,the daughter of the 
prophet, in mairiage. After the death of 
Oihman, he became calroh, and finally 
leat lus life by aaaasonation, at Cufa, in 



the 63d year <if his a^e. There was 
something of grandeur m the primitive 
■mfdicity and fimaticd heroism of the 
fiist IbllowerB of Mahomet, and Ali form- 
ed one of the most consmeuous examples 
of the conjunction. lAie Mohanmiedan 
sehiCBi caused brthe murder of Ali, is 
weB known, and bs sect is called iSAmef, 
or heretics, by the SonmUs^ or orthodox. 
The Penians, a part of the Usbec Tar- 
tan^ and some or the princes of India, 
remain fbUowers of AM to this day. His 
posterity are numerous, and are allowed 
to wear (peen turiians, in honor of their 
descent Stun the prophet There is ex- 
tant, soDDMmg various writings attributed to 
Ali, a collection of a hundred maxims or 
sentences, which have been translated by 
GoliuB and Ockky. 

Au ; pacha of Yanhia (Tepeleni), gen- 
eniBv caUed AU Padia ; a bold and crafty 
rebel against the Poite ; an intelligent and 
active governor of his province ; as a vrar- 
rior, decided and aMe ; as a man, a veiy 
fiend. His lift is a curious exemplifica- 
tion of the state of the Turkish enqiire. 
He vras bom at Tepeleni^ in 1744, of a 
noble fiunily, which stood at the head of 
an independent tribe, the Toczides ; and 
was tiie nandson of a bey named l^ the 
Porte. His eariy life was unfortunste, 
but his extraordmsry strength of mind, 
which shrunk fimn no danger nor crime, 
united with great address, raised him to 
princely independence. The neighboriiijg 
pacha had stripped his fiuther of all his 
poasessions. Aner his death, his mother, 



a warfike and cruel Albanian, placed her 
sofi, then 16 years okl, at the head of her 
dejpendants. He was defeated and taken 
IHTisoner; but the Curd pacha was so 
much struck with his beauQr and vivaci- 
tff that he set him at liberty, after ohaa- 
tudng him. A. then commeiiced robber, 
but was so unfortunate that he fled into 
the mountains, where, to keep himself 
finom starving, he pawned his sabre. In 
this situation, his mother scomfiilly ad- 
vised him to put on a women's garment, 
and serve in tne haram. In a second at- 
tempt at phmder, he was wholly defeated, 
and concealed huneelf in a rumed build- 
ing, where, tnooding over his firte, he 
sat, unconsciously puiuiing up the ground 
with a stick. He struck something hard, 
and found a chest oontainmg gold. With 
thistreasune he raised 2000 men, gained 
his first victory, and retumed in triumph 
to TepelenL From this time he was 
continual^ finrtunate, but, at the same 
time, felse and cruel On the dav of his 
return, he murdered his own brother, 
whom he thought guilQr of treachery, 
and confined his m^her to the haram, 
under pretence of her having poisoned 
the deceased, where she soon after died 
firom srief and rage. A. now c<mtinued 
his robberies, reguned the fiivor of the 
Porte by asaiating in the sufcjugation of 
the rebellious vizier of Scutari, and pos- 
sessed himself of the states which had 
been taken finom his fi^er, as well as of 
some Grecian cities. He then attacked 
the paeba Selim of Delvino, who was 
obnoxious to the Porte, and caused him 
to be beheaded, by which means he be- 
came his successor. At length the divan, 
in which he had obtained great influence 
by bribery, named him lieutenant of the 
dervendgi pacha, whose duty it was to 
preserve the hij^hways secure; but. in- 
stead of attending to the duties of lus 
ofiice, A. sold commissionB, in the name 
of the grand signior, to the richest bands 
of robbers, and ther^ gave them legal 
authority to plunder. The dervendgi 
pacha floid his lieuteimnt were now de- 
posed, but A. piirchssed anew the fiivor 
of the prime minister. He rendered such 
impoitent services to the Porte with his 
bold Albanians^ in the war with Russia 
and Austria (begun 1787), .although he 
carried on a secret correspondence with 
prince Poterakin, that the Porte named 
him pacha of Tricala in Thessaly. He 
immediately possessed himself of theciQr 
of Yanina, by showmg a forged ferman, 
which gave lum the city and the dtadel, 
and then compelled ttie inhabitants to 



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179 



ALL 



sign a petitioii to the ndtan, requesting 
him to give them A. for a governor. He 
likewise compeUed them to par faim a 
larse sum of money, with which he 
bribed die divan, who gnuHed the re- 
quest. He afterwaids entered into an 
alllaaee widi Buonaparte, who arat him 
engineers to baild him fortifications ; but 
when Napoleon was defeated in Egypt, 
those places on the coast of Albania, 
which had belonged to the Venetians, 
and were now uncKr the dominioB of the 
French, were seized by A. Parga (q* v.) 
alone made a suoeeesfiil resistance* ^t 
he contrived that, in &e treaty between 
Russia and the Porte, in 1800, all the Ve- 
netian places on the main land (and, 
thevefore, Pai|;a) should be sunendeied 
to the Isftler power. He then attacked 
the iNfave Sufiotes (q. v.), and conquered 
them in 1806, after a 3 years' war. The 
Perle new made him governor of Roma- 
nia^ wheie he continued his sysfltem of 
oppreesion stiD more openly than before. 
He then revenj^ on the inhabitants of 
Gardiki an injuiy which they had done 
to his mother, 40 years before, by patting 
to death 799 of the descendants of the 
perpetralers^ they diemeelves being all 
dead; Security and quiet now reigned 
in his dominions ; the roads were well con- 
straoted; oornmeree flourished; so that 
European tmveUers, with whom A. was 
ffM to convene (see Hughes*^ Ttaoek w 
GreeeeX acknowledged in him an active 
and intelli|^t governor. In 1807, he 
entered agam into an attance with Buona^ 
parte, who sent him M. Pouqueville, as 
consul' general, and firom this time his 
dependence on the Porte was merely 
nominaL His object in this alliance was, 
to have Ptaiiga and the Ionian Islands in- 
duded in the peace of Tilsit. Faihng to 
attain tiius end, he made an alliance with 
the EngMsh, and gave them many advan- 
tages; whereupon Palga was restored 
nomaialfy to the Porte^ out in reality to 
A. He ailerwaids caused it to be insert- 
ed in his gazette, that Maitland, who was 
ihe British lord high commissioner of 
the Ionian iriands, had received from the 
Porte, ax his recommendation, the order 
of the crescent When A. thought him- 
self strong^ fixed in his power, he caused 
some of theecwdkmt (q. v.) of the Greek 
Arniatoli<^ v^io had hitherto rendered 
him assistance, to be murdered (among 
them, the folher of Ulysses^ the fomous 
chief), and had the murderers, also, put 
to death) that he might not be known as 
the author of the crime. At length, in 
189(^ the Porte determined to cni£ him. 



lamailFHchoBey, vrith 5000 Tuika, and 
supp<Miied by the copdoM, who brought 
10,000 soldiers to his standard, advanced 
against him. The Greeks surrounded his 
positions in the passes of the mountains^ 
so that he vras compelled to throw hioft- 
sel( with all his troops, into the citadel 
of Yanina, well provided with every thing. 
From hence he set Yanina on fire. Pa»- 
oho Bey had no, ordnance fit for besieging 
the city, and v^as suspected b^ the Porte, 
because he had called the Christians to his 
assistance. The Porte therefore gave the 
chief commaiid to Kavanos Om. This 
commander dJHmiwHed the ecfwoni and 
their bands, irith cruel threats, compel- 
Img them to make rBstilatio& to tiie 
Tuiks for the loss which they had before 
occasioBed them. Hereupon ther went 
over to A., e^wdally after they beheld 
the insoRectian of the Hetaria, and aided 
huninliiefieU against the Turks befese 
Yanina. Kavanos Odu could then do 
nothing against the Mek, The vahatat 
Beba Pacha, his successcNr, died sudden- 
ly, after the capture <if Aita, which Yeli, 
A.^ son, had defended. The savage 
Khursehid Pacha, of the Morea, who wm 
hated by all the Greeks, now advanced 
against the eily witk ISifiOO men. But 
every attack was repulsed by A.'9 bmve 
troops, and the Mfnten^ stmi^fthened by 
the Suhoies, suddenly attacked the Turk- 
ish camp. Immediately like lletaria<q.v.) 
called aU Greece toarms. TheTuricsweve 
now compelled te throw themselves ials 
the strong places, and Khursehid retreat- 
ed, Aug. 1821, with the remains of his 
army, out of Epirusinto Macedonia^ Hie 
Albanians alone, whom A. had beguiled 
vrith empty promises, left the tyrant. 
Khurachid Pacha attacked Yanina with a 
new armv. The Greeks gave up A.'s 
cause for lost He then determined, per- 
suaded, perhaps, by his wife, Wasifika^ 
who was a Greek, to treat with Khursehid. 
On receiving assurances, confirmed by an 
oath, that his properdr and his life should 
be spared, he surrendered his fortress to 
the pacha, Feb. 1, 1839; and retired to 
his summer-palace in the lake of Yanina. 
Here Khurachid's lieutenant, Mehmet Pa- 
cha, made knovm to him the sentence of 
death pronounced against him by the 
suham A. put himself on his defence, 
but was cut down, vrith 6 companions. 
This happened Feb. ,% I8S3. The head 
of the rebel was sent to Constantinople. 
The Porte took possession of A.'s treas- 
ures. His sons, Veli and Muchtar Pacha, 
had come into the power of the Turics, in 
1890, vrhen the strong places of A. were 



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Google 



AU— ALIENS. 



m 



taken, and Kved afterwards in exile, in 
Asia Minor. But attempting, by means 
of a Greek disguised as a dervise, to form 
a connexioa with the party of thdr &- 
ther, they were executed in Aug^ 1831. 
A.'8 grandson obtained from the Porte, in 
1884, permission to retire to Larissa with 
A.^ widow, Wasilika. Pouqueville, in 
}nHuiaindelaIUgMrationdelaGrieej 
▼oL i^ paints a dreadfiil picture of A.'s 
baifaaiiQr, ftlsehood, and love of revence. 
He says that A. caused a Greek lady, 
Eui^irosyne, and 15 other women, to be 
thrown mto the sea, because they ap- 
peared to have too much influence over 
Dis son Veli. Since his mother was an 
Albanese and his ftther a Turk, from this 
doable relationship, he seized on all prop- 
erty left by persons dying, on pretence 
that the testator was his relation, by the 
mothei'B side, if he happened to be a 
Greek, or on his fiither's side, if a Tuik. 
In this way A. amassed vast quantities of 
fiimitnre and utensils, and occasionally 
held a market fi>r the nle of these effects. 
A Jew was his treasurer. If he saw a 
beautifiil maiden whom he wished to 
possess, his executioner, who was always 
at his side, went to the parents and said, 
*^ Your daniwhter has pleased Ali f where- 
upon the cMiugfater was sent to him, or 
the whole fiunily were obliged to fly. 
The writer of this knows two ftmilies 
who were compelled to fly in this way. 
He took possession, in the same summary 
mode, of every thing which struck his 
fancy. — ^This favorite of fortune had great 
endowments from nature. He united a 
reniaikably enterprising spirit with equal 
penetration ; an extraortinary knowledge 
of men and things with determination 
and courage; great firmness with ^reat 
adroitnesB. But he was false, suspicious, 
imi^acable and blood-thirsty from ambi- 
tion and avarice ; every means pleased 
him alike, provided that it led him to bis 
object with miickness and safety. The 
dusenaons or his enemies, the corruption 
of the divan, and the political weakness 
of the Porte, were the comer-stones on 
which this modem Jugurtha buih up his 



~ Ai«iAS {Latin^ otherwise ; often used 
in the trial of erimioals, after one name 
and before another, to signify that they 
have more than one appellation ; as, John, 
oluv Thomas. 

A1.IBI (XfOfm), elsewhere, in law, de- 
notes the absence of the accused, at the 
time of the crime committed, firom the 
place where he is charged with having 
committed it. 

15* 



AucART, or AucAims (ancient Luem- 
turn); a dty and port on the Mediterrane- 
an sea. Ion. (P 39^ W., lat dff" 2V N., 
with 17,300 inhabitants, situated in the 
Spanish kingdom of ValMicia, with a 
castle which was formerly strong, but has 
flillea to decay since the war of 3ie Span- 
ish succession. It is the see of a bie^op. 
The harbor is good. The maritime na- 
tions of Europe nave all of them consuls 
here. The prindnal article of export is 
sweet wine, callea .^Bieimt, and also, fiom 
its dark color, vino finto. Which is, for the 
most part, sent to England. Charies V 
first planted the vines, bringing shoots 
from the Rhine. A. is important as the 
emporium of Yalencian produce, and the 
central point of the commerce between 
Spain and Italy. 

ALicOln>A ; an Afiican tree, of an im- 
mense bulk, a native of Congo. Of the 
bark a coarse thread is made ; the shell 
or rind of the fiiiit mav be made into a 
nourishing pap, serves mr vessels of vari- 
ous kinds, and sives an aromatic taste to 
water preserved in it The small leaves 
we used as food in time of scareity, the 
large ones to cover huts, and, being burn- 
ed, make good soap. 

Aliens. The legislation of a nation in 
regard to aliens is a criterion of its civiU- 
zation. All uncivilized nations treat the 
alien as an enemy, as out of the protec- 
tion of law. Some difference, however, 
is universally made between aliens and 
natives ; e. g., some states require the 
alien to sive sureties when he institutes 
a criminiu prosecution against a citizen. 
In some, he cannot become a guardian, 
or a uritness of a will ; the protection of 
the law ma^ be denied him, and he him- 
self be banished from the country. The 
alien, also, has no riffht to enjoy certain 
advanta^^es, granted bv the state to the 
citizen, m addition to the general protec- 
tion of the laws ; for instance, the oenefit 
of institutions of education, poor-houses, 
&c. Some countries treat aliens witli 
unreasonable severity, by throwing obsta- 
cles in the way of tiieir admission, by 
rendering naturatization difficult, and by 
depriving them of personal securinr. Al- 
though ^e right of a state to forbid the 
entrance of ^iens, even under pain of 
death, as in China and Japan, may be 
abstractiy defended, the policy of exer- 
cising such a right can be justified only 
to a very limited extent A high decree 
of civilization can be attained only by a 
free and active intellectual iDtercourse 
among nations, in like manner as their 
true prosperity is best promoted by a fi-ee 



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174 



ALIENa 



and aotire commerce. All the progress 
luade by one nation, whether ui the 
production of raw matenala, or in the art 
of preparing them, or in scientiiie die* 
coveiy, is advantageous to eveiy other nar 
tion, if they only permit perfect freedom 
of intercourse. In our days, civihzed 
states rarely oppose the personal entrance 
of aliens ; but the hberty of commercial 
intercourse is still imperfectly understood. 
~In respect to naturalization^ several 
states have had peculiar causes of cau- 
tion ; suchi fw instance, as the exoeaeive 
influence of a foreign power, or the oc- 
cupation of the throne li^ a foreign dynas- 
ty.— The following are the principal points 
in the laws of England and the U. States 
of America respecdnff aliens : — ^In recani 
to each country, an uien may be denned 
to be a perscm boni out of the jurisdiction 
of the country, and not having acquired 
the rights of a citizen by nattmilization. 
This, nowever, is not strictly true ; fer 
chilthren, bom out of the dominions of the 
English king, whose grandfethers by the 
father's side, or whose fethers were natu- 
ral-bom subjects, are entitled to the rights 
of native citizens, unless, at the time of 
their birth, their fethers were in the ser- 
vice of an enemy. In the U. States, this 
same right is given by the act of April, 
1802, '< to the children (bom out of the 
iuriadiction of the U. States) of persons 
who now are or have been citizens of the 
U . Stittes.** **' This clause," as chancellor 
Kent observes (Conmtntariea on ^imerir 
tan Law, voL ii.), ^applies only to the 
rhildren of persons who then were, or 
had been, citizens, and consequently the 
benefit of this provision narrows rapidlv 
(>y the lapse ot time ; and the time wiu 
soon arrive, when the children of Ameri- 
can parents, bom abroad, will be obliged 
to resort for aid to the dormant and 
doubtful principles of the English kw." 
Minor children of naturalized persons are 
also admitted to the privileges of citizens 
in the U. States. Aliens camiot acquire 
a title to real property by descent or other 
mere operation of law. They may pur- 
t^hase it or receive it by devise, but the 
^tate has a right to take possession of it 
as forfeited, whenever it is ascertained, 
by a proper examination, to be the prop- 
erty of an alien. (In point of fact, aliens 
often do own real property in the U. 
States, holduig it in the name of a friend.) 
They can acquire, hold and transmit 
movable property in the same manner 
as' citizens, and they can bring suits for 
the recovery and protection of such prop- 
erty. They owe a local allegiance, and 



are boand equalk with natifes to obey 
ak genenil tvJes fer the preserratioBi of 
Older, which do not relate speetatty ta 
citizens. Evsn alien enenie* may sue 
and be Mied, as in time of peace. Aliens 
mav disuoee of their personal pippe n j by 
vrill, ana, in case of their dying[ iBteslttei 
their personal raoperty is distnbated ac* 
cording to the low of distribation of thtt 
place of their domidl at the time of their 
death. The imitist and inhoqrilable role 
of the most polished states of antirndty 
prevailed, in many parts of Europe, down 
to the middle of the last century. The 
law, wliich claimed fer the benefit of the 
state the efiects of deceased fereigneis^ ' [ 
who left no heirs who were natives, ex- 
isted in France till 1791, when it was 
abolished by the first constituent aeeem* 
bW. ChanoeUor Kent, in the 2d volume 
of his veiT valuable Commentaries on 
American Law, observes, that ^ the Napo- 
leon Code seems to have revived the hush 
doctrine of the droit <i'aii&ome, vrith the 
sinffle exception, that aliens should be 
entided to enjoy in France the same civil 
ri^ts aa were secured to Frenchmen, 6y 
inabff in the country to which the alieii 
belongs. The law in France, at present, 
is, that a stranger cannot, except by spe- 
cial fiivor, dispose of his proper^ by will ; 
and, when he dies, the soverragn succeeds, 
by right of inheritance, to his estate.** 
The remark on the revival of the droU 
d^aubame by the Code Napoleon, we sup- 
pose to be correct ; but we believe that 
this ** inhoqntable mle," as the learned 
iudge justly terms it, has been since abol- 
ishra. The ardcle Mens, in the CSemoan 
Conversations-Lexicon, states, that the 
droit d^auhamej in France, was wholly 
abolished July 4, 1619, and the JBncyda- 
p^die ModemiB, in the aiticle ittnmgtr^ 
printed in 18S^ says, that ** aliens Iwve 
oeen placed again under the protection . 
of the common law of the country. Tbev 
can now acquire and enjoy property, seU 
it, transmit it to their heirs, and dispose 
of it by testament or donation, like the 
other inhabitants of die kingdom. They 
cannot, however, exercise fwOtical ri^ts, 
or be appointed to public oflices, previous 
to naturalization."^ An alien may, by let- 
ters patent ex donaHont r€gi8y be made an 
Engtish subject, and is then called a dent- 
zeit, being in a middle state between a 
natural-bom subject and an alien. He 
may now purchase lands, or possess them 
by devise, but caimot take them by inher- 
itance, although his heirs may inherit 
from him ; the parent of the* denizen 
being held to have no mheritable blood. 



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ALIENS— ALIMONY. 



175 



whick the demzea possoBses after boeom- 
iii^ such. TIm iiill rights of a natund- 
bm 8id>fect can be conferred only by act 
of porilainent. Even after natunuization, 
an alien cannot become a loember bf the 
house of couunone or privy council^ or 
hold offices or gnuts under the crown. 
If the pariiament wish to confer these 
piiiilegee, as is sometimes the case whea 
a foreign piince becomes connected, by 
naxriage, with the royal fiimily, a double 
act of feffislation is necessary. In the U. 
Slates orAmerica, naturalization confers 
all tlie privileges of a native citizen^ ex- 
cept that of Ming a candidate for the of- 
fice of pre^dent of the Union. Previous 
to becominff a citizen of the (J. States, an 
alien must have resided in the country 5 
yean, and, 2 ^ears before the ceremony 
of naturalization takes place, he must 
have abjured all aUegiance to every other 
power. England is the only country 
where an act of the legislature is required 
for naturalization. In the countries of 
Europe generally, with the above-men- 
tioned exception- of Ekigland, the right of 
naturalization, in each particular ease, be- 
loD^B to the executive branch of govern- 
ment. It is so in France, in Bavaria, and 
JD an the German states. In France, a 
reridence of 10 years gives to the alien 
all the rights of a citizen, even that of be- 
cominc a member of the chamber of dep- 
uties (e. g. Benjamin Constant). In the 
states of die German confederacy, no 
German can be treated as an alien ; e. g. 
the Prussian laws grant the fiill rights of a 
citizen to every one who takes up his 
residence in tliat state. The unjust dis- 
tinctions fonnefiy made between aliens 
and natives, in cases where the interests 
of the two came in collision, are going 
continually out of use. As to the ri^t of 
ahens to own real estate, the laws of dif- 
ferent countries ore veir dlfTerent . We 
have already said, that this is not permit- 
ted in Enffland and the U. S. of America. 
France allows it without limitation, like 
most of the German states. This right 
is a fundamental principle of the German 
confederation. By the law of July 4, 
1819 (which contains a total abolition of 
the droit. tTaubaine}, every alien has an 
equal right of inheritance with native 
Frenchmen in respect to all real and 
personal goods in France; only, when 
Frenchmen have to divide an inheritance 
with foreign heirs, and the laws of the 
foreign country do not allow them a pro- 
portionate share of the property abroad, 
they receive in advance, uom the property 
in France, as much as is necessary to the 



restoration of equality.r-In addition to 
what we have already said on the laws 
of England and the U. 8. of America 
respectmg aliens, we will add a short 
account of certain acts passed by die 
legislative bodies of tliese countries, with 
a view of goarding against the hostile 
attempts of aliens. In England, certain 
alien acts of recent date (33 Geo. III. c. 4. 
and 34 Geo. III. c. 43, &7) arose ont of 
the influx of strangers into that countiv 
fiom the continent during the French 
revolution. They compelled the masters 
of ships arriving from fbrsign ports, un- 
der certain pendties, to give an account 
at every port of the number and names 
of the foreigners on board to the cus- 
tom-house officers, appointing justices 
and others to grant passports to such 
aliens, and giving the long power to 
restrain them, and to send them out of the 
kingdom, on psin of transportation, and, 
on tiieir return, of death. The same acts 
also direct an account to be given in of 
the arms of aliens, which, if required, are 
to be delivered up ; and ahens are not to 
go firom one place to another in the king- 
dom without paasportA These acts have 
been, from time to time, amended and 
continued, as in 43 Geo. III. c. 155, &c. 
Of late, all restrictions of this kind on 
aliens have been abolished, and they are 
(mly oUiged to inform the secretary of 
the home department, from time to time, 
of their places of rendence. The only 
restrictions of this kind, on ahens in the 
U. States of America, are, that, in case of 
war between the U. States and any other 
nation, the president is authorized, if he 
sees fit, to order the subjects of the hos- 
tile country to be apprehended and 
removed, or to prescribe the conditions 
on which they shall be allowed to remain 
in the U. States. If such aliens are not 
chargeable with actual hostility, or with 
any other crime against the public safety, 
they are to be allowed a reasonable time 
to remove with their efifects. During the 
late wars in Europe, severe restraints 
were imposed on Englishmen in France, 
in retaliation, as Buonaparte alleged, of 
the strict enforcement of the English alien 
acts in regard to French subjects. In 
the states of Europe, generally, aliens 
cannot travel without passports. In 
England and the U. Slates of America, 
none are required. 

AxiMOirr, in law; the allowance to 
which a woman is entided on a legal 
separation from her husband, not occa- 
sioned by aduhety or elopement on her 
part. 



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176 



ALIQUANT PART— ALL-FOURS. 



AuquAiiT Paat, in arithmetic ; a (wrt 
of a given quantity which will not diyide 
it exactly, or without remainder. 

AxiquoT Part is such part of a num- 
ber as wiH diWde and measure it exactly, 
without any remainder. For instance, 3 
is an aliquot part of 4, 3 of 9, and 4 of 1& 
To find all the aliquot fMurts of a number, 
divide it by its least divisor, and the quo- 
tient by itB least divisor, until you get a 
quotient not further divisible, and you 
Mrill have all the piime divisors or aliquot 
parts of that number. By multiplyinff 
any 2 or 3 of these together, you wul find 
the compound aliquot parts. Aliquot 
parts must not be confininded with com- 
mensurable ones; for though the former 
are all commensurable, yet the latter are 
not alwavB a]i(}uot parts : thus 4 is com- 
mensurable with if but not an aliquot 
part of it. 

Alkali, in chemistry ; fimn the Arabi- 
an kaHf the name of a plant from the 
ashes of which one species of alkali can 
be extracted. The substances that are 
met with under die denomination of aUca- 
line are possessed of certain peculiar 
uroperties ; they are mainly characterized, 
however, by a power of combining^ with 
acids in such a manner as to impair the 
activity of the latter, so diat alkalies, as 
chemical agents, are distinguished by 
properties the reverse of acids ; acids and 
alkalies are, therefore, gen^ndly consid- 
ered as antagonist subttances. Besides 
the power of neutralizing acids, and 
thereby forming certain saline substances, 
the alkalies are fiirther distinffuished by 
the following properides *. — 1, they have an 
acrid taste and corrosive power when 
applied to some substances, thus proving 
caustic to the skin and tongue ; 2, they 
chance vegetable blue to green, red to 
purple, and yellow to a reddish-brown 
(if the purple be reddened by an acid, an 
alkali will restore the orignal color) ; 3, 
they are almost indefinitely soluble in 
wator ; that is, thev combine wiiii it in 
every proportion ; 4, they unite with oils 
and nts, and form by this union the 
well known compound called socqt. 
There is another class of substances 
which have a strong analogy with alka- 
lies, especially in the particular of oppo- 
sition to adds, viz. the earths. Some of 
these, indeed, have been classed by Four- 
croy among the alkalies, but they have 
been kept separate by others, on the 
cround that the analogy between them is 
nr fi!om amounting to an identity of 
properties. The true alkalies have been 
arranged by a modem chemist in three 



classes :— 1, those which consist ef a 
metallic basis, combined with oxygen; 
these are 3 in number— potash, soda and 
lithia ; 2, that whicli contains no oxy- 
gen, viz. ammonia ; 3, those containing 
oxygen, hydrogen and carbon; in this 
class are placed aconita, atropia, brucia, 
circuta, aatura, delphia, hyoscyamia, 
morphia, strychina. And it is supposed 
that the vegetable alkalies may be found 
to be as numerous as the vegetable acids. 
The original distribution of alkaline sub- 
stances was into volatile and fixed, the 
volatile alkali being known under the 
name of ammonia ; while, of the two fixed 
kinds, one was called poiaih or vtgetabUj 
because procured from the ashes of vege- 
tables genemll^ ; the other, <oc£a or mineral ^ 
on account of its having been principally 
obtained fit>m the incineration of marine 
plants. 

Alkanet is a dyeing drug, the baric of 
a root which produces a rough plant (an- 
ckusa Hnehria), with downy and spear- 
shaped leaves, and clusters of small, pur- 
ple or reddish flowers, the stamens of 
which are shorter than the corolla. This 
plant is sometimes cultivated in England, 
but by fiur the greater portion of the A. 
there used is imported either from the 
Levant, or fit>m the neighborhood of 
Montpellier in France. A. imparts a fine 
deep-red color to all unctuous substances 
and to spirit of wine ; but it tinces wa- 
ter with a dull, brownish hue. Its chief 
use is for the coloring of oils, plasters, 
lip-salve and other similar articles. It 
is likewise employed in compositions for 
rubbing and giving color to mahogany 
fiimiture. "Wax, tmged with A., and 
applied to the surfiice of warm miarble, 
stains it flesh-color, and sinks deep into 
the stone. 

Aj[.KMAAii, Henry von. (See Reynard 
tkefhi.) 

Alkohol. (See Aleohol) 

Alkoraic. (See Koran.) 

ALL-TOtTRs; a game played by two 
persons with an entire pack of cards. 
The name is derived fit»m the 4 chances 
of which it consists, viz. High, Low, Jack 
and Game.— jLouw ^ Me gatne. 1. If, in 
dealing, the dealer discovers any of the 
adversary's cards, a new deal may be 
demanded. 2. If the dealer, in dealing, 
discovers any of his own cards, be must 
abide by the same. 3. If it is discovered, 
previous to playing, that the dealer has 

S'ven his adversary too many cards, 
ere must be a new deal ; or, if both 
oarties agree, the extra cards may be 
drawn by the dealer fi!om his opponent's 



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ALL-FOURS— ALIMENT. 



177 



hftiid ; and the same if tlie dealer pres 
liinieeJf too many carda. But, in either 
caee, if a single card has been pl^red, 
then there niuat be another deaL 4. 
No person can beg more than onee in a 
hand, unleas both paities usee, 5. In 
playing, you must either fouow suit or 
trump, on penalty of your adversary's 
adding one point to his game. 6L If 
either player sets up his game enroneou»- 
ly, it must not omy be taken down, but 
die amagonist is entitled to score ibur 
points, or one, as shall have been agreed 
upon. 7. It is allowable for the person 
who lays down a high or a low trump to 
inqinie whether tlM same be high or 
bw. 

Au. Hards boat, in sea language ; the 
sfder by which the ship's company is 
summoned on deck by tlie boatswaiiK 
M htmdt to qmartsn Aooy, is the order t» 
the crew for preparalion for bolde. This 
command is more genenlly given by the 
boatswain piping down the luitchway. 

Aix or TBB Wnm ; the state of a ahip's 
nils when parallel to the direction of uie 
wind, 80 as to shake and shiver by tuni- 
ing the ship's head to windward, either 
by design or neglect of the helmsman. 

Au. SAiim' Bat, or Bakia dn Thdw 
Smiioi ; a bay on the coast of Brazil, 
province of Bahia. It is secure and large 
enough for a great nnmber of ships. 
Lon.38°50' W.; lat. 19* l(y 8. 

All Saiitts, Feast q£ After the peise- 
eutioB, in the 4th eentuiy, against the 
Chrisdana, in the Roman empire, had 
the Sunday after Whiiauntide 
I ai^Kxinted to coiMnemonite the holy 
tym. Chrysostom's 74th homify was 
delivered on such an occasion, and shows 
how for they were fiom beiiw otqects of 
adoration, A. D. 380. This ieast was in- 
troduced into the western chuitli, in 610, 
byBonifteelV. Theem|ierorPhocashad 
presented the Pantheon, in Rome, to this 
pope, who made a church of it, and dedi- 
cated it aa such, March 4, to the honor 
of the vuvin and all the martyrs. This 
church sdlJ exists under the name of Eo^ 
iunda or Mana did MrnHari, Gregory 
IV, in 835, appointed Nov. \ for the 
celebration of tlus foast, and consecrated 
it to all the saints and angels. In order 
that it might be generally celebrated, 
Gregory s&cited the emperor Louis le 
Debmnaire to conform it About the year 
840, we fosd this feast in the calendar of 
the monk Wandelbert. About 870, it 
was introduced into England. 

All Souls; a feast celebrated on the 
9d of November, in commemoration of 



all the foithful deceased. It was insti- 
tuted in the 11th eentuiy« 

Alimeht; a term which includes every 
thing serving aa nutiiment for organized 
bein^ In animals and vegeutbles we 
can obeerve the phenomena of decompa- 
ction and reproductioii, and analyze the 
substances that administer to their growth 
and repair distinctly. O^ieraUy, how- 
ever, the word A. is used f&t what serves 
as nntivnent to animal life. It is, in this 
respect, a subject of great interest for the 
zoologist. In the present article we shaU 
ecmfine ourselves to the ahment of man- 
kind. — Man, it is well known, derives 
nourishment both from animal and vege- 
table substances He eats fruits, both 
ripe and unri^ roots, leaves, flowers, 
and even the pith and the baik of differ- 
ent pbnts, manv diflbimit parts of ani- 
mala, and the whole ef some. Climate, 
custom, religion, the differant degrees iif 
want and of civilization, give lise to an in- 
numerable diveni^ of food and drink, 
ftom.the i«pastof die cannibal savage of 
New Zealand to that of the Parisian epi- 
ctDeatthetaUeofVery; fromthe^tof 
the caimvorouB native o^ the north to that 
of the Brahmin, whose appetite is satisfied 
with vegetables ; from the oak-barlclMread 
of 1^ Norwegian peasant to the luxiuri- 
ously-served mle of a Hungarian mag- 
nato at Yiemia. Seme nations abhor 
what odien relish, and great want often 
venders aceeptdiile wh^ under other 
cireumstaiices, would have excited the 
greatest (fisgust The flesh of dogs is 
commonly eaten m Chma, and in Afiica 
that of snakes, pardculariy ci the rattle- 
snake and boa constrietor. Locusts are 
eaten both in Asia «id Aflrica, and the 
Negroes on the coast of (Guinea relish 
Uzuds, mice, rats, smdces, caterpillars, and 
other reptileB and worms. The Otomacs, 
a tribe oi American Indians, are sud by 
Humboldj; to collect a kind of clay to eat 
in the rainy season. It is an interesting 
subject, by no means sufficiently investi- 
gated as yet, how far the different ali- 
ment of various countries is connected 
with thecKmate, &C., and what infoience 
it exerts on the different faces, as well as 
the consequences of iotrodueing new spe- 
cies of aliments. Some excellent remarks 
on the national dishes of diftbrent nations 
were published by baron Rumor, a Ger- 
man, in 1892, in a work which he called 
KhchhrnH (Art of Co(*ery). Ali kinds 
of aliment must contain nutritious sub- 
stance, which, being extmcted by the act 
of digestion (q. v.), enters the blood, and 
effects by assimilation (q. v.) the repair 



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178 



ALIMENT 



of the body. (See Al^dHm.) Aliment- 
ary matter, therefore, must be aimilar to 
animal subetanoe, or trenamutaUe into 
such. In this respect, aJimentaiy sub- 
stances difl^fiom medicuies, because the 
latter retain their peculiar qualities in 
qnte of the organs of digestion, and will 
not assimilate with the animal substance, 
but act as foreign substances, serving to 
excite the activity of particular organs or 
systems of the body. All alimentary 
substances must, therefore, be composed, 
in a greater or less degree, of soluble perts, 
wfaidi easily lose their peculiar qualities 
in the process of digestion, and corre- 
spond to the elements of the body. These 
substancea in their simple state, are mu- 
dlaji^ gelatin, gluten, albumen, forina, 
fibrm and ssccharine matter. Of these, 
vegetables contain chiefly mncilace, sac- 
charine matter and ftrina, which latter 
substance, particularly in ooimezion with 
the vegetable gluten, by which both be- 
ccmie Bf^ for formentation, and thus for 
dissolution and digestion, is the basis of 
very nutritious fo<ML The nutritive part 
of nruits consists of their saccharine mat- 
ter and a little mucilaine. Inanimalfood, 
gelatin is particular^ abimdant The 
nutritiousnees of the dii&rent species of 
food and drink depends, therefore, upon 
the proportion which they contain of 
those substances, and the inode in which 
they are coimeeted, fiivoring or <4)8truct- 
ing thehr dissolution. Oi;gans of digestion 
in a healthy state dlsnlve alimentary 
substances more easily, and take up the 
nutritious portions mon abundantly, than 
those of which the strength has been im- 
paired so that they cannot resist the ten- 
dencjr of each substance to its peculiar 
chemical decomposition. The whole- 
some or unwholesome character of any 
aliment depends, therefore, in a great 
measure, on the state of the di^^ve 
organs, in any given case. Sometimes a 
particular kind of food is called whole- 
some, because it produced a beneficial 
effect of a particuur character on the sys- 
tem of an individual In this case, how- 
ever, it is to be considered as a medicine, 
and can be called wholesome onJy for 
those whose systems are in the same con- 
dition. Very often a nmple aliment is 
made indiratible by artificial cookery. 
Aliments abounding in &t are unwhole- 
some, because ftt resists the operation of 
the mtric jiuce. The addition of too 
much spice makes many an innocent A. 
injurious, because spices resist the action 
of the digestive organs, and produce an 
irritation of particular parts ofthe system. 



They were introduced as ardficial atimu* 
lants of appetite. In any j^iven case, the 
digestive power ofthe individual is to be 
considered, in order to determine whether 
a particular alimelit is wholesome or not. 
In general, therefore, we can only say, 
that that A. is healthy, which is easily 
soluble, and is suited to the power of di- 
gestion ofthe individual ; and, in order to 
render the A. perfect, the nutritious parts 
must be mixed up with a certain quantity 
of iimocent substance affording no nour- 
ishment, to fill the stomach, because there 
is no doubt, that many people injure their 
health by taking too much nutritious food. 
In this case, the nutritious parts which 
cannot be dissolved act precisely like food 
which is in itself indigestiUe. (See Di- 
gution,) In Prussia and Austria, where, 
as in many despotic govemments, the 
medical pouce is very good (this being a 
thinff much more easily regulated in an 
absolute government than in a firee one), 
the public ofiicers pay much attention to 
aliment, and are carefiil that proviaons 
e^>06ed to sale shall be of a good quality, 
psiticulariy that no decayed or aduher- 
ated things are sold to the poor. Such 
regulations exist, to a certain extent, in 
Enffland, France, the U. States of A. and, 
in feet, in every civilized country. The 
kind of A. used influences the health and 
even the character of man. He is fitted 
to derive nourishment both fiom animal 
and vegetable A., but can live exclu- 
sively on either. Experience proves that 
animal food most readily augments the 
solid JMuts of the blood, the fibrin, and, 
thererore, the strength of the muscular 
system, but diq>oses the body, at the same 
time, to inflammatory, putrid and scoriim- 
tic diseases, and the character to violence 
and coarseness. On the contrary, vegeta- 
ble food renders the Uood lighter and more 
liquid, but forms vreak fibres, dispjoses the 
Of stem to the diseases which spring firom 
feebleness, and tends to Produce a senrie 
character. Something of the same differ- 
ence of moral effect results fiom the use 
of strong or light wines. But the reader 
must not infer that meat is indispensable 
for the support of the bodily strength. 
The peasants of some parts of Switzer- 
land, who hardly ever taste any thing but 
bread, cheese and butter, are vi^roua 
people. The nations of the north mdine 
generally more to animal A. ; those ofthe 
south, and the Orientals, more to vegeta- 
ble. Tliese latter are generally simpler in 
their diet than the former, when their tastii 
has not been corrupted 1^ luxurious indul« 
geuce. Some tribes in the East, and the 



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ALIMENT— ALLECaAXCEL 



179 



easte of BrahmiDB in India, live enorely 
on vegetaUe food* The inhabitants of 
the oaoet northern regions live almost en- 
tirely iq>on animal food, scarcely ever 
iMiiiiikiny of any vegetable substance, at 
least danng the grealer nan of the year. 
Some nations feed chieny on tennestrial 
anrni^la^ Others on aquatic ones. 

AU.A BaxvE is the proper designation 
of the time of a pieceof music, in which the 
breve is equal to a semibreve in } time ; 
and is to be pkjed in a movement of twice 
the usual rapidity; so t^iat a breve is 
played as fast as a s^iSibreve, a semi- 
breve as last as a minim, and so on. It 
is uBual^in this mode of time, to prefix to 
the piece a designation, that resembles a 
C with a perpendicular line throuij^ it, 
but is intended to represent a circfe bi- 
sected; sometimes also a', or large 2, 
or ^. It is, however, distinct fiora two- 
mimm time, which is also often called otta 
krewe time,and may be desifpiated by % and 
C with a peipendicular bne through it ; 
but the value of the note corresponds with 
the deaiipiation. Besides, the expression 
aBa ciyjMsBa is sometimes used ; by which 
phrase is meant, that thouch the notes in 
their proportional magnitude are the same 
as in the ancient psito tune, yet they are 
not to be given in tiM choral s^le as sung 
by the congregation, but more lively, as is 
usual in the diapel style. 

AixAH, or AIJ.A, in Arabic ; the name 
of God, the Creator of all nature, of whom 
Mohammed says, he is the only being who 
derives his existence fix>m himself^ and has 
noequaL AU creatures are made by him. 
Me is Lord of the material and spuritual 
univene; and Mohammed mculcates 
obedience to him as the one true God, the 
Author of his religion. The word is com- 
pounded of the article oZ, and the word 
Eiakf which signifies the Ad»red and tht 
AdanMey and is synonymous urith the sin- 
gular of the Hebrew word Ehkbn. 

AixAR, Ihivid, a Scotch historical 
painter, was bom in 1744. Some early 
eEottB of his genius having attracted at- 
tention, he was sent to an academy of 
paintinir and engmving, in Glasgow, 
where he remained 7 years. He after- 
ward visited Italy, where he passed 16 
years in purBuinc nis studies, and copying 
the remains of antiquity and the old 
masters. While at Rome, in 1773, he 
received a gold medal, ibr the best speci- 
men of historical composition. On his 
return, he establi^ed himself at Edin- 
bui^rii, where hedied, in 1796. His illus- 
trations of the Gentle Shepherd, the Cot- 
ter's Saturday Night, and other sketches 



of rustic life and nanners in Scotland, in 
aquatinta, obtained for him the name of 
the Scaituh HegaHL His principal 
pamtinjjr is the ROum ^ fkt ProdigtA 
Son, The subject of his prize composi- 
tion, which is much admired, is the Oii- 
giniif PamHng, 

AhLAY. (BeeMo^) 

ALUBOHAifT or AppaIiAchuv Mouir- 
TAiif 8 ; a range of mountains in the U. 
States. They commence in the northern 
pan of Georaia and Alabama, and run 
north-east tothestateof New York, nearfy 
parallel with the sea-coast, about 900 miles 
m lengdi, and fiom 50 to 900 in breadth. 
They divide the riven and streams of 
wateiv which flow into the Athntic on 
the £., fiom those which flow into the 
lakes and the MisBissippi on the W. These 
mountains are not confiisedly scattered 
and broken, but stretch along in uniform 
ridj;es, for the most part scarcely half a 
mife hi|^. The several ridges are known 
bv different names, as Blue ridge, AUe- 
gnany ridge, north mountain, Jackson's 
mountain. Laurel mountain, C-uuberland 
mountains, &Cd — ^For the geological struc- 
ture <^these mountains, see MmAmeriea. 

ALLEOHAirr ; a river which rises in 
Lycominff county, Pennsylvania, winds 
throu§[h me south part of New York, tum# 
again mto Pennsvlvania, runs S. W., and 
unites with the Mononcahela at Pittsburg, 
to form die Ohio, ft is navigable for 
keel boats of 10 tons to Hamilton, in 
New York, 960 miles above Pittsburg. 
Its most important branches are the Kis- 
kimenetas, and Toby^ and French creeks. 

AiiLEoiANCE (firom Mgany to bind|; 
the obedience wnich every subject or cin- 
zen owes to the government of his coun- 
ti7 ; in England and the U. States, obedi- 
ence to its lawful commands. It is the 
doctrine of the English law, that natural- 
bom subjects owe an alleffiance which is 
intrinsic and perpetual, and which cannot 
be divested by any act of their own. It 
has been a question fiiequently and grave- 
ly argued, both by theoretical writers and 
in forenfflc discusoons, whether the Eng- 
lish doctrine of perpetual allegiance np- 
plies in its fiill extent to the citizensof the 
U. States of America. From a historical 
review of the principal discusaicms in the 
foderal court of the U. States on this in- 
teresting subject in American jurispru- 
dence, Uie better ojrimon would seem to 
be, that a citizen cannot renounce his 
al^pance to the U. States without the 
permiflBion of government, to be dedared 
by law; and that, as there is no exist- 
ing legislative regulation on the subject, 



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180 



ALLEGIANCE-ALLEGORY. 



the rale of tlie Eiudidi conunon law re- 
mains unaltered. (See Kent's €bmm«fita* 
rtes, yoL il.) If an afien wishes to become 
a citizen of die U. States, he must re> 
nouDce his aiiegianoe to the government 
whose subject he has been, ss much as 
two years before he can be admitted to 
take the oath of allegiance to the goveni- 
mentoftheU. States. 

Allegokt (from the Grade aXXo^ some- 
thing else, and ^o^«v, to speak) ; a figu- 
rative representation, in which the sinis 
(words or forms) signify something m- 
sides their titend or direct meaning. Irony 
is distaiguiflhed fix>m allegory by convey- 
ing a meamng directly contrary to die 
titcral signification of me words, while in 
aileffory diere is an agreement betwe^i 
the literal and the figurative sense, each 
of which is complete in itself. The al- 
legory should be so constructed as to ex- 
press its meaning clearly and stiikmgly ; 
and the more clear and striking the mean- 
ing is, the better is the alleffory. All of 
the fine arts have, to a certam degree, an 
aUefforical character, because, in all, the 
visible signs generally represent something 
higher,--die ideal ; but, in the narrower 
sense of allegory, its olject is to convey a 
meaning of a particular character by 
%eans of signs of an analogous import 
The allegory, moreover, ought to represent 
an enaenSUe^ by which it is distinguished 
from the trope or metaphor and the con- 
ventional symbol. The last diJQTere from 
the allegory, also, in this particular, tliat its 
character could not be understood, if it had 
not been previously agreed upon. For in- 
stance, the olive-branch would not convey 
the idea of peace if it had not been adopted 
as its sign. From all which has been said, 
it is clear that the aileffoiy can take place 
in rhetoric, poetry, sculpture, painting and 
pantomime, but never m music or archi- 
tecture, because these two arts are not 
capable of conveying a double meaning 
in their representations. As an instance 
of allegory in poetry, Prior's veraes from 
Henry and Emma may serve ; 



Did I but I 



s to embark with thee 



tpurpose t 
On the smootn surface of a sammer's sea, 
-_L •ywiih 



And fortooe's fiivcr filfs the sweftinr sails, 

But ivoald forsake the ship, and make the shore, 

When the winds whistle, and the tempests roar 7 

or the often quoted ode 1, 14 of Horace. An 
instance of allegory in painting or sculp- 
ture is the representation of peace by two 
turtle-doves sitting on their nest in a hel- 
met or a piece ol ordnance ; or Guide's 
representation of Formna. The represen- 
tation of an allegory eught always to lead 



directly to its figurative meaning; thtn^ 
a wamor throwing the doves out of a liel- 
met would bea badallegoiy of war ; a good 
one woukl be a husbandman making a 
weapon out of his sitlie. In rhetoric, al- 
lecory is often but a continued metaphor. 
T%e svmboMc and allegoric representa- 
tion often oome very near to each other, 
and sometimes it is bard to Myto which 
a piece of art most inclines. This is the 
case, for instance, with the beantifiil rM>- 
resentarions of Justice, Poetry, &/c^ hj 
Raphael, in the Vatjcan. ParaUes and 
ftbles are a apecies of ailegMv ; e. g. the 
beautiftil parable in one of iLe tafee in 
the Arabian Nights, in which the three 
reh^ons, the Mohammedan, Jewish and 
Christian, are compared to three similar 
rin^ bequeathed to three brotfaeis by 
their ftther. This allegoiy has been re- 
peated by Boccaccio in a tale of his J9e- 
eamaion, and by Leasing in his Nathan 
the Wise. Ali^iy in nietotic was used 
by the most ancient natioDS, because it is 
well fitted to express an eleyated state of 
feeling, and, at the same time, to rive 
somewhat of the charm of novelty to ideas 
at once common and important. Addison 
truly says, ** Allegories, when well chosen, 
are like so many traecs of li^t in a dis- 
course, that make every thing about them 
clear and beautiftil." In painting and 
sculpture, however, the ancients made by 
no means so much use of allegory as the 
modem artists, pardy owing to their 
greater fiicility ofexpreeaing certain ideas 
by means of the stories aiid the images 
of their different gods, who all more^ or 
less represented a single idea. The mod- 
ems have no such copious stores of illus- 
tration, the Protestants particulariy, who 
are not fiuniliar with the multitude of 
Catholic saints and legends ; thus they are 
often obliged to express suigle ideas by 
allegory. Another cause of the- greater 
prevalence of allegory in modem times is 
to be ft>und in the circumstance, that al- 
legory is always more cultivated in the 
period of the decline of the arts, when tlie 
want of great and pure and mmple con- 
ceptions of the beautiftil is supplied by 
studied and ingenious inventions, as well 
as in the fttct, ttiat the ancients were more 
exclusively conversant with simple ideas 
than the modems, among whom the rela- 
tions of society are much more compli- 
cated, and every branch of science, art 
and social life more fully developed. 
Sometimes, whole poems are allegorical, 
as Spenser's Fairy Queen ; but, in these 
cases, the poet must take great care not 
to faii into trifling. Bunyan's Pilgrim's 



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ALLEGORY— ALLEN. 



181 



Progress is a famous instance of a work 
wholly allegoricaL There was a time 
when every poem was taken as an alle- 
gory ; even such works as tliose of Arios- 
to and Tasso were tortured from their 
true meaning, and made to pass for alle- 
gorical pictures. There exist many edi- 
tions of these poets, in which, at the be- 
ginning of each canto, the allegory of it 
is given. With equally little reason, the 
Song of Solomon has long been consid- 
ered an allegory of Christ^s love to his 
church. The most productive period of 
allegory in painting and sculpture was 
that of Louis XV, which may be styled, 
in regard to the arts, the age ofJUUtery. 
During this period, innumerable bad, and 
some good ones were produced. They 
are now much less in vogue. Rubens 
painted several fine allegorical pictures, in 
the Luxemburg gallery. Lessing, Her- 
der and Winckelmann have investigated 
the subject of this article, perhaps, more 
thoroughly than any other modem writers. 
No poet, in our opmioii, has made use of 
allegory in a more powerful and truly 
poetical manner than the ereat Dante ; yet 
the opinion tliat the whole of his Dimna 
C&mmedia is allegorical, is quite erroneous. 

Allegri, Gregorio ; bom at Rome, in 
1590, and died there in 1652 ; a smger in 
the papal chapel, and considered to this 
day, in Italy, one of the most excellent 
conmosers of diat time. He was a scholar 
of Nanini. His Miserere^ one of the most 
sublime and delightful works of human 
ar^ has particuuirly distinguished him. 
It is even now sung yearly, during pas- 
sion-week, m the S^tine chapel at Rome. 
This composition was once esteemed so 
holy, that whoever ventured to transcribe 
it was liable to excommunication. Mo- 
zart disregarded this prohibition, and, 
after two hearings, made a correct copy 
of the original. In 1771, it appeared at 
London, engraved, and in 1610 at Paris, 
in the CoUedion des Classiques, In 1773, 
the king of England obtained a copy, as a 
present firom the pope liimself. Accord- 
ing to the oiHnion of Baini, at present the 
leader of the choir (maestro della capvella), 
in the pope's chapel, the Miserere ot Alle- 
gri was not composed for all the voices, but 
only tl:ie bass of the 18 or 20 first parts ; 
all the rest is tlie addition of successive 
singere. But in the begmning of tlie 18th 
century, the existing manner of sinnng it 
was established as a standard at Rome, 
by the orders of ilie pope. A full score 
of it has never existed. — A. is also the 
luunc of an Italian satirical poet, a native 
of Florence, who flourished towards the 

VOL. I. 16 



end of the 16th century. His Christian 
name was Alexander. 

Allegro, in music ; a word denoting one 
ofthe six distinctions of time. It expresses 
a sprightly motion, the quickest of all, and 
originally means gay. The usual distinc- 
tions succeed each other in the following 
order—grave, adagioy largo, vivace, allegro, 
presto. Allegro ume may be heightened, 
t3 allegro assai and aUegnssimo, very Uve- 
ly ; or lessened, as allegretto or poco tdUgro, 
a little lively. Piu aUe^ is a direction 
to play or sing a little quicker. 

Alleluia. (See HaUelma,) 

Allemand; 1, a well-known dance, 
originally German, distinguished for its 
spnghthness; 2, a very fively dancing- 
tune, in f time, which has much resem- 
blance to the French tambourine. 

Allen, Ethan, a brigadier-general in 
the American revolutionary army, wa<» 
bom in Salisbury, Connecticut, but vm» 
educated principally m Vermont, to which 
state his parents emigrated whilst he was 
yet young. His education was of a limit- 
ed character. In the disturbances which 
agitated Vermont, he took an active part 
affamst the royal authority, in &vor or tiiie 
&een fnountain boys, the name by which 
the settlers m that territory were desig- 
nated.— In 1775, soon after the battle of 
Lexington, in compliance with the re- 
quest of the legislature of Connecticut, A. 
collected a body of about 230 Green moun- 
tain boys, and marched against the for- 
tresses of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 
for ^e purpose of taking them by assault. 
At Castleton, he was joined by colonel Ar- 
nold, who had received directions fix>m the 
Massachusetts committee of safety to 
raise a coips of men for the same pur- 
pose, but, fiuling to accomplish that ob- 
ject, he detemuned to proceed with the 
small force of colonel A. They arrived at 
the lake opposite to Ticonderoga, on the 
evening of May 9, and, having with great 
difticulty procured boats, landed 83 men 
on the other shore during the night. The 
dav beginning, however, to dawn, A. w^as 
obuged to attack the fort before his rear 
could cross tlie lake, having previously 
animated his soldiers, by a harangue, 
which he concluded with saying, " I now 
propose to advance before you, and in 
person to conduct you through the wicket- 
gate ; but, inasmuch as it m a desperate 
attempt, I do not urge on any one contrair 
to his will. You that will undertake vol- 
untarily, poise your firelocks." They all 
imme^ately poised their firelocks. He 
then advanced at the head of tlie. centre 
file to the wicket-gate, where a sentry 



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ALLEN. 



8iMi]ypcd his fusee at him, and retreatad 
through the covered way, followed by A., 
who formed his men upon the parade. 
The apartments of the conunanding offi- 
cer having been pointed out to him by a 
sentry who asked auarter, he instantly 
repaired thither, and, holding his sword 
over captain de Laplace, whom he found 
undressed, demanaed the surrender of 
the fort. The latter askinff him by what 
authority, **! demand it,^ said A., ''in 
the name of the great Jehovah, and of the 
continental congress." De Laplace was 
constrained to comply with the summons, 
and the fort, with its stores and garrison, 
was given up. On the same £iy, also, 
A. obtained possession of Crown Point, 
and soon afler captured a sloop of war, 
the only armed vessel on lake Cham- 
plain, and thus acquired the entire com- 
mand of that lake. — In the foUowing 
autumn, he was twice despatched into 
Canada, to engage the inhabitants to lend 
their support to the American cause. In 
the last of these expeditions, he formed a 
plan, in concert with colonel Brown, to 
reduce Montreal. September 10, 1775, A. 
accordingly crossed the river, at the head of 
110 men, but was attacked, before Brown 
could join him, by the British troops, con- 
sisting of 500 men, and, after a most obsti- 
nate resistance, was taken prisoner. The 
events of his captivity he himself has re- 
corded in a narrative compiled by him after 
his release, in the most singular style, but 
apparently with great fidelity. — ^For some 
time, he was kept in irons, and treated with 
much severity. He was sent to England 
as a prisoner, with on assurance, that, on his 
arrival there, he would meet with the hal- 
ter. During the passage, extreme cruelty 
was exercised towards him and his fellow- 

Srisoners. The v were all, to the number of 
4, thrust, haud-cuiTed, into a sinaU place 
in the vessel, enclosed with white-oak 
plank, not more than 20 feet wide by 22 
tonff. — ^Ailer about a month's confinement 
in rendennis castle, near Falmouth, he was 
put on board a fii^te, January 8, 1776, 
and carried to Halifax. Thence, after an 
imprisonment of five montlis, he was re- 
moved to New York. On the passage 
from Halifax to the latter place, A. was 
treated with great kindness by captain 
Smith, the commander of the vessel, and 
evinced his gratitude by refusing to join in 
a conspiracy to kill tlie British captain and 
seize uie ^gate. His refusal prevented 
the execution of the plan. He remained 
at New York for a year and a half, some- 
times in confinement, and sometimes at 
large, on parolew--On May 6, 1778, A. was 



•exchanged for colonel Campbell, and im- 
mediately afterwards repaired to the head- 
quarters of gjeneral Washington, by whom 
he was received with much respect. As 
his health was impaired, he returned to 
Vermont, after havmg made an offer of 
his services to the commander in chief, in 
case of his recovery. His arrival in Ver- 
mont was celebrated by the discharge of 
cannon; and he was soon appointed to 
the command of the state nulitia, as a 
mark of esteem for his patriotism and 
militaiv talents. A fivitlees attempt was 
made by the British to bribe him to lend 
his support to a union of Vermont with 
Canada. He died suddenly at his estate 
in Colchester, Febniary ISi, 1789.— Oen* 
eral Alien was a man of a strong and en- 
terprising, but haughty and restless mind. 
Although his education had been cireum- 
scribed, he was darinff in his pretensions 
to knowledge, and bold and peremptoiy 
in his assertions. Besides the narrative 
of his captivity, which we have noticedy 
and a number of pamphlets in the con- 
trover^ vrith New Yon, he pubh^ed a 
"Vindication of the Opposition of the In- 
habitants of Vermont to the Government 
of New York, and their Right to fbrm an 
independent State,** 1779, and a work, en- 
titled *< Allen's Theoloffy, or the Oracles 
of Reason,'' the first rormal publication, 
in the U. States^ openly directed asainst 
the Christian rehgion. A.wasaconmmed 
infidel. He adopted some of the most 
fimtastical and absurd notions imacinable, 
believing, with Pythagoras, that me soul 
of man, after death, would live again in 
beasts, birds, fishes, &c. He often told 
his friends, that he himself would live 
again under the appearance of a large 
nmte horse. However, there is an anec- 
dote extant, which proves that he pro- 
fessed to entertain those ideas more m>m 
an affectation of sin^larity, than fi!om 
conviction. Whilst sitting m his library, 
conversinff with a physician by the name 
of Elliot, A. was inibrmed that his daugh* 
ter was dying, and desired to speak with 
him. He immediately repaired to her 
chamber, followed by doctor Elliot. His 
wife was distinguished fer piety, and had 
instructed her £uighter in the principles 
of Christianity. As soon as her fiither 
stood at her bedside, she said to him, ** I 
am about to die ; shall I believe in the 
principles you have taught me, or shall I 
Delieve in what my mother has taucfat me ?" 
He became greatly agitated ; his chin quiv- 
ered ; his whole frame shook ; and, after 
waiting a few moments, he replied, ^ Be- 
lieve what your mother has taught you." 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ALLEYN—ALLIGATOR. 



183 



Alley N, Edward; a celebrated actor 
m the reigns of Elizabeth and James I, 
better known as the founder of Dul^ch 
college. He was bom 1566, in London, 
in the parish of St Botolph, Bishopsflnte. 
Accordini^ to the testunony of Ben Jon- 
son and the other dramatists of the age, 
he was the first actor of the day, and of 
course plsyed leading characters in the 
plays of Shakqieare and Jonson ; al- 
though, in consequence of the names not 
being set against the parts in the old edi- 
tions of those authors, his particular share 
in them is not ascertained. He was keep- 
er of the royal bear-gaiden. Having In- 
come wealthy, he founded Dulwich col- 
lege, for the maintenance of one master, 
one warden, and four unmarried fellows 
of the name of Allen, three whereof were 
to be cleigymen, and the fourth a skilfiil 
organist ; also six poor men and as many 
women ; and Id poor boys, to be educated 
until of the age of 14 or 16. and then put 
out to some trade or calling. Aubrey 
teDs a ridicidous story of the origin of this 
donation, in a fiight endured oy A., who 
saw a real devil on the stage, while him- 
self performing a fictitious one in a drama 
l^ Shakspeare. After the college was 
buih, he met with some difficulty in ob- 
taining a charter, owing to the opposition 
of the loid chancellor Bacon. Tne very 
rational letter of this great man to the 
marquis of Buckinffham on this subject 
is extant A. was me first master of^his 
own collece, and, dying in 1696, was 
buried in me new chapel belonsing to it 
Within these few years, it has been 
broui^t into great additional notice l^ 
the admirable collection of pictures of the 
best masters, bequeathed by sir Francis 
Bourgeois. 

Allgemeizte Zeituno, i. e. General 
Gazette ; a German pohtical daily paper, 
publish^ at Aupbiurg in Bavana, for 
which reason it la sometimes called by 
foreigners the Augthurg GaxdU, The A. 
Z. is by fiur the best German newspaper, 
and particularly rich in information re- 
spectmgthe anairs of the East and of 
ItflJy. The summary of new publications 
which it contains semi-annually after the 
book-fidr in Leipsic is excellent Baron 
Cotta, the owner of the A. Z., has regular 
correspondents in Constantinople, in al- 
most lul the capitals of Europe, and in the 
U. States. He has recently established 
another daily paper, Iku Amandj at Mu- 
nich, which contains accounts of foreign 
countries only. The A. Z. has existed 
now 40 years or longer. It is, like all 
the German newspapers, small in com- 



parison with the English or American, 
and is afforded at a very low prices — ^For a 
general view of the German newspapers, 
see Mwsp^qters. 

Alliance; a league between two or 
more powers. Alliances are divided into 
offensive and defensiye. The former are 
for the purpose of attacking a common 
enemy, and the latter for mutual defence. 
An alMance oflen unites both of these con- 
ditions. Offensive alliances, of course, 
are usually directed against some partic- 
ular enemy; defensive alliances against 
any one firom whom an attack may come. 
As regards the oblig^ons and rights of 
the contracting parties, alliances are di- 
vided into three chief classes:— 1. Those 
in which the allied parties agree to prose- 
cute the war with their whole force (so^ 
ciHidegwrre; aUianet pour f aire la guirre 
en coffuiMm). In this case, all the parties 
are principals. 2. Auxiliaiy alliances, if 
the allies pledge themselves mutually to 
fiumish assistance to a fixed amount, in 
which case only one of the contracting 
powers appears as principaL 3. Mere 
treaties, b^ which one power promises, in 
consideration of certain subsidies, to ftir- 
nish troops, or to place its troops in the 
pay of another power, without directly 
taking pan in the war ; or to make only 
advances of money. Triple alliance is an 
alliance between three, quadruple alliance, 
quintuple alliance, betweoi four and ^ve 
powen. (See CwOUion, Qwuinqde Mi- 
anee, and jHMy .^Uttince.) 
Alliance, Holy. [See Hohi Miasiu,) 
Alligation is of two kinds, alternate 
and medial. Allipition aUemaU is the 
method of finding the quantities of ingre- 
dients of different values, necessary to 
form a compound of a given value, and it 
is the converse of alligation fiie<l»a2, which 
teaches how to find the mean rate of a 
mixture, when the particular quantities 
componng the mixture, and their respec- 
tive mean rates, are given. 

Alligator ; the name of a large rep- 
tile, of the saurian or lizard order, de- 
rived, accordinff to Cuvier, firom a cor- 
ruption of the Portuj[uese word htgartoj 
equivalent to the Latm lacerta. The alli- 
gators or caimans form the second sub- 
genus of Cuvier's crocodile fiunily, and 
belong to the southern parts of the Amer- 
ican continent Two species, very nu- 
merous in these regions, are well known ; 
the spectacled caiman, eroeodihu sderopi, 
most common in Guiana and Brazil ; and 
the pike-nosed A. (C. lueius), frequenting 
the southern rivers and lagoons of the U. 
States.— In the water, the full-grown / 



184 



ALLIGATOR. 



is a terrible animal, on account of its great 
size and strength. It grows to the length 
of 15 or 20 ieet, is covered by a dense 
harness of homy scales, impenetrable to 
a musket ball, except about the head and 
shoulders, and has a huge mouth, armed 
with a fearful row of strong, unequal, 
conical teeth, some of which shut into 
cavities of the upper jaw-bone. They 
swim or dart along tlirough the water 
with wonderful celerity, impelled by their 
long, laterally-compressed and powerful 
tails^ which serve as very efficient oars. 
On land, their motions are proportionally 
slow and embarrassed, because of the 
length and unwieldiness of their bodies, 
the shortness of their limbs, and the sort 
of small, false ribs which reach from joint 
to joint of their necks, and render lateral 
motion veiy difficult. In addition to the 
usual number of ribs and false ribs, they 
are furnished with others, for the protec- 
tion of the belly, which do not rise up to 
the spme. The lower jaw extends far- 
ther back than the skull, so that the neck 
must be somewhat bent when it is open- 
ed; the appearance thus produced has 
led to the very universal error of believ- 
ing that the A. moves its upper jaw, 
which is incapable of motion, except with 
the rest of the body. Under the throat 
of this animal are two openings or pores, 
the excretory ducts firom glands, which 
pour out a strong, musl^ fluid, that 
gives the A* its peculiarly unpleasant smell. 
— In the spring of the year, when the 
males are under the excitement of the 
sexual propensity, they frequently utter 
a roar which is a very alarming sound, 
from its harshness and reverberation, re- 
sembling distant thunder, especially where 
numbera are at the same time eneaffed. 
At this period, frequent and terrible bat- 
tles take place between the males, which 
terminate in the discomfiture and retreat 
of one of the parties. At this season, 
also, an old champion is seen to dart forth 
on the surface of the waters, in a straight 
line, at first as s^flly as lighminff, grad- 
ually moving slower as he reaches the 
centre of a lake ; there he stops, inflates 
himself by inhaling au* and water, which 
makes a loud rattling in his throat for a 
moment, until he ejects it with vast force 
from his mouth and nostrils, making a 
loud noise, and vibretinff his tail viffor- 
ously in the air. Sometmties, after thus 
inflating hunself, with head and tail raised 
above the water, he whirls round until 
the waves are worked to foam, and, at 
leni^h, retires, leaving to others an oppor- 
tumty of repeating similar exploiu, which 



have been compared to an Indian warrioi 
rehearsing his acts of bravery, and exhib- 
iting his strength by gesticulation. — ^The 
females make their nests in a curious 
manner, upon the banks of rivers or la- 
goons, generally in the marshes, along 
which, at a short distance from the water, 
the nests are arranged somewhat like an 
encampment. They are obtuse cones, 4 
feet liigh, and about 4 feet in diameter at 
the base, built of mud a